Music Paper 3 Questions and Answers - KCSE 2022 Past Papers

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  1. Melody
    1. Starting with the given opening, compose a 16-bar melody for voice. Modulate to the relative minor and retum to the sonic. Incorporate a syncopated rhythm. (9 marks)
      1 13
    2. Using staff notation, compose a melody setting it to the lyrics below: (6 marks)
      Janga hili la Korona, el yetu kavala Menyang,
      'Metupasa tuungane, tulishinde hili janga
  2. Harmony
    Harmonise the melody below for SATB Choose appropriate chords from I, II IV, and VI (15 marks)
    2 13


  1. African Music
    1. Outline four factors that influence the type of sound produced on an African traditional hom. (4 marks)
    2. Give two reasons why drums do not feature in Maasai traditional music and dance performances. (2 marks)
    3. Identify four components of a traditional African singing game. (4 marks)
    4. Outline four ways in which traditional dances acquire their names. Cite an example of a dance in each case. (4 marks)
  2. Western Music
    Answer any two questions from (a), (b), (c) or (d).
    1. Antonio Vivaldi
      1. Outline five contributions made by Vivaldi to the development of the concerto in the Baroque period. (5 marks)
      2. What type of work is each of the following?
        1. L'estro armónico
        2. L'oracolo in messenia
    2. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
      1. State three benefits of Mozart's journeys to his musical life. (3 marks)
      2. Identify two sources of Mozart's early musical training. (2 marks)
      3. Outline two reasons why Mozart was unhappy at Salzburg. (2 marks)
    3. Johannes Brahms
      1. State four features that characterise Brahms's musical style. (4 marks)
      2. Brahms returned to the concerto a feature that had been abolished by Mendelsohn. Name this feature.(1 mark)
      3. Name the work that Brahms wrote to grace his academic achievement. (I mark)
      4. How was the work in (mi) above received by the university authorities? (1 mark)
    4. Benjamin Britten
      1. The "War Requiem" is Britten's largest choral work.
        1. Name the medium for which it was written. (1 mark)
        2. Identify the two sources of the text of this work. (2 marks)
      2. Outline three features that make Brahms's operas unique in style. (3 marks)
      3. Name one Christmas work written by Britten. (1 mark)
  3. Analysis of Prescribed African Music
    A Pokot Folksong by Ortum Boys 11igh School (A PPMC recording of KMF)
    1. Outline the sequence of events in the opening section of the perfonnance (3 marks)
    2. Outline four characteristics of solo and choral response as featured in this performance.
    3. State three roles of the wind instrument in the performance. (4 marks)
  4. Analysis of Prescribed Western Music
    Finale from Choral Fantasy in C minor, Op. 80 by Ladwig van Beethoven
    1. Outline two ways by which the main theme is introduced between bar 1 and 14. (2 marks)
    2. Describe the phrasal structure of the main theme in bars 14 to 30. (4 marks)
    3. This music is in Theme and Variation form. Citing ber numbers, outline its structure. (4 marks)
  5. Analysis of Unprepared Work
    Refer to the excerpt from "Miwer" by Mozart below and answer the questions that follow
    7 9
    1. In which key is this music written? (I mark)
    2. Identify the dominant articulation mark used on this score and state its role. (1 mark)
    3. This music modulates.
      1. Identify the bar at which the modulation begins
      2. To what key does it modulate?
    4. With reference to bar numbers, describe the structure/form of this music.


    1. Outline four ways through which the Kenyan Government supports music. (4 marks)
    2. Explain the meaning of each of the following aspects of musical structure:
      1. Theme
      2. Motif
      3. Variation
    3. Rewrite the following in open score using the treble, alto, tenor and bass clefs.
    4. Identify three roles of musical instruments in a traditional dance performance. (3 marks)


  1.  Melody 
    1. 16 bars 1 mark
      Lyricism (singability)- within the voice range 1 mark
      Modulation (well established) 2 marks
      1 mark for the relative minor
      1 mark for return to the tonic
      Cadences (1⁄2 mark for final perfect cadence, % mark for any othe) 1 mark
      Phrasing-(2 bar phrasing- mark as whole)
      Melodie curve and climax
      Rhythm (Unity, variety and conformity)
    2. Text setting to music (speech rhythm/accents/syllabic division- 1⁄2mark for each phrase) 2 marks
      Syllabic division 1⁄2 mark
      Lyricism of melody (mark as a whole)
      Cadences (5 mark for final perfect cadence, 1⁄2 mark for any othe) 1 mark
      Suitable time signature 1⁄2 mark
      Melodic curve/climax/shape
      Musicianship/creativity (choice of key, performance instructions, word painting)
      1⁄2 mark Total 06 marks
  2. Harmony
    Award marks as follows:
    Chords - 1⁄2 mark for each correct chord x 14
    Voice leading (1⁄2 mark for each voice-ATB)
    Correct cadences:
    Imperfect cadence
    Final cadence
    Voice ranges (mark as whole)
    Chord Progression (devoid of faults)
    Deduct 1⁄2 mark each for any of the following faults (maximum deduction 5 marks)
    Consecutive perfect 5ths/8ves
    Parallel octaves
    Crossing of parts
    Doubled 3rds in major chords
    Doubled leading note
    Wrong use of 2nd inversion chords or six-four chords
    Wrong rhythms (mark as a whole)
    Stems (mark as a whole)
    Exposed Sths or 8ves
    Motoion from anison to this or Sves and vice versa mbechioin/
    Overlapping of parts
    Others-missing clefs, key signature, missing bar lines, 1⁄2 mark each
    If more than half of the chords are wrong, no marks for progression. Total 15 marks


  1. African Music (14 marks)
      1. Lip tension
      2. wind power exerted by the player
      3. Varying the size of the open end while playing
      4. The size of the horn
      5. Size of the mouth hole
      6. Material from which the horn is made.
      7. Shape of the hom
      1. Lack of large trees/ other materials for making resonators.
      2. Nomadic lifestyle that makes transportation of heavy instruments like drums cumbersome.
      3. Preference to use animal skins and hides for other purposes such as bedding. clothing etc.
      1. Singing/song
      2. Dancing/dance/movements
      3. Came activities
      4.  Props
      5. Role Play
        1 mark each x4
    4. Naming of traditional dances: 4 marks
      • From the main body movement made like kamabeka, akisuk, Otenga, Amareko
      •  From the dominant costumes used like owalo, awaro,
      • From the main music instruments used like isukuti, kayamba, mabumbumbu, mwinjiru, muriempe, ngutha, egetomo, embegete, ekegogo, ibirandi
      • From the occasions when performed like ginuo, gicukia, bukhulu, epunyas shilemba
  2. Western Music (14 marks)
    1. Antonio Vivaldi.
      1. Contributions made by Vivaldi to the development of the concerto in the Baroque period.
        1. He helped to establish and perfect the three-movement form of the concerti (fast-slow-fast)
        2. He was the first to employ the ritornelli form in concerti
        3. He brightened the formal rhythmic structure of concerti, emphasizing on innovative and bold rhythmic drive in the fast movements and lyrical aria-like slow movements.
        4. Injected simple dramatic effects in concerti by using instrumen al color, allusive titles and representation of sounds of nature.
        5. He opened up new instrumental possibilities by employing virtuosic playing and display by solo instrumentalists at episodic passages in concerti.
        6. He applied the use of notable harmonic contrasts.
        7. He used innovative melodies and themes.
          mark each for any 5 relevant points
      2. L'estro armónico - Concerto
        L'oculo in Messi opera
    2. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
      1. Benefits of Mozarts joumeys to his musical life.
        1. They exposed Mozart's abilities as a performer and upcoming composer.
        2. They resulted into professional appointments.
        3. He met important personalities who contributed to his musical career. 
        4. He performed several genres of music to different audiences.
          1 mark each for any 3 relevant points
      2. Sources of Mozart's early musical training
        1. He received lessons from his father Leopold.
        2. Listening to his child prodigy sister Nannerl at her lessons
        3. He was a member of Academia Filamornica
          1 mark each for any 3 relevant points
      3. Reasons why Mozart was unhappy at Salzburg.
        1. Low salary
        2. Rare opportunities to compose operas
        3. Differences with his employe, the Archbishop Colloredo
          mark each for any 2 relevant points
    3. Johannes Brahms
      1. Features that characterize Brahms's musical style.
        1. Great variety of expression ranging from subtly humorous to tragic.
        2. He applied the classical approach to texture to the 19 century works.
        3. Contrasts harmonies, tonalities and themes to achieve expressiveness.
        4. His songs ranged from complex to extremely simple forms.
        5. Had original melodic inventions.
        6. Accompaniments are evocative.
          I mark each for any 4 relevant points
      2. The long introductory orchestral tutti
      3. The academic festival overture op. 80
      4. They rejected it banned its subsequent performances
    4. Benjamin Britten
      1. The war requiem
        1. Choir (1⁄2 mark) and Orchestra (1⁄2 mark)
        2. The Latin Requiem mass (1 mark) and the Poems of Wilfred Owen (I mark)
      2. Features that make Brahm's operas uniques.
        1. The skillful setting of english text
        2. Dramatic aptness and depth of psychological characterization
        3. He experimented with modern musical styles, forms and sonorities.
        4. Composed chamber operas and church parables for performance outside the opera house.
          1 mark each for any 3 relevant points
      3. A hoy was born/ A shepherd's carol/ Te dew in C/ Jubilate Deo in C
        I mark for any correct title
  3. Analysis of Prescribed African Music (10 marks)
    Pokot folksong by Ortum Boys High School (PPMC recording of KMF)
      • it starts with a soloist's call
      • followed by a group response to the call
      • soloist sing a short call section
      • response group answers with longer phrases
      • jingle enter with a percussive sound the same time as the choral response
      • hom finally join
        1 mark each for responses in the correct sequence
      • short solo phrases answered by short response phrases
      • short solo phrases answered by long choral phrases
      • long solo phrases answered by short choral response
      •  long solo phrases answered by long choral response

      • solo section imitated with exact music material by choral section

      • overlapping solo and choral response
        I mark each for any four relevant point.

      • embellishing the performance
      • accompanying the singers
      • double the rhythm of percussions
      • mark the point of intensity/climax -mark tempo
      • enhancing texture
      • adds tone color
        I mark each for any three relevant point.
  4. Analysis of Prescribed Western Music (10 marks)
    Finale from Choral Fantary in C Minor, Op 80 by Ludwig van Beethoven
      • By presenting a three-note motif in oboes and horns
      • imitating the motif in solo voices in hars 12 and 13
      • reiterating by use of staccatos (3 mark)
        any two relevant points (2 marks)
    2. Phrase I     bars 14-18 (1 mark)-  A
      Phrase II    bars 18-22 (1 mark)   A
      Phrase III   bars 22-26 (1 mark)   B
      Phrase IV  bars 26 30 (1 mark)   A
      (4 marks)
    3. Introduction  1-14
      Theme        14-30
      Variation I   30-47
      Variation II   47-63
      Codetta       64-76
      Variation III  77-133
      Variation IV  134-199
      Coda          199-215
      1⁄2 mark each for section correctly identified
  5. Analysis of Unprepared Work
    1. G major  (1 mark)
    2. The slur. indicates playing smoothly
      1. Bar 4/5, beat 3
      2. D major
    4. bar 1 to 8
      Bar 9 to 17-Section B
      Binary form/ AH structure


      1. including music as a leaming arca/subject in school curriculum at all levels
      2. establishing Kenya Music Festival to co-ordinate and manage music activities at the Ministry of Education
      3. establishment of PPMC to help to research on and document Konyan music and support the music industry
      4. registering institutions that teach music
      5. Establishment of various bodies to manage the music industry in Kenya e.g. MCSK, KECODO, KAMP ete
      6.  Recognizing and honoring musicians
      7.  Training and employing teachers of music
      8. Zero-rating/reducing tax on masic instruments for schools
      9. Performances during nation/state events
        1 mark each x4 4 marks
      1. Theme-a melodic idea used as a building block in the construction of a larger work
      2. Motif-the shortest recognizable melodic/rhythmic unit/pattern, figu e
      3. Variation-presentation of musical material in altered forms
        1 mark each x3
        3 marks
      8c 1
      1⁄2 mark each for correctly clef x4
      1⁄2 mark for each correct key signature x4 appropriately written
      1⁄2 mark for correctly written notes on each stave x 4
      NB: If staves not braced, deduct 2 marks
      1. They play the melodies/double voice parts
      2. They provide rhythmic accompaniment
      3. They enrich the texture
      4. They provide aural cues to dancers
      5. They play preludes, interludes and postludes
      6. They identify the community and culture vii. Double voice parts
        1 mark each x 3
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