KCSE 2017 IRE Paper 2 with Marking scheme

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Instructions to candidates

  • This paper consists of six questions.
  • Answer any five questions in the spaces provided at the end of question
  • Candidates should answer the questions in English.
    1. Describe seven ways in which Islam has helped in curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS  (7 marks)
    2. Under what circumstances are Muslims expected to exercise sabr? (6 marks)
    3. Discuss the rationale for the prohibition of zina in Islam.  (7 marks)
    1. Explain six measures that can be adopted by Muslims to guard against terrorism.   (6 marks)
    2. State seven duties of a Muslim husband.  (7 marks)
    3. Mention seven unlawful acts in trade.  (7 marks)
    1. Explain ways through which Muslims can co-exist peacefully with non-Muslims.  (8 marks)
    2. Elaborate on the effects of riba on the Muslims.  (7 marks)
    3. State the reasons for polygamy in Islam.   (5 marks)
    1. State the role played by Kabaka Mutesa in the spread of Islam in Buganda in the Nineteenth Century.  (7 marks)
    2. How did the Muslims benefit from the hijra to Madina?  (8 marks)
    3. What lessons can Muslims learn from the treaty of Hudaibiya?    (5 marks)
    1. In what ways did the battle of Badr affect the Prophet's mission?   (7 marks)
    2. Mention seven contributions of Uthman bin Affan to the development of Islam.  (7 marks)
    3. State six contributions of Muslim Scholars to Education  (6 marks)
    1. Discuss three reasons why Abubakar Assidiq was elected as the first Khalifa. (6 marks)
    2. State seven contributions of the Muhajirun to the development of Islam.   (7 marks)
    3. Outline seven social achievements of Prophet Muhammad (P.b.u.h) during his lifetime.   (7 marks)


    1. Ways in which Islam has helped in curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS. 
      1. Islam has advocated for Muslims not to engage in Zina, by that it has mitigated against the spread of HIV/AIDS through sexual contact.
      2. Islam has imposed harsh punishments for those who engage in Zina, which if implemented would act as a deterrent for care free sexual relations.
      3. The ban by Islam on homosexuality and drug abuse e.g. injectables has greatly helped in minimizing the incidents among segments of those who indulge in illicit practices.
      4. Precautionary measures have been put in place by Islam against practices that may cause harm either to self or others i.e. use of un-screened blood, sharing of needles or unsterilized surgical equipment are forbidden in Islam.
      5. Islam demands faithfulness and chastity in marriage.
      6. The Islamic law has put in place measures to block all acts that may lead to the spread of HIV/AIDS i.e. selling of alcohol, prostitution e.t.c. 
      7. Islam encourages the seeking treatment for those who are sick.
      8. Islam has helped in sensitizing Muslims in sermons and lectures on HIV/AIDS, its effects and stigmatization.
        (7x1 = 7 marks)
    2. Circumstances under which Muslims are expected to exercise Sabr
      1. during calamities and hardships
      2. in times of poverty
      3. during illness/sickness 
      4. in the performance of obligatory acts/duties
      5. when wronged by other people
      6. during bereavement
      7. when going through experiences that cause fear e.g. war,, dangerous situation 
      8. in times of hunger, drought, famine.
        (6x1 = 6 marks)
    3. Rationale for prohibition of Zina in Islam
      1. Zina leads to moral degradation and lack of respect of those who engage in it.
      2. Zina can cause life threatening diseases some of which have no cure e.g. HIV/AIDS.
      3. Zina leads to family break up due to divorce, if a spouse finds out that the partner engages in Zina, it may lead to divorce. 
      4. Children may suffer as a result of divorce, they lack parental support and love, this is caused by Zina.
      5. Zina neglects the noble objectives of sex to a mere gratification of physical desires. 
      6. May cause poverty as resources are diverted from their proper use, to paying for and promoting the immorality.
      7. Zina leads to siring of illegitimate children, who may suffer due to lack of parental love from both parents.
      8. Zina attracts punishment from Allah in this world and the hereafter.
        (7x1 = 7 marks)
    1. Measures that can be adopted by Muslims to guard against terrorism.
      1. Muslims should always be the first to speak and condemn acts of terror because Islam is a religion of peace.
      2. Creating public awareness through the mass media so as to enlighten the society on the ills of terrorism and also the Islamic stand on terrorism.
      3. Reporting any persons suspected to be supporting or engaging in acts of terrorism to the relevant authorities.
      4. Terrorism as a topic taught in IRE in schools, this inculcates the knowledge on terror and its effects in the children.
      5. Muslims should neither support nor engage in acts of terrorism as it is both a crime and a sin, they should be beyond reproach.
      6. Organizing campaigns, seminars, workshops, and talks to advice and counsel the youth against radicalization which leads to acts of terrorism. 
      7. Muslim should cooperate and work hand in hand with government agencies, provide useful information that can guard against terrorism.
      8. To lobby the government to address the root cause of terrorism e.g. creating employment opportunities for the youth.
        (6x 1 = 6 marks)
    2. Duties of a Muslim husband
      1. To provide the wife and children with basic necessities of life i.e. food, shelter and medical care. 
      2. To fulfill his conjugal obligations to his wife. 
      3. To educate his wife and children on requisite knowledge and skills in religion.
      4. To enjoin his wife and children to fulfill their religious obligations
      5. To keep their marital affairs secret i.e. not to disclose to the public details about their family affairs. 
      6. To treat the wife with respect, kindness and generosity. 
      7. To guarantee the safety of his wife and children. 
      8. To treat his wife and children fairly and with equality if polygamous.
        (7x1=7 marks)
    3. Unlawful acts in trade
      1. Charging interest (usury).
      2. Selling prohibited goods.
      3. Hoarding of goods.
      4. Forgery e.g. of receipts, agreement documents.
      5. Bribery e.g. to get tender.
      6. Money laundering.
      7. Cheating on quantity and weight of goods (Q. 83:3)
      8. Selling expired goods.
        (7x1=7 marks)
    1. Ways through which Muslims can co-exist peacefully with nonMuslims
      1. Through appreciating the unity of the creator i.e. one God created all living beings, this will enable Muslims to co-exist peacefully with non-Muslims.
      2. Through appreciating unity of mankind who originated from Adam and Hawa.
      3. Respecting the non-Muslims interests and right to life and property i.e. should not destroy their property, should dcal justly and kindly with them.
      4. Concentrating on common/mutual interests e.g. education, security, economic/political/social development and avoiding divisive controversial issues.
      5. Forming joint committee and Councils to resolve conflicts whenever they arise between Muslims and non-Muslims.
      6. Having respect and tolerance towards their religion. 
      7. Attending and participating in conferences and seminars to discuss matters on peaceful co-existence whenever invited. 
      8. Organizing/forming joint religious forums to share ideas and other concerns thus promoting peace. 
      9. Educating the youth and other members of the society about Islamic teachings in relating with non-Muslims.
      10. Joining hands with non-Muslims in fighting evil such as aggression, terrorism, intolerance.
      11. Emulating the Prophet (P.b.u.h.) in his excellent relations with non Muslims.
        (7 x 1= 7 marks)
    2. Effects of riba on the Muslims
      1. Leads to exploitation and misappropriation of other people's property without giving anything in return, hence they lose a lot.
      2. People become lazy, they do not work to earn lawfully but depend on easy gains.
      3. Widens the gap between rich and poor hence creates hatred and disunity in the society.
      4. Causes suffering and hardships especially to those who borrow money on interest and are unable to pay back.
      5. Causes corruption in the society when the borrower strives to look for all ways possible to pay back.
      6. Creates suspicion and resentment between lender and borrower especially if the borrower is unable to pay back what he has borrowed, because of the heavy interest charges.
      7. Inequality between the rich and the poor as the rich will continue gaining and the poor will continue suffering.
      8. Creates poverty in the society as a person who takes a loan with interest spends almost the whole of his life paying back instead of investing.
      9. A society that thrives in riba activities cannot prosper and is devoid  of Allah's blessings.
        (7 x 1= 7 marks)
    3. Reasons for polygamy in Islam
      1. If the first wife is barren.
      2. If the first wife is sick and unable to care for the husband.
      3. If the wife cannot meet the conjugal demands of the husband.
      4. If it's meant to protect and care for widows and their children.
      5. If it is meant to prevent immorality.
      6. If it is meant to eradicate single parenting, and care for single women without husbands (women are more than men in the world).
      7. Permission from Allah for those who have the means, desire and ability to treat their wives with equity. (Q4:3)
        (5 x 1=5 marks)
    1. Role played by Kabaka Mutesa in the spread of Islam in Buganda in the Nineteenth century.
      1. He developed a keen interest in Islam, he embraced Islam and declared Islam the state religion. 
      2. He invited Muslims from the Coast to trade and preach Islam to his people.
      3. He allowed the Muslims from the Coast to interact and intermarry with his people hence establishing Muslim households.
      4. Facilitated the construction of a mosque which was key in the worship
      5. He approved the use of Islamic calendar and ordered his subjects to study Islam. 
      6. He was strict in observing Islamic teachings e.g. he would fast during Ramadhan, knew how to read and write in Arabic, he insisted on being saluted in the Islamic fashion. 
      7. He gave high positions to several Buganda Muslims.
      8. Allowed Muslims to propagate Islam in Buganda.
        (7 x1=7 marks)
    2. How Muslims benefitted from the Hijra to Madina
      1. For the first time, Muslims enjoyed peace and freedom, they were free from the constant attacks from the Quraish.
      2. As a result of hijra, Muslims were able to organize their affairs.
      3. They were able to construct the Prophet's mosque which served as the nerve centre in the propagation of Islam.
      4. Hijra gave the Prophet (P.b.u.h.) peace and time to concentrate on his mission of propagating Islam.
      5. As a result of Hijra,, more people were able to embrace Islam, hence led to the growth of the Muslim community. 
      6. Hijra to Madina marked the beginning of the Islamic calendar.
      7. Hijra strengthened the position of Muslims against the incursions and perceptions of the Quraish. 
      8. Hijra enabled the Muslims to establish themselves as a community/umma, and the Prophet as their leader.
      9. Hijra gave a chance to Muslims to worship freely. 
      10. As a result of Hijra, the constitution of Madina was formulated as the first legal document which resulted in the expansion of government operations, trade, defence and enhanced superiority of Muslims.
      11. It spearheaded the end of idol worship.
        (8 x1=8 marks)
    3. Lessons that Muslims learn from the treaty of Hudaibiya
      1. The Prophet (P.b.u.h.) was a great leader, always ready to establish peace,
      2. Patience pays, Muslims were patient, agreed on the terms even though they were not favourable, in turn they experienced peace and were able to access Makka.
      3. Muslims should respect the Prophet (P.b.u.h.) they accepted the terms of the treaty though not favourable to them as a sign of respect to the Prophet (P.b.u.h) 
      4. It was possible for Muslims to co-exist peacefully with Quraish
      5. Islam is a true and peaceful religion.
      6. Muslim should exercise humility, the Prophet (P.b.u.h.) humbled himself and accepted the terms of the treaty without question.
        (5x1=5 marks)
    1. Effects of the battle of Badr on the Prophet's mission
      1. The victory at Badr strengthened the Muslims and the Prophet (P.b.u.h.) 
      2. The victory of Badr strengthened the Muslims faith in Allah and Islam
      3. Muslims were very happy when they won the battle and considered it a victory and favour from Allah.
      4. As a result of the victory, the Muslims were now secure and could worship freely and with confidence.
      5. As a result of the victory, more people embraced Islam.
      6. The victory at Badr motivated the Prophet (P.b.u.h). He was able to concentrate on his mission of spreading Islam.
      7. The victory at Badr gave Muslims in Makka confidence and hope for freedom
      8. It assured the continued existence of Islam.Had Muslims been defeated, it would have marked the end of Islam. 
      9. Through the victory at Badr, the Prophet (P.b.u.h) was able to establish himself on an able and great leader of the Muslims. 
        (7x1=7 marks)
    2. Contributions of Uthman bin Affan to the development of Islam 
      1. He was a companion of the Prophet (P.b.u.h.) and supported him throughout his life.
      2. He was one of the writers of the revelation.
      3. He donated generously to the cause of Islam whenever the Prophet needed help/funds for the Muslim army e.g, battle of Tabuk.
      4. He facilitated the standardization of the Quran.
      5. He was among the first people to convert to Islam. 
      6. In support of the Prophet (P.b.u.h.) he was among the early Muslims who migrated to Abbysinia and then to Madina.
      7. He participated in the battles fought by Muslims against the Quraish to defend Islam. 
      8. He supported the Prophet and Islam throughout his life, even during difficulties and persecution. He was himself persecuted by the Quraish.
      9. He was the one of the four rightly guided Khalifas in Islam, he took over the leadership of the Muslims from KhalifaAbubakar Assidiq. 
        (7x1=7 marks)
    3. Contributions of Muslim scholars to Education
      1. Muslim scholars authored books which enriched knowledge and led to the development of education.
      2. Muslim scholars have championed and advocated for the establishment of learning institutions so as to promote and improve education.
      3. Scholars have undertaken translation of books/works of education into other languages so as to facilitate learning and promote education.
      4. The Muslim scholars were themselves teachers and took part in imparting knowledge to their students.
      5. Muslims scholars have supported and advocated for the education of women. 
      6. Muslim scholars supported and advocated for secular education
      7. Muslim scholars have established learning institutions which have facilitated the education of many Muslims.
      8. Muslim scholars have contributed original ideas and concepts in various fields of education e.g. philosophy, sociology, mathematics, medicine e.t.c. that are accepted even in contemporary time
        (6x1=6 marks)
    1. Reasons why Abubakar Assidiq was elected as the first Khalifa
      1. The Prophet (P.b.u.h.) asked Abubakar to lead prayers when he was ill and unable to lead prayer himself. This served as an indirect preference choice of his successor. 
      2. He was unanimously proposed by majority of the Swahabas to become the successor of the Prophet at Saqeefahbani Saedah.
      3. At the time of the death of the prophet, he demonstrated great leadership qualities by affirming the actual death of the Prophet (P.b.u.h) when other companions were in denial of the same.
      4. His great support for the Prophet (P.b.u.h) throughout the prophetic mission and his dedication, faithfulness; friendship and sacrifice elevated him to be the closet and the most suitable to succeed the Prophet (P.b.u.h).
        (3 x 2=6 marks
    2. Contributions of Muhajirun to the development of Islam
      1. The Muhajirun were the emigrants who migrated from Makka to Madina with the Prophet, they willing fully converted to Islam.
      2. They perservered the persecution and suffering from the Quraish of Makka, they never wavered in their belief. 
      3. They greatly sacrificed by leaving their belongings, wealth, relatives in Makka so as to migrate to Madina with Prophet (P.b.u.h.) to ensure continuity of Islam.
      4. They contributed all that they had to the cause of Islam e.g. Abubakar Assidiq.
      5. They went to great lengths to protect the Prophet (P.b.u.h.) and Islam e.g. they participated in battles in defense of Islam.
      6. They established a brotherhood with the Ansar and worked together for the cause of Islam.
      7. Joined hands with the Ansar to propagate Islam as a united front
      8. Supported and accepted the Prophet (P.b.u.h.) as their spiritual leader thus enabling him to carry on with his mission.
      9. They remained steadfast in their faith in Islam and support for the Prophet amidst many challenges facing them in Madina.
        (7x1 = 7 mark)
    3. Social achievements of Prophet Muhammad (P.b.u.b.) during his life time 
      1. Advocated for and promoted religious tolerance. 
      2. Advocated for and promoted peaceful co-existence with people of diverse tribes and nations.
      3. Establishment of the Madina Constitution which created a new social order in Madina. 
      4. Promoted rights of women. 
      5. Taught equality of mankind, discouraged racism.
      6. Advocated for unity among all people. 
      7. Advocated for Muslim brotherhood by declaring the Muhajirun and Ansar brothers.
      8. Championed for the rights and dignity of slaves.
        (6x1=6 marks)
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