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  1. Motor vehicles move, use energy and produce carbon (IV) oxide and water. Similar characteristics occur in living organisms yet motor vehicles are not classified as living. Explain.  (3 marks)
  1. State one use for each of the following apparatus in the study of living organisms.
    1.  Pooter (1 mark)
    2. Pitfall trap  (1 mark)
  1. State the functions of the following cell organelles:
    1. Ribosomes   (1 mark
    2. Lysosomes  (1 mark)
  1. State the functions of the following parts of a light microscope.
    1. Fine adjustment knob    (1 mark)
    2. Stage        (1 mark)
  1. Why is it recommended to keep the stage of the microscope dry?   (1 mark)
  1. Using a microscope, a student counted 55 cells across a field of view whose diameter was 6000mm (micrometers). Calculate the average length of the cells. Show your working.     (2 marks)
  1. An experiment was set up as shown below.
    p1 q7
    The set up was left for 30 minutes.
    1.  State the expected results.   (1 mark)
    2. Explain your answer in (a) above.   (3 marks)
    1. Distinguish between diffusion and active transport.     (2 marks)
    2. State one role that is played by osmosis in,
      1. Plants      (1 mark
      2. Animals   (1 mark)
  1. Name two mineral elements that are necessary in the synthesis of chlorophyll. (2 marks)
    1. State the functions of cristae in mitochondria.  (1 mark)
    2. The diagram below represents a cell organelle.
      1. Name the part labelled Y.  (1 mark)
      2. State the functions of the part labelled X. (1 mark)
  1. Name the end products of the light stage in photosynthesis. (2 marks)
    1. State the functions of co-factors in cell metabolism.    (1 mark
    2. Give one example of a metallic co-factor.  (1 mark)
  1. The action of ptyalin stops at the stomach. Explain. (1 mark)
  1. State two functions of carbohydrates in the human body. (2 marks)
  1. Name the tissues in plants responsible for:
    1. Transport of water and mineral slats. (1 mark)
    2. Transport of carbohydrates.   (1 mark)
    3. Primary growth.  (1 mark)
  1. Explain how the following contribute to the movement of water up the xylem vessels.   (2 marks)
    1.  Cohesion
    2. Adhesion
    1. Name the type of circulatory system found in members of the class insecta.  (1 mark)
    2. Name the blood vessel that transports blood from:
      1. Small intestines to the liver      (1 mark)
      2. Lungs to the heart   (1 mark)
    1. Name one defect of circulatory system in humans.     (1 mark)
    2. State two ways in which the red blood cells are adapted to their functions.  (2 marks)
  1. Why would carboxyhaemoglobin lead to death?   (2 marks)
  1. State four ways in which respiratory surfaces are suited to their function.  (4 marks)
  1. Name the causative agents for the following respiratory diseases.
    1. Whooping cough   (1 mark)
    2. Pneumonia           (1 mark)
  1. Name the three end products of anaerobic respiration in plants.  (3 marks)
  1. Give two factors that determine the amount of energy a human being requires in a day.  (2 marks)
  1. Explain what happens when there is oxygen debt in human muscles.  (3 marks)
    1. A person was found to pass out large volumes of dilute urine frequently.
      1. Name the disease the person was suffering from.   (1 mark)
      2. Name the hormone that was deficient.    (1 mark)
  1. What is the role of sweat in human body?   (2 marks)
  1. Explain what happens to excess amino acids in the liver of humans.   (3 marks)
  1. Explain why plants do not require specialized excretory organs.   (4 marks)
  1. State three external differences between chilopoda and diplopoda.  (3 marks)
    1. How are leaves of submerged plants adapted to photosynthesis?  (2 marks)
    2. Name two disorders in human caused by gene mutation.  (2 marks)
    1. State two functional differences between the rods and cones in the human eye.  (2 marks)
    2. State two advantage of having an exoskeleton. (1 mark)
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