KCSE 2019 History Paper 2 Questions With Marking Scheme

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SECTION A (25 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section

  1. Give the meaning of the term "Stone Age period". (1 mark)
  2. Identify one method of irrigation which was used in ancient Egypt. (1 mark)
  3. Name the centre where freed slaves were settled by the missionaries in Tanzania. (1 mark)
  4. Identify the main item of trade from West Africa during the Trans Saharan trade. (1 mark)
  5. Outline two characteristics of Macadam roads. (2 marks)
  6. Give the early form of writing in Mesopotamia. (1 mark)
  7. State two disadvantages of using electricity as a source of energy (2 marks)
  8. Outline two functions of the ancient town of Kilwa. (2 marks)
  9. Give one symbol of unity among the Shona during the pre-colonial period. (1 mark)
  10. Identify the main method which was used by the European powers to suppress resisting African communities. (1 mark)
  11. Name the British administrator who introduced indirect rule in Northern Nigeria. (1 mark)
  12. State two political factors which undermined the struggle for majority rule by the nationalists in South Africa (2 marks)
  13. Highlight two ways in which the cold war was fought. (2 marks)
  14. Identify two permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. (2 marks)
  15. Give two common services that the East African Community provided to its members between 1967 and 1977. (2 marks)
  16. Name the two political parties in Tanzania which merged to form Chama Cha Mapinduzi(CCM). (2 marks)
  17. Give one chamber of the Congress in the United States of America. (1 mark)

SECTION B (45 marks)

Answer any three questions from this section

  1.  
    1. State five effects of early agriculture in Mesopotamia. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five solutions to food shortage in the African countries. (10 marks)
  2.  
    1. Outline three disadvantages of using barter system of trade. (3 marks)
    2. Discuss six factors for the decline of Trans-Atlantic trade. (12 marks)
  3.  
    1. Identify three effects of scientific inventions on medicine. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six challenges which South Africa has faced in the process of industrialisation. (12 marks)
  4.  
    1. State three terms of the Berlin conference. (3 marks)
    2. Describe six reasons for the defeat of Samori Toure by the French. (12 marks)

 

SECTION C (30 marks)

Answer any wo questions from this section

  1.  
    1. Identify the three countries that formed Triple Alliance before the outbreak of the First World War. (3 marks)
    2. Explain why the Allied powers were able to defeat the Central powers during the first World War. (12 marks)
  2.  
    1. State five objectives of the African Union. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five challenges facing the East African Community (EAC), 2001. (10 marks)
  3.  
    1. Identify five ways through which the supremacy of parliament may be limited in Britain. (5 marks)
    2. Discuss five functions of the Federal Government in the United States of America. (10 marks)

Marking Scheme

  1. Give the meaning of the term "Stone Age period". (1 mark)
    • This is the period in history when humans used tools which were mainly made of stones
  2. Identify one method of irrigation which was used in ancient Egypt. (1 mark)
    • shadoof
    • basin
    • canal
  3. Name the centre where freed slaves were settled by the missionaries in Tanzania. (1 mark)
    • bagamoyo
  4. Identify the main item of trade from West Africa during the Trans Saharan trade. (1 mark)
    • gold
  5. Outline two characteristics of Macadam roads. (2 marks)
    • They were cheap to cosntruct
    • They were durable
    • They were all-weather
    • They had smooth surface
    • They were straight
    • They were wide
    • They were well drained/curved/ambered
  6. Give the early form of writing in Mesopotamia. (1 mark)
    • cuneiform
  7. State two disadvantages of using electricity as a source of energy (2 marks)
    • it can cause fire/destruction of property
    • It can electrocute/cause loss of life
    • It is expensive to generate/distribute
    • Potential sites for its production are limited
    • It requires well trained personnel for installation and manintenance
  8. Outline two functions of the ancient town of Kilwa. (2 marks)
    • it was a trading centre
    • it was an administrative centre
    • It was a religious centre/islamic centre
    • it was a defence centre
    • it was a settlement centre
    • it was an industrial centre
  9. Give one symbol of unity among the Shona during the pre-colonial period. (1 mark)
    • the religion/Mwari cut/Mlimo cult
    • The Royal Fire
    • The King/Mutapa/Emperor/Mwene Mutapa
  10. Identify the main method which was used by the European powers to suppress resisting African communities. (1 mark)
    • Military force/expedition/conquest
  11. Name the British administrator who introduced indirect rule in Northern Nigeria. (1 mark)
    • Fredrick Lugard
  12. State two political factors which undermined the struggle for majority rule by the nationalists in South Africa (2 marks)
    • They were not united
    • African political parties wre banned/proscribed
    • Some were arrested/detained/jailed
    • They were not alowed to have press/freedom of press
    • Laws entrenching apartheid were passed
  13. Highlight two ways in which the cold war was fought. (2 marks)
    • Through propaganda
    • Through economic sanctions
    • Through financial aid to the allies/Technical aid
    • Through military support to the allies
  14. Identify two permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. (2 marks)
    • China
    • United States of America
    • United Kingdom/Britain
    • France
    • Russia
  15. Give two common services that the East African Community provided to its members between 1967 and 1977. (2 marks)
    • Judicial services/Court of appeal
    • Educational services/examination councils
    • Publishing services
    • transport services/railways/water/air transport
    • Postal services
    • Financial services/baning services
    • Meteorological services
    • Reasearch services
  16. Name the two political parties in Tanzania which merged to form Chama Cha Mapinduzi(CCM). (2 marks)
    • Afro shiraz party
    • Tanganyika African National Union (TANU)
  17. Give one chamber of the Congress in the United States of America. (1 mark)
    • The senate
    • The house of representatives

SECTION B (45 marks)

Answer any three questions from this section

  1.  
    1. State five effects of early agriculture in Mesopotamia. (5 marks)
      • It led to settling down of people/ Sedentary lifestyle
      • It led to increased production of food.
      • It led to population increase.
      • It led to rise of city states/towns/banization
      • It led to the development of trade among communities.
      • It resulted to specialization in craftdivision of labour.
      • It led to development of writing/science, arithmetic/mathematics, education
      • It led to the development of the wheel.
      • It led to the invention of the plough, seed dridhee
      • It led to belief in many gods/polytheism. development of religion
      • It led to development of Hammurabi's code/laws/government
      • Development of social classes/social stratification
      • Development of architecture 
    2. Explain five solutions to food shortage in the African countries. (10 marks)
      • Reclaiming more land would increase the area for farming thereby producing more food.
      • Adopting irrigation which would ensure food production throughout the year.
      • Government should formulate/adopt food policies which would give strategies of achieving food security in the countries.
      • Encouraging farmers to grow food crops that are drought resistant/require little rainfall.
      • Farm inputs/seeds/fertilizers/pesticides should be highly subsidized in order to makethem affordable to the farmers. Low cost of farm inputs.
      • Storage facilities should be improved to minimize loss/wastage before and after the harvest.
      • Modern/scientific farming methods such as artificial insemination should be practiced in order to improve agricultural yields./extension Services
      • Transport infrastructure should be improved constructed for efficient movement of farm inputs/produce to and from markets.
      • Promote peaceful coexistence among communities to enable farming activities to prosper 
  2.  
    1. Outline three disadvantages of using barter system of trade. (3 marks)
      • Some trade items are bulky/ heavy to transport
      • Some goods are not divisible,
      • Sometimes traders lack double coincidence of wants.
      • It is difficult to determine the value of some goods.
      • Some goods are perishable/last for a short period. lack of common language / Language barrier
    2. Discuss six factors for the decline of Trans-Atlantic trade. (12 marks)
      • The introduction of machines/industrialization which replaced human labour leading to decline of demand for slaves.
      • Slave labour was perceived by economists to be less profitable/less productive compared to free labour.
      • The campaign against slave trade/slavery by philanthropists/missionaries who declared it evil/inhuman/against religious teachings.
      • The closure of slave market in America after the American civil war of 1865 left the salve dealers with no market for their slaves
      • Propagation of liberty/equality for all human beings following the French revolution which encouraged fair treatment of all people irrespective of their racial background.
      • The development of legitimate trade which was more profitable and replaced slave trade.
      • The signing of treaties abolishing slave trade/slavery by Britain influenced other countries to adopt the same. 
  3.  
    1. Identify three effects of scientific inventions on medicine. (3 marks)
      • It has led to the discovery of preventive/urative medicine,
      • It has led to rise of living standards/life expectancy.
      • It has led to increase in population/reduction of mortality rates
      • It has led to production of advanced medical equipments,
      • It has led to manufacture of variety of drugs
      • It has created job opportunities 
    2. Explain six challenges which South Africa has faced in the process of industrialisation. (12 marks)
      • The imposition of economic cautions which prevented her from trading with other countries.
      • The long period of apartheid created an unconducive environment for industrialization,
      • Competition from more developed countries such western European countries whose manufactured goods were of better quality than those ones from Africa
      •  Industrial strikes/demonstrations/boycotts which were organized by trade unions led to closure of some industries.
      • High levels of poverty which created inadequate market for manufactured goods due to low purchasing power.
      • Violence/xenophobia/aggression against foreigners has discouraged foreign investors/chased away the would be foreign investors.
      • HIV/AIDS has affected the work force in industries thereby undermining industrial production
      • High incidences of insecurity/ criminal activities in South Africa which has been caused by unemployment, 
  4.  
    1. State three terms of the Berlin conference. (3 marks)
      • Any European country laying claim on any part of Africa should inform others
      • Those countries who signed the agreement declared their area of occupation/spheres of influence
      • The interior of the coast area claimed by a European power becomes its sphere of influence.
      • That each European country must effectively occupy their area of occupation/sphere of influence/develop it
      • European countries that acquire colonies in Africa must abolish slave trade/Slavery 
      • River Congo, River Niger and Zambezi basins were free for all European countries to navigate.
      • European countries should demonstrate their authority to protect the European in their area of occupation e.g. missionaries
    2. Describe six reasons for the defeat of Samori Toure by the French. (12 marks)
      • Constant movement of the people/army denied them opportunities to carry out c conomic activities leading to inadequate supply of necessary items/food.
      • Samouri Toure was cut off from Freetown where he used to buy firearms/use of worn out/old weaponseapons due to his departure from Bure gold mines/burning
      • Lack of support from other African rulers Ahmed Seku of Tukolor empire, Tieba of Sikasso demoralized him. 
      • Samori's second empire was difficult to defend as it was exposed to attacks from all sides/the British/the French.
      • The scorched - earth policy that he adopted lacked support from civilians who resisted against him.
      • His inability to appease the conquered areas /people denied him the needed support.
      • The British policy of non-interference denied him their support - against the French.
      • The besieging of his capital by the French forced him to surrender/his blockage from retreating to Liberia

SECTION C (30 marks)

Answer any wo questions from this section

  1.  
    1. Identify the three countries that formed Triple Alliance before the outbreak of the First World War. (3 marks)
      • Germany
      • Austria - Hungary
      • Italy
    2. Explain why the Allied powers were able to defeat the Central powers during the first World War. (12 marks)
      • They had advanced/powerful weapons compared with the Central powers,
      • They had more financial resources which were used to finance the war.
      • They had strong naval power which enabled them to blockage supplies to the Central powers from the sea
      • They were united unlike the Central powers who were disorganized
      • Some members of the Central powers decamped thereby weakening them to the advantage of the Allied powers
      • The entry of the United States of America on the side of the Allied powers boosted their resources/skills.
      • The powers were led by leaders who were competent/focused hence inspired their members.
      • They had more manpower/soldiers who were deployed during the war
  2.  
    1. State five objectives of the African Union. (5 marks)
      • To achieve greater unity/ cohesion/ solidarity among African countries/nations.
      • To defend the sovereignty/ territorial integrity/independence of its member states.
      • To accelerate the political/social-economic integration of the continent.
      • To promote/defend African common positions on issues of interest to the continent/the people
      • To advance the dev. of the continent by promoting research in all fields particular science
      • To encourage international cooperation, taking due account of the Charter of the UN and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 
      • To promote peace/ security/ stability of the continent
    2. Explain five challenges facing the East African Community (EAC), 2001. (10 marks)
      • Suspicion/mistrust among member states as some view others as more dominating its affairs/benefiting more
      • Some countries impose trade barriers for goods from member states which fuels animosity
      • There has been trans-border/across border smuggling of vehicles/other goods which creates economic mistrust among neighbours.
      • Dispute over use of natural resources/water resources has led to arrest of some fishermen thereby straining relationship among affected member states/Border disputes
      • Cross-border cattle rustling/raids has fueled insecurity/tension among member states.
      • Divided loyalty as member states belong to other regional/international organizations.
      • Ideological differences among leaders had led to strained relations among them.
  3.  
    1. Identify five ways through which the supremacy of parliament may be limited in Britain. (5 marks)
      • It cannot make laws which overlook moral values.
      • Decision made by the parliament must take into consideration public opinion.
      • Local authorities are empowered to make by-laws without consulting the parliament.
      • It must consider interest of institutions before making laws affecting them.
      • Legislation passed by the parliament may be changed in the future.
      • International law is also taken into account when laws are made
    2. Discuss five functions of the Federal Government in the United States of America. (10 marks)
      • It levies/collects taxes which enables the government to finance its operations
      • It pays debts/loans extended to the government by institution such as World Bank.
      • It admits new states into the union like Alaska which was last to be admitted
      • It enacts/passes laws which regulate operations of the federal state governments
      • It handles foreign affairs eg through ratifying treating with the other countries.
      • It declares war/raises support for armed forces in order to defend the country from external aggressien, and makes peace
      • It resolves dispute among states in order to enhance their corporation, 
      • It establishes federal courts which determine cases which are beyond jurisdiction of state courts.

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Read 4712 times Last modified on Wednesday, 24 November 2021 13:01

1 comment

  • Comment Link kombe hamisi Tuesday, 06 April 2021 15:30 posted by kombe hamisi

    superb work

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