KCSE 2015 Agriculture Paper 2 with Marking Scheme

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SECTION A (30 marks)
Answer ALL the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. Name four rabbit breeds reared in Kenya.
  2. State four characteristics of desirable eggs for marketing.
  3. Name two types of roughage.
  4. Give four disadvantages of inbreeding in livestock.
  5. Name the nutritional deficiency for each of the following livestock diseases:
    1. milk fever; ............
    2. bloat. .............
  6. Give two reasons for docking in sheep rearing.
  7. State four signs of fowl typhoid.
  8. Differentiate between drift and pen lambing.
  9. State four features on the animal which may predispose it to livestock diseases.
  10. Give four factors that affect milk composition.
  11. State two control measures for keds in sheep.
  12. State two maintenance practices carried out on a greenhouse structure.
  13.    
    1. Name the goat breed which is brown in colour with white strips running down the face to the nose. 
    2. State four rearing practices that necessitate handling of piglets.
  14. Give four preventive measures for livestock diseases.
  15. State one function of each of the following parts during egg formation in poultry:
    1. funnel;
    2. magnum;
    3. isthmus.
  16. The following is a list of poultry breeds:
    White Leghorn
    Light Sussex
    Rhode Island Red
    Ancona.
    Categorize them into:
    1. light breeds;
    2. heavy breeds.
  17. State two functions of a queen in a bee colony.
  18. State four maintenance practices carried out on a fish pond.

SECTION B: (20 marks)
Answer ALL the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. The diagrams below represent some farm tools and equipment. Study them and answer the questions that follow.
    1
    1. Identify the tools labelled N and P.
      N ............
      P............. (1 mark)
    2. Explain one maintenance practice carried out on the equipment labelled P.
  2. The diagram below represents parts of a roof.
    2
    1. Identify the parts labelled A and C.
      A..........(1 mark)
      C...........
    2. State two types of materials that may be used for the part labelled D.
    3. Give one disadvantage of using thatch for the part labelled B.
  3. The diagram below illustrates an internal parasite of livestock.
    3
    1. Identify the parasite.
    2. Name two common species of the parasite illustrated above.
    3. State two signs of worm infestation that may be observed in the dung of livestock.
  4. Below is a diagram illustrating an instrument used in cattle breeding.
    4
    1. Identify the instrument.
    2. State the role of the instrument in cattle breeding.
    3. When would it be appropriate to serve a cow after the onset of heat?
    4. Apart from the method in which the above instrument is used, name two other methods of serving a cow.

SECTION C: (40 marks)
Answer any TWO questions from this section in the spaces provided after question 25.

  1.      
    1. Give the functions of any five parts of a poultry egg. (10 marks)
    2. Describe the uses of five materials/equipment required for hand milking. (10 marks)
  2.      
    1. Describe East Coast fever under the following sub-headings:
      1. livestock affected;
      2. vector and causal organism;
      3. signs of attack; (5 marks)
      4. control measures.
    2. Describe the activities that take place during the digestion process in the rumen. (5 marks)
    3. Describe the management practices that ensure proper hygiene in a deep litter poultry house. (5 marks)
  3.    
    1. State five signs of external parasite infestation in livestock. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five factors that should be considered when siting a farm store. (5 marks)
    3. Describe the cycle of a four stroke petrol engine.

MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A (30 marks)

  1.    
    • Newzealand white/Kenya white
    • California white
    • flemish giant
    • chinchilla
    • rex
    • angora
    • earlops (= 2 marks)
  2.    
    • large/heavy
    • brown
    • clean
    • smooth shelled
    • oral/normal shaped
    • fresh
    • handling quality (= 2 marks)
  3.    
    • succulent roughages
    • dry roughages
      (= 1 mark)
  4.    
    • loss of hybrid vigour/performance
    • decline in fertility
    • reduced production
    • high rate of pre-natal mortality
    • weak inferior animals
      (= 2 marks)
  5.    
    1. calcium
    2. lignin/fibre/cellulose
      (= 1 mark)
  6.    
    • Even fat distribution in the body
    • Facilitate mating
    • Avoid incidences of blowfly infestation
      (= 1 mark)
  7.    
    • Depression
    • Respiratory distress
    • Dullness
    • Drooping wings
    • Sleepy eyes
    • Pale and shrunken combs and wattles
    • Greenish-yellow diarrhoea
    • Death within a few days
      = 2 marks)
  8.    
    • Drift lambing is where all the pregnant ewes are put together in one paddock and are separated as they lamb down.
    • Pen lambing is where pregnant ewes are only separated from others after showing signs of lambing
      (Mark as a whole) (2 marks)
  9.    
    • Sex
    • Colour
    • Age
    • Physiological condition eg pregnancy, lactation;
    • Physical injuries
      (4 x 1 = 2 marks)
  10.    
    • Stage of lactation
    • Age of the animal
    • Breed
    • Nutrition
    • Health
    • Completeness of milking
    • Season of the year
    • Physiological condition eg. emaciation, pregnancy, sickness.
      (= 2 marks)
  11.    
    • Shearing of infested sheep
    • Routine dipping/spraying with appropriate pesticide/insecticide/acaricide
    • Proper hygiene
      ( = 1 mark)
  12.    
    • Repair worn out parts eg. pipes
    • Clean dirty covers
    • Tighten loose nuts and bolts
    • Replace wornout/lost parts eg nuts and bolts
      (= 1 mark)
  13.    
    1. Toggenburg
    2.    
      • Drenching/treatment
      • Detailing
      • Castration
      • Tooth clipping
      • Identification
      • External parasite control
      • Weighing
        (= 2 marks)
  14.    
    • Vaccination
    • Proper feeding
    • Quarantine imposition
    • Use of prophylactic drugs
    • Proper hygiene eg. use of disinfectants and antiseptics
    • Treatment of sick animals
    • Isolation of sick animals
    • Proper selection and breeding
    • Control of vectors
      (= 2 marks)
  15.    
    1. Addition of chalazae/fertilization
    2. Addition of thick albumen
    3. Addition of shell membranes/water/mineral salts and vitamins/thin albumen.
      ( = 1marks)
  16.    
    1.    
      • Ancona
      • White Isghorn
        (= 1 mark)
    2.    
      • Rhode Island Red
      • Light Sussex
        (= 1 mark).
  17.    
    • Lay fertile eggs
    • Production of pheromones to keep the colony together
      (= 1 mark)
  18.      
    • Clearing the bush/undesirable vegetation around the pond
    • Desilting
    • Planting grass on the dyke where necessary
    • Cleaning
    • Repairing worn out parts
    • Fertilize the pond
    • Maintain water level
      (= 2 marks)

SECTION B (20 marks)

  1.    
    1. N - coping saw
      P - stir up pump/bucket pump
      (= 2 marks)
    2. M - drilling holes in both wood/metal
      Q - administering solid drugs/tablets orally
      (= 2 marks)
    3.    
      • Cleaning to remove dirt/chemical residues
      • Unblocking nozzles to remove solid particles/to facilitate flow of chemical solution
      • Oiling the piston to reduce friction
      • Replacing worn out parts to ensure efficiency of use
        (= 1 mark)
  2.      
    1. A - Purlin
      B - Rafter
      (= 2 marks)
    2.    
      • Timber/wood
      • Metal/metal bars
      • Plastic
        (= 2 marks)
    3.    
      • Fire risk
      • Prone to insect damage
        (= 1 mark)
  3.    
    1. Round worm/Ascaris spp
      (= 1 mark)
    2. A. lumbricoides - catthle, sheep
      A. suum - pigs
      A. galli - poultry
      (= 2 marks)
    3.    
      • Blood stained dung
      • Presense of eggs
      • Diarrhoea
      • Adults - presence of adults
        (2 x 1 = 2 marks)
  4.    
    1. Artificial vagina
      (1 x 1 = 1 mark)
    2. Collection of semen from bulls.
      (= 1 mark)
    3. Between 12-18 hours/at standing heat.
      (1 x 1 = 1 mark)
    4.    
      • Natural mating
      • Embryo transplant
        (= 2 marks)

SECTIONC

  1.      
    1. The shell:
      • Protects inner parts of the egg
      • Prevents entry of micro-organisms
      • Facilitates gaseous exchange

        Albumen/Egg white: -
      • Surrounds the yolk
      • food reserve for the embryo
      • Shock absorber

        Chalaza
      • Holds the yolk in central position of the egg
      • Ensures the germ spot is always facing up
      • Transmit heat to the embryo during incubation

        Yolk
      • Stores nutrients for the embryo
      • Carries the germinal disc which develops into the embryo

        Air space
      • Used for gaseous exchange

        Shell membranes
      • Outer and inner membranes separate at the broad end to form the airspace
      • Protect inner part of the egg
      • Determine shape of egg
        (5 x 2 = 10 marks) 
    2. Udder clothes/towels
      • washing the udder
      • drying the udder

        Filtering pads
      • straining milk

        Milking jelly/salve
      • applied to teats after milking to prevent cracking

        Warm water
      • Washing the udder to remove dirt
      • Stimulate milk let down

        Milking pails/buckets 
      • Used to hold milk during milking.

        Milking stool
      • Sit on during milking

        Strip cup
      • Necessary for detecting mastitis

        Milk can/churn
      • Hold milk during milking/temporary storage/transportation

        Chain/Rope
      • Restraining the animal

        Concentrate/feeds
      • To stimulate milk let-down

        Weighing scale
      • To determine the quantity of milk/weighing
        (5 x 2 = 10 marks)
  2.    
    1.      
      1. Cattle
        (1 x 1 = 1 mark)
      2. Vector -Brown ear ticks/Rhipicephalus appendicutatus
        Protozoa/Theileria parva
        (2 x 1 = 2 marks)
      3. Swollen lymph nodes
        • Profuse salivation
        • Fever
        • Lachrimation
        • Laboured breathing
        • Haemorrhages in the vulva and mouth
        • Coughing
        • Impaired vision
        • Reduced appetite
          (5 x 2 = 10 marks)
      4.    
        • Tick control
        • Treatment using appropriate drugs eg. chlorotetracycline, oxytetracycline
        • Vaccination
          (2 x 1 = 2 marks)
    2.    
      • Temporary food shortage
      • Food fermentation
      • Synthesis of vitamin B complex and K
      • Synthesis of amino acids from nitrogen compounds
      • Breakdown of proteins to peptides, amino acids and ammonia
      • Breakdown of carbohydrates /cellulose into volatile fatty acids
        (5 x 1 = 5 marks)
    3.    
      • Regularly clean and disinfect feeders/waterers/perches
      • Replace old and wet litter/turn litter regularly
      • Control visitors into the poultry house
      • Use a footbath at the entrance
      • Avoid dampness in the house
      • Isolate/cull sick birds
      • Treat sick birds
      • Properly dispose dead birds
        (5 x 1 = 5 marks)
  3.      
    1.      
      • Damaged skin/wounds/abscesses on skin
      • Scaly/starring coat/rough coat
      • Irritation/scratching
      • Loss of hair/feathers
      • Anaemia
      • Presence of parasites on the body
      • Emaciation
        (5 x 1 = 5 marks)
    2.      
      • Accessibility - should be easily reached from most parts of the farm
      • Drainage - well drained to avoid dampness
      • Security - should be secure from predators and thieves
      • Relationship with other structures - should be close to others with related functions to save on time and labour
      • Proximity of amenities - should be near water/electricity supply 
      • Topography - gentle sloping to save costs on levelling facilitate drainage
        (5 x 1 = 5 marks)
    3. Induction stroke
      • Piston moves downwards causing partial vacuum in the cylinder
      • Inlet valve opens, exhaust valve remains closed
      • Air fuel mixture is sucked into the cylinder
        (3 x 1 = 3 marks)

        Compression Stroke
      • Piston moves upwards to compress air fuel mixture
      • Inlet valve closes, exhaust valve remains closed

        Power Stroke/Ignition Stroke
      • Valves remain closed
      • Spark ignites the air fuel mixture
      • Ignited mixture forces the piston down
        (3 x 1 = 3 marks)

        Exhaust Stroke
      • Piston moves up mix cylinder and exhaust valve opens
      • Exhaust opens while inlet valve remain closed to force exhaust gases out
        (2 x 1 = 2 marks)

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