Agriculture Paper 2 Questions and Answers - KCSE Prediction Papers 2022

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Instructions to Candidates

  • This paper consists of THREE SECTIONS, A, B and C.
  • Answer all questions in sections A and B and any two questions in section C.


Questions

SECTION A: (30 MARKS)

  1. State four external predisposing factors of livestock diseases. (2 mks)
  2. Differentiate between mothering ability and prolificacy in livestock. (2 mks)
  3. State two distinguishing external characteristics of California white rabbit. (2 mks)
  4. State four causes of infertility in dairy cattle. (2 mks)
  5. State the functions of the following hormones in livestock:- (1 mk)
    1. Oxytocin 
    2. Stilbestrol 
  6. State two reasons for clipping the upper beak in poultry management. (1 mk)
  7. Name the set of tools used for the following farm operations.
    1. Controlling bloat (1 mk)
    2. Restraining an animal during agricultural show exhibition. (1 mk)
  8. Name three types of calf pens that can be constructed on a farm. (1 ½ mks)
  9. Give three reasons why honey harvesting is discouraged at night. (1 ½ mks)
  10. Outline four uses of the gear box in a tractor. (2 mks)
  11. Give the importance of each of the following rearing practices in calves.
    1. Single housing of calves - (1 mk)
    2. Removal of extra teats - (1 mk)
  12. List four essentials of clean milk production. (2 mks)
  13. Give two features that enable the gizzard to carry out its functions effectively.(1 mk)
  14. Give the appropriate term used to describe the following in chicken:-
    1. From hatchery to 8 weeks
    2. Rendered Sterile
    3. Reared for meat 
    4. Female from 8 weeks to point of lay 
  15. State four reasons that make a farmer castrate his/her billy. (2 mks)
  16. List three protozoan diseases that are spread by vectors. (1 ½ mks)
  17. Mention three methods of selection in livestock breeding. (1 ½ mks)
  18. List two diseases that attack bees in a colony. (1 mk)

SECTION B: (20 MARKS)
Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

  1. Below is a diagram of a grain store.
               Agri LJM PP2 Q19 2122
    1. Name the part labeled A. (1 mk)
    2. State one maintenance practice to be carried out before introducing a new produce.   (1 mk)
    3. Why is it important to have some open spaces on the walls of the store. (1 mk)
    4. Besides the store having open spaces, state two characteristics that make the store suitable for storing grains. (2 mks)
  2. Study the diagrams below of some workshop tools and then answer the questions.
    Agri Pp2 LJM Q20 2122
    1. Identify the tools P, Q, R and S.
    2. Give one use of tools P and R in the construction of a wooden feed trough.(2 mks)
    3. How would the tool labeled Q be used in the construction of a calf pen? (1 mk)
  3. The illustration below shows livestock production equipment. Study it and answer the questions that follow.
    Agri LJM PP2 Q21 2122
    1. Identify the equipment. (1 mk)
    2. What is the importance of warm water in the equipment. (1 mk)
    3. Describe the procedure followed when using the equipment in collection semen.             (3 mks)
  4. The diagram below shows a cross-section of a plunge dip. Use it to answer the questions that follow.
    Agri LJM PP2 Q22 2122
    1. Name the parts labeled A and B. (2 mks)
    2. State the use of parts A and D. (2 mks)
    3. State one advantage of holding cattle for some time in C. (1 mk)

SECTION C: (40 MARKS)
Answer any two questions in this section.

  1.  
    1. Describe the life cycle of a two host tick. (5 mks)
    2. Outline five maintenance practices carried out on tractor battery. (5 mks)
    3. Discuss five factors considered when siting a fish pond. (10 mks)
  2.  
    1. Explain the operational differences between a disc plough and a mouldboard plough.  (10 mks)
    2. Explain the procedure used when constructing a barbed wire fence. (10 mks)
  3.  
    1. Describe the management of day-old chicks to the point of laying. (14 mks)
    2. Describe the precautions that should be taken when handling bees. (6 mks)


Marking Scheme

SECTION A: (30 MARKS)

  1. State four external predisposing factors of livestock diseases. (2 mks)
    • Unhygienic condition
    • Overstocking
    • Presence of parasites and vectors
    • Rearing system.
  2. Differentiate between mothering ability and prolificacy in livestock. (2 mks)
    • Mothering ability – ability of dam to take care of off-spring until weaning
    • Prolificacy – ability of a female to give birth to many off-springs.
  3. State two distinguishing external characteristics of California white rabbit. (2 mks)
    • Body coat white in colour
    • Has black sears/paws/nose
  4. State four causes of infertility in dairy cattle. (2 mks)
    • Damaged uterus
    • Disease infection e.g. vaginitis
    • Blocked fallopian tubes
    • Retained placenta
    • Old age
  5. State the functions of the following hormones in livestock:- (1 mk)
    1. Oxytocin - Stimulate milk let down
    2. Stilbestrol – Suppress male characteristics and stimulate fattening.
  6. State two reasons for clipping the upper beak in poultry management. (1 mk)
    • To avoid cannibalism
    • To control feather plucking
    • To prevent egg eating
  7. Name the set of tools used for the following farm operations.
    1. Controlling bloat
      • Trocar and canula
    2. Restraining an animal during agricultural show exhibition. (1 mk)
      • Bull ring and lead stick
  8. Name three types of calf pens that can be constructed on a farm. (1 ½ mks)
    • Movable calf pens
    • Permanent calf pens
    • Raised pens with slated floors
  9. Give three reasons why honey harvesting is discouraged at night. (1 ½ mks)
    • Harvested honey may be contaminated
    • To avoid possible bush fire
    • Not easy to distinguish honey combs and brood combs.
  10. Outline four uses of the gear box in a tractor. (2 mks)
    • Provide different forward speeds
    • Allows driver to select any forward or reverse gear
    • Allow change in the speed ratio
    • Allows stopping of tractor without stopping the engine.
  11. Give the importance of each of the following rearing practices in calves.
    1. Single housing of calves - (1 mk)
      • Prevents licking each other
    2. Removal of extra teats - (1 mk)
      • Ensures there is no obstruction in machine milking
      • Prevents interference in development of normal teats
  12. List four essentials of clean milk production. (2 mks)
    • Healthy milking herd
    • Healthy and clean milk man
    • Clean milking shed
    • Clean milking utensils
    • Milk filtration, cooling and storage
    • Avoid flavours in milk
  13. Give two features that enable the gizzard to carry out its functions effectively.(1 mk)
    • Presence of grit
    • Presence of tough muscles.
  14. Give the appropriate term used to describe the following in chicken:-
    1. From hatchery to 8 weeks - Chick
    2. Rendered Sterile - Capon.
    3. Reared for meat – Broiler
    4. Female from 8 weeks to point of lay - Pullet
  15. State four reasons that make a farmer castrate his/her billy. (2 mks)
    • Controlling breeding diseases
    • To control breeding
    • To remove unpleasant smell in meat/chevron
    • Prevent inbreeding
    • Reduce aggressiveness of billy
  16. List three protozoan diseases that are spread by vectors. (1 ½ mks)
    • East Coast Fever
    • Anaplasmosis
    • Trypanosomiasis
  17. Mention three methods of selection in livestock breeding. (1 ½ mks)
    • Progeny testing
    • Mass selection
    • Contemporary comparison
  18. List two diseases that attack bees in a colony. (1 mk)
    • Acarive
    • American foul brood

SECTION B: (20 MARKS)

  1. Below is a diagram of a grain store.
    1. Name the part labeled A. (1 mk)
      • Rat guard/Metal deflector/baffle
    2. State one maintenance practice to be carried out before introducing a new produce. (1 mk)
      • Dusting/fumigating
    3. Why is it important to have some open spaces on the walls of the store. (1 mk)
      • To allow freed air circulation
    4. Besides the store having open spaces, state two characteristics that make the store suitable for storing grains. (2 mks)
      • Its raised , Leak proof , Vermin proof  , Well secured
      • Easy to load and offload
      • Cool to prevent overheating
  2. Study the diagrams below of some workshop tools and the answer the questions.
    1. Identify the tools P, Q, R and S.
      • P – Try square
      • Q – Spirit level
      • R – Back/Tenon saw
      • S – Cold chisel
    2. Give one use of tools P and R in the construction of a wooden feed trough.(2 mks)
      • P – Measure vertical and right angles
      • R – Fine sawing
    3. How would the tool labeled Q be used in the construction of a calf pen? (1 mk)
      • To measure the horizontal of the trough.
  3. The illustration below shows livestock production equipment. Study it and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Identify the equipment. (1 mk)
      • Artificial vagina
    2. What is the importance of warm water in the equipment. (1 mk)
      • Provides suitable temperature for ejaculation
    3. Describe the procedure followed when using the equipment in collection semen.
      • Restrain the cowl in a crush
      • When the bull mounts, grab the penis
      • Direct the penis into the artificial vagina
      • Warm water provided, makes the bull ejaculate
      • Release the bull and cow.
        (3 mks)
  4. The diagram below shows a cross-section of a plunge dip. Use it to answer the questions that follow.
    1. Name the parts labeled A and B. (2 mks)
      • A – Silt trap outlet
    2. State the use of parts A and D. (2 mks)
      • A - Trap silt/mud to prevent it from going back to the dip tank
      • B – Wash/remove mud from fat; has CuSO4 to control foot rot.
    3. State one advantage of holding cattle for some time in C. (1 mk)
      • To minimize wastage of acaricide
      • To minimize pasture contamination

SECTION C: (25 MARKS)

  1.  
    1. Describe the life cycle of a two host tick. (5 mks)
      • Ticks lay eggs on the g round
      • Eggs hatch into larva
      • Larva climb on vegetation and wait for first host
      • Larva attach on host, suck blood and become engorged
      • Larva moult into nymph
      • Nymph feed on the same host, become engorged and drop to moult.
      • Emerged adult feed on second host, become engorged, mate and female drop to lay eggs
    2. Outline five maintenance practices carried out on tractor battery. (5 mks)
      • Topping electrolyte using distilled water
      • Clean corroded terminals
      • Fix tightly to avoid spoilage and damage
      • Fix battery correctly on the tractor
      • Charge the battery periodically
      • Ensure the battery is always charged
      • Fan belt tension should be checked
      • Empty battery content in case of prolonged storage.
    3. Discuss five factors considered when siting a fish pond. (10 mks)
      • Availability of water: - enough water flowing freely must be available for oxygen supply
      • Slope of land: - Land should be gentle sloping for easy flow of water into and out of the pond.
      • Soil: - Clay soil is recommended for its water retention ability
      • Security: - Pond should be sited at a secure place from predators and thieves.
      • Accessibility: - Pond area has to have each reach for easy transportation of fish
  2.  
    1. Explain the operational differences between a disc plough and a mouldboard plough.          
       Disc plough   Mould board plough 
       Can work on fields with obstacles   Rigid, hence breaks easily, hence cant 
       Leaves the field rough  Leaves a clean field
       More secondary operations needed   Few secondary operations
       Cuts it varying depts.  Operates at uniform depth
       Not easily broken  Easily broken
       Requires less power to pull  Needs more power to pull
    2. Explain the procedure used when constructing a barbed wire fence. (10 mks)
      • Clear vegetation from fence line
      • Measure and mark points where holes will be made
      • Dig holes (60cm deep for standard posts) and (75 – 9cm deep for corner and gate posts)
      • Place the posts in the holes
      • Reinforce the gate and corner posts with struts and braces
      • Place concrete/soil in the holes and tighten it by wire strainer
      • Fix the wire using staples (U-nails)
      • Fix the remaining wire strands using staples
      • Reinforce the wires with droppers.
  3.  
    1. Describe the management of day-old chicks to the point of laying. (14 mks)
      • Prepare the brooder early enough before chicks arrive
      • Clean and disinfect the brooder house
      • Place enough feeders and waterers in the brooder
      • Place newspapers on floor and put some feed on it to train chicks to eat
      • Ensure the heat source is working
      • Add some glucose to water to give them energy
      • Remove any dead chick and dispose them properly
      • Vaccinate them
      • Feed them on chick mash upto 8th week
      • Ensure dim light to curb toe pecking
      • Provide with enough clean water
      • Introduce grit towards 8th week
      • Introduce growers mash on 7th week gradually
      • Clean feeders and waterers daily
      • Control parasites and diseases
      • Hang green leaves to keep them busy
      • Gradually introduce layers mash before they start laying
    2. Describe the precautions that should be taken when handling bees. (6 mks)
      • Do not frighten bees
      • Approach bee hives from the back
      • Do not crush bees
      • Make quiet movements towards the bee hive
      • If stung, remain calm
      • Do not rub a bee sting, rather scrap with a sharp nail or razor blade
      • Wear protective clothing
      • Use the smoker properly

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