KCSE 2014 Agriculture Paper 2 Questions with Marking Scheme

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SECTION A (30 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. Name the two products obtained from dual purpose sheep.(1 mark)
  2. Give two practices that should be done to a newly born calf with difficult breathing.(1 mark)
    1. What is meant by the term two host tick?(1 mark)
    2. Give two examples of two host ticks in cattle.(1 mark)
  4. State four disadvantages of using plunge dips in tick control.(2 marks)
    1. State the functions of the following farm tools and equipment:
      1. pipe cutter;(1/2 mark)
      2. wire strainer.(1/2 mark)
    2. Name four tools that can be used to assemble a jembe.(2 marks)
    3. Name the complementary tool for each of the tools named below:
      1. trochar;(1/2 mark)
      2. hand drill(1/2 mark)
  6. Name two livestock diseases controlled through embryo transplant.(1 mark)
  7. State three factors that limit external parasite control in Kenya.(11/2 marks)
  8. State four characteristics of the Duroc Jersey pig.(2 marks)
  9. Name four categories of poultry feeds according to the stages of growth of birds.(2 marks)
  10. State four ways in which a vaccine can be administered to livestock.(2 marks)
    1. Name three protozoan diseases of cattle.(1 marks)
    2. State four symptoms of rinderpest in cattle.(2 marks)
  12. State four maintenance practices carried out on a spray race.(2 marks)
    1. Give four reasons for proper feeding in livestock rearing.(2 marks)
    2. State four good hygiene practices in livestock feeding,(2 marks)
  14. State four reasons why kids should be weighed immediately after birth.(2 marks)

SECTION B (20 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. The picture below shows a poultry farm structure.
     q15 frtydfaytd
    1. Identify the farm structure.(1 mark)
    2. Apart from metal, name two materials that can be used for the part labelled F. (2 marks)
    3. State three disadvantages of using the farm structure illustrated above in poultry rearing.(3 marks)
  2. The picture below illustrates a livestock organ infested by a parasite labelled E.
    q16 7atgfdytfatd
    1. Name the disease the livestock is suffering from.(1 mark)
    2. Identify the parasite labelled E.(1 mark)
    3. State two control measures for the parasite.(2 marks)
    4. State two signs of infestation shown in the picture above.(2 marks)
  3. The pictures below illustrate two rabbit breeds.
    q17 aiyygtudtgatd
    1. Name the rabbit breeds shown above.(2 mark)
    2. Name the major feeding practice missing from the photograph labelled B.(1 mark)
    3. Give one advantage of housing the rabbits on the floor illustrated above.(1 mark)
  4. The following is an illustration of a chick suffering from malnutrition.
    q18 auygdytagd
    1. Identify the mineral deficiency shown by the chick.(1 mark)
    2. Apart from the symptom illustrated above, give three other symptoms of mineral deficiency in poultry(3 marks)

SECTION C (40 marks)
Answer any two questions from this section in the spaces provided after question 21.

    1. Describe upgrading as a method of improving indigenous cattle for milk production.(8 marks)
    2. Describe the causes of low egg production in layers.(12 marks)
    1. Describe how the late weaning programme is conducted in a dairy calf.(12 marks)
    2. Describe how a newly constructed pond is prepared and stocked with fingerlings.(8 marks)
      1. Describe short-term tractor servicing(10 marks)
      2. Explain the maintenance practices that should be carried out on an ox-cart.(5 marks)
    2. State five indicators that can be observed on a goat to confirm sickness.(5 marks)


    • Wool;
    • Meat;2 x 1/2 (1 mark)
    • Place salt on tongue;
    • Pour cold water on head and chest to activate the nerves;
    • Clear the mucus from the nostrils;
    • Hold upside down using hind legs and swing the calf.
    • Smack the ribs.2 x 1/2 (1 mark)
    1. One that requires two hosts to complete its life cycle.(1 mark)
      • Red legged tick/rhipicephalus everts;
      • Brown tick/rhipicephalus bursa;
      • African bont-legged tick/hyalomma truncatum;
      • The large bont-legged tick/hyalomma rufipes;2 x 1/2 (1 mark)
    • High initial construction cost (high capital);
    • Dangerous for young and pregnant animals and the sick;
    • Requires a lot of water;
    • Poisoning by swallowed dip wash;4 x 1/2 (2 marks)
      1. Cutting PVC pipes; (1/2 mark)
      2. Wire strainer - to tighten wires during fencing; (1/2 mark)
      • Cross-cut saw;
      • Spoke shave;
      • Wood rasp;
      • Mallet (to drive in wood and for hammering wood);4 x 1/2 (2 marks)
      1. Canular (1/2 mark)
      2. Bit (1/2 mark)
    • Vaginitis eg. Bovine Trichomoniasis.
    • Brucellosis (contagious abortion/Bang's disease
    • Vibriosis2 x 1/2 (1 mark)
    • Acaricide resistance
    • High Cost of acaricide
    • Communal rearing practices
    • Lack of skills and knowledge in control of external parasite.
    • Some are highly mobile/high mobility eg tsetse flies.3 x 1/2 (11/2 marks)
    • Long body
    • Black in colour
    • Drooping ears
    • Is hardy;4 x 1/2 (2 marks)
    • Chick mash;
    • Growers mash;
    • Layers mash;
    • Broiler starter;
    • Broiler follow-on;
    • Broiler finisher;4 x 1/2 (2 marks)
    • Injection
    • Oral (through the mouth)
    • Nasal (through nose)
    • Occular (through the eye)
    • cloacal4 x 1/2 (2 marks)
      • ECF/Theileriosis
      • Anaplasmosis/Gall stones
      • Coccidiosis
      • Trypanosomiasis/Nagana
      • Red water/Babesiosis3 x 1/2 (11/2 marks)
      • Fever
      • Starring coat
      • Discharges in the mouth and nose
      • Watery eyes/lacrimation
      • Diarrhoea and dysentry
      • Red mucal membranes with ulcers
      • Tooth grinding
      • Emaciation
      • Dullness
      • Loss of appetite/anorexia4 x 1/2 (2 marks)
    • Unblocking blocked nozzles
    • Replacing water in the tank
    • Tightening loose nuts/bolts
    • Repairing damaged floor
    • Sump should be cleaned regularly by removing all the sediments
    • Broken rails should be replaced4 x 1/2 (2 marks)
      • Increase production
      • Protection against diseases
      • Reproduction
      • Maintenance
      • Increase quality of products.4 x 1/2 (2 marks)
      • Cleaning feeders
      • Cleaning waterers
      • Provide fresh water
      • Provide fresh feeds
      • Provide adequate waterers
      • Provide adequate feeders
      • Provide clean water
      • Provide clean feeds 4 x 1/2 (2 marks)
    • Manage market weight
    • Determine birth weight
    • Determine growth rate
    • Manage feeding
    • Determine weaning stage
    • Determine mothering ability4 x 1/2 (2 marks)
    1. Fold/Ark; (1 mark)
      • Wood;
      • Plastic;
      • Thatch;2 x1 (2 marks)
      • Labour intensive;
      • Accommodates few birds;
      • Results in dirty eggs;
      • Difficult to keep individual egg production records;
      • Breakage/damage due to frequent movement;
      • 3 x 1 (3 marks)
    1. Fascioliasis; (1 mark)
    2. Fasciola hepatica; (1 mark)
      • Control the secondary host/snail;
      • Drenching using antihelmintics;
      • Burning pastures;
      • Avoid grazing in marshy areas;2 x 1 (2 marks)
      • Damaged liver/organs;
      • Presence of the parasite;
      • Turnels of parasite movements;2 x 1 (2 marks)
    1. A New Zealand White/Kenya White; (1 mark)
      B California White; (1 mark)
    2. Watering; (1 mark)
    3. Droppings and urine fall to keep the floor dry; (1 mark)
    1. Manganese (1 mark)
      1. Reduced hatchability
      2. Reduced shell thickness/soft shelled eggs
      3. Reduced appetite
      4. Reduced growth rate
      5. Low production
      6. Egg eating.
      7. Loss of feathers (3 marks)
    1. Select a high grade pure breed bull; and a well managed low grade heifer; Mate them to produce a heifer with half of the sire’s genes;
      Mate the heifer with a sire of the same pure breed as original sire; Subsequent; heifers should be mated with sires of the same pure breed as original sire; upto the sixth cross/generation; to produce a hygrade heifer with over 98% genes of the pure breed high grade bull;(8 marks)
      19 IAYGUYG
      • Overcrowded housing;
      • Fighting/pecking;
      • Lack of adequate clean water which impairs egg development;
      • Parasite infestation;
      • Inadequate feeding;
      • Old age;
      • Broodiness;
      • Inadequate waterers/feeders;
      • Inferior feeds;
      • egg eating;
      • Inadequate laying nests;
      • Presence of predators/strangers;
      • Sudden change of feeds;
      • Sudden noise;
      • Sudden change of weather to cold conditions;
      • Disease infection;12 x 1 (12 marks)
      • In the first week, the calf should be fed on colostrum ad libitum; In the second and third weeks; it is fed on 3.5; and 4.0kg; of whole milk per day respectively;
      • From the fourth week; whole milk is gradually replaced with a mixture of whole and skim milk.
      • The milk should be at body temperature;
      • Calf pellets/pencils should be introduced gradually from the third week; Green fodder should be gradually introduced from the third week; milk should be divided initially into three equal parts and finally into two equal parts;
      • The amount of whole milk fed should be reduced as the calf grows; Skim milk should be increased as whole milk reduces;
      • From the 7th week the calf is not fed on whole milk;
      • Concentrates should be increased as the calf copes with bulky solid feeds; At the 16th week the calf can be fully introduced to forage crops; 12 x 1 (12 marks)
    2. Liming the pond;
      • Inlet channel or pipe should be opened so that fresh water fills the pond slowly; Add manure or fertiliser to encourage growth of planktons;
      • Fish is introduced after about 2- 4 weeks when planktons and other water plants have grown;
      • Fingerlings are obtained from recognised hatcheries; and transported with care in a water medium; using a plastic container at about 10 degrees celcius; The fingerlings are then introduced to the water during the day when the water temperature is almost the same as that of the container they were transported in; Lower the container into the pond and let it stay for sometime for acclimatisation; Allow the fingerlings to swim out of the container;
      • Stock at an average rate of 5-10 fingerlings for 5m2;
      • Feed the fingerlings;8 x1 (8 marks)
        • The engine should be checked daily by use of dip stick and oil level maintained;
        • The fuel level should be checked at the start of everyday's work and added if necessary;
        • Water level in the radiator should be inspected and if low topped up; The level of electrolyte should be checked daily and topped up with distilled water if low;
        • The nuts and bolts should be tightened every day;
        • Grease should be applied regularly to the moving parts; Large sediments from the sediment bowl should be removed; Tyre pressure should be checked every morning before the day's work and adjusted accordingly;
        • The fan-belt tension should be checked to ensure that it deflects between 1.9 cm - 2.5 cm when pushed;
        • The brake shaft bearing should be greased and break fluid level maintained; Lost bolts and nuts are replaced.10 x 1 (10 marks)
        • Moving parts should be oiled/greased regularly to reduce friction (tear and wear);
        • The yoke should be properly maintained eg. repair when worn out, replaced if not repairable, properly padded;
        • Tyre pressure should be checked daily before the start of work; Broken trailer bodies should be repaired;
        • Loose nuts and bolts should be tightened;
        • Paint it if to be stored for long to avoid rusting;
        • Clean after use;
        • Store under shed;
        • Replace lost nuts and bolts;5 x 1 (5 marks)
      • By checking the appetite and feeding - if low or excessive it indicates that the goat is sick
      • Defaecation - inconsistency in texture, colour, smell, frequency and posture, presence of arasite segments, egg, larvae or blood
      • Urination - irregular posture, colour and and frequency.;
      • Change in temperature above or below the normal range;
      • Respiratory rate - irregular respiration shown by non-rhythmic inspiration and expiration indicates ill health.
      • Pulse rate - Abnormal pulse rate under normal physiological status indicates ill- health.
      • Production level - Loss of weight, emaciation and reduced production rate. Abnormal discharges
      • Posture - while standing or lying.
      • Behaviour eg. abnormal sound, aggression, excitement.
      • Appearance - eg. dullness, restlessness, pot belly, bloated.
      • Movement eg. gait, eg, standing or limping when walking.
      • Mucuors membranes (abnormal) eg. bright red colour, yellowish, blueish depending on disease.
      • Skin/animal coat - (abnormal) starring hair, coat, sores/wounds on skin. 5 x 1 (5 marks)

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