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    1. Two underground mining methods
      • Drift / adit mining
      • Slope mining
      • Shaft mining
      • Solution mining
      • Drilling mining (Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
    2. Negative effects of mining on the environment
      • Leads to land dereliction
      • Leads to loss of biodiversit
      • Leads to pollution of environment
      • Lead to soil degradation
      • Encourages mass wasting
      • Pits left after mining are filled with water that form breeding ground for mosquitoes
      • Leads to disruption of water table  (Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)
    1. List down three human factors that favour wildlife conservation
      • Establishment of game reserve / national parks / game sanctuaries
      • Translocation of animals where they are in excess
      • Ban on game huntin
      • Creation of ant-poaching units
      • Protection of endangered species e.g. rhinos
      • Non-governmental initiatives like WWF
      • Establishment of KWS (Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)
    2. State two advantages of domestic tourism
      • Promote national unity as Kenyans of diverse origins meet in parks
      • It is a source of government revenue / additional of revenue
      • Utilization of tourist’s facilities during off-peak seasons
      • Kenyans are able to learn more about natural gifts of nature
      • Creates to the citizens a sense of responsibility to conservation (Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)
    1. What is floods?
      • Floods are unusual covering of an area by water through a temporary rise of the level of a river lake or sea                         (Any 1 x 2 = 2 marks)
    2. Three rivers that cause large scale flood in Kenya
      • River Tana
      • River Yala
      • River Ewaso Nyiro
      • River Nyando
      • River Kuja (Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)
    1. Define the following terms
      1. Fertility rate
        • It is the total number of children / births that a woman would have between the ages of 15 – 49 years (1 x 1 = 1 mark)
      2. Mortality rate
        • This is the average number of deaths per 1000 in a given population                        (1 x 1 = 1 mark)
    2. Types of information that may be derived from an age sex pyramid
      • Sex ratio
      • Dependency ratio
      • Age
      • Life expectancy (Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)
    1. Towns marked
      • P – Tanga
      • Q – Arusha
      • R – Dodoma (3 x 1 = 3 marks)
    2. Two major functions of the town marked S
      • Mainly an agricultural collection centre
      • Industrial centre with too many light industries
      • Administrative centre (Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)


  Answer question 6 and any other two questions from this section    

        p2 ans 6ai
      2. State three advantages of divided rectangles
        • It is easy to draw or construct
        • It is easy to compare the component
        • It gives a clear visual impression
        • Each component proportional to the total can easily be such at a glance (Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)
    2. State four physical conditions that favour coffee growing in Kenya highlands
      • Cool temperature ranging between 14oC – 26oC
      • High rainfall well distributed throughout the year between 1000 – 2030 mm p.a
      • Gently sloping landscapes
      • Deep, well drained volcanic soils
      • High altitude of about 1000 – 2300 a.s.l
      • Well sheltered against strong sunlight  (Any 4 x 1 = 4 marks)
    3. Processing of coffee form harvesting to marketing
      • Ripe berries are picked by hands
      • Berries are transported to the factories
      • Berries are sorted out and weighed
      • Berries are squeezed to remove the outer cover and graded
      • They are put in troughs to ferment and are washed
      • They are put on trays for drying in the sun and turned frequently and unwanted particles are removed / sorted out
      • The dry beans are weighed
      • Dry beans are put in bags and transported to the coffees mills
      • Dry beans are put in machines where the inner husks are removed / peeled off
      • Dry beans are winnowed and graded
      • The dry beans are then forwarded to coffee board for marketing NB: Sequence must be followed (6 x 1 = 6 marks)
    4. List three ways in which planted coffee is taken care by farmers
      • Watering of young plants
      • Mulching to reduce water loss
      • Constant weeding
      • Manure to maintain soil fertility
      • Spraying with herbicides
      • Pruning to regulate quality (Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)
      1. Identify the irrigation schemes marked X, Y and Z and in each case the main crop grown 
        • X – Bunyala – Rice
        • Y – Perkerra – Onions
        • Z – Mwea  Tebere – Rice Irrigation schemes 3 x 1 = 3 marks Crops 3 x 1 = 3 marks
      2. Explain four factors that have led to the location of irrigation scheme Y
        • To control the seasonal floods of rivers perkerra this was used to devastate the area
        • The fertile loamy soils, most of which are deposited by floods, reduces use of fertilizers
        • Presence of flat and gentle sloping terrain which enable easy flow of water by gravity, which made it  cheap to start the project because expensive pumping was not required
        • The dry / high temperature of the area necessitated use of irrigation as the only way to make food production possible / multiple cropping
        • The area was sparsely populated hence reduced expenses of resettlement of people (Any 4 x 2 = 8 marks)
      3. State four problems experienced in the irrigation project marked Z
        • Siltation of the canals which interfere with the flow of water
        • Quelea Quelea birds destroys the crop
        • Presence of water borne diseases
        • Shortage of water during dry seasons
        • Inadequate labour during planting
        • Clogging of the canals by water weeds (Any 4 x 1 = 4 marks)
    2. What is a polder?
      • It is a reclaimed piece of land form the sea in the Netherlands                                  (1 x 2 = 2 marks)
    3. Give five benefits of the Zuyder Zee project
      • Lake Yssel provide fresh water for irrigation / domestic / industrial purposes
      • Risk of flooding was reduced through the use of dykes
      • Reclaimed land has increased arable land for crop cultivation
      • The construction of roads connecting north Holland and Friesland province has shortened distance
      • Degrees of soil salinity has reduced / lowered form Lake Yssel
      • Reclaimed areas are used for settlement, recreation and construction of industries (Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks)
      1. The two types of fishing grounds in Kenya
        • Marine / salty water fishing grounds
        • Inland / fresh water fishing grounds (2 x 1 = 2 marks)
      2. Give two types of fishing methods
        • Pelagic fishing
        • Demersal fishing
        • Inshore fishing
        • Freshwater fishing (Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)
      3.  Four reasons why marine fishing industry is not well developed in east Africa
        • The warm tropical waters do not favour large scale breeding of fish species
        • The narrow continental shelf limits widespread growth of planktons for fish
        • There is a limited market at the coast due to low purchasing power
        • Inadequacy of capital and poor technology hamper the development of the industry
        • There is steep competition from industrialized nations which have better equipment
        •  Rough sea wave limiting deep sea fishing (Any 4 x 1 = 4 marks)
    2. Explain four ways in which marine fisheries are being conserved in Kenya
      • To increase fish number or restock overfished areas there is breeding of fingerlings in fish farms and then release them into the sea
      • Restricting disposal of untreated waste the sea to ensure the water remains clean for survival of fish 
      • Standardizing the size of fish nets used in fishing to ensure that only the mature fish are caught
      • Enforcing the international conventions in order to protect the endangered fish species
      •  Licensing fishermen to control their number and ensure that there is no overfishing
      • Restricting fishing to specific season to allow for breeding and maturing of fishing / ensuring natural regeneration of fish (Any 4 x 2 = 8 marks)
      1. Methods of fishing used in the shaded area
        • Purse seining
        • Drifting
        • Trawling
        • Lining / hook and line
        • Trap method (Any 1 x 1 =1 mark)
      2. Name ocean currents marked Q and R
        • Q – Warm Gulf Stream
        • R – Cold Labrador (Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)
    4. Explain why major fishing grounds of the world are located in the temperate latitudes of the            northern hemisphere
      • The areas have cool waters that have abundant supply of Plankton which is the main food for fish
      • The areas have extensive / wide continental shelves which allow light to penetrate to the sea bed hence encouraging the growth of micro-organisms used as food for fish
      • The cool waters experienced in most of the coastal areas in these latitudes encourage thriving of numerous fish species
      • The areas experience convergence of cold and warm currents that results in upwelling of ocean waters which bring planktons form the sea bed to the surface
      • The cool to cold climate in these latitude help in the preservation of fish
      • Most of the coastal areas have numerous sheltered bays which provide secure breeding grounds for fish
      • The sheltered bays found in some coastal areas provide suitable sites a for building fishing ports / fishing-landing sites
      • The land-derived minerals nourish the planktons which are food for fish
      • The large population in these areas provide a ready market for fish hence promoting the fishing industry (Any 3 x 2 = 6 marks)
    1. Distinguish between manufacturing and tertiary industries
      • Manufacturing industries change raw materials into semi-finished / processed products while tertiary industries provide services   (1 x 2 = 2 marks)
      1. Name four agricultural food processing industries in Kenya
        • Milk processing
        • Fruit processing
        • Coffee processing
        • Sugar processing
        • Cooking oil
        • Grain milling
        • Meat processing / canning   (Any 4 x 1 = 4 marks)
      2.  Explain four factors that influenced the location of the iron and steel industries in the Ruhr       region of Germany
        •  Availability of iron ore / coal / limestone form the Rhine valley provided raw materials needed in the industrie
        • Availability of water form rivers Rhine / Ruhr / Lippe / Wupper / Emscher for cooling machines / industrial use
        • Navigable rivers e.g. Rhine / Ruhr canals e.g. Dortmund – Ems / Rhein – Herne provided cheap transport for bulky raw materials and finished products 
        • Coal from the Ruhr region / imported provided power required in the industry
        • Rich merchants / families e.g. Krupp family and Ruhr Kohle provided capital for the industry
        • Availability of local skilled labour formed foundation of iron and steel industry
        • Dense population of central Europe / Germany provided ready market for iron and steel (Any 4 x 2 = 8 marks)
    3. Give five reasons why the government of Kenya encourages the development of Jua Kali industries
      • It creates employment for the growing labour force
      • It requires less capital to establish since it’s made up of small units
      • Produces relatively cheap products that are affordable to many people
      • They require simple machinery to start
      • Some of the products are exported thus earning foreign exchange
      • They save the country’s foreign exchange
      • Facilitates decentralization of industries hence reducing rural-urban migration
      • Uses locally available raw materials hence conserving the environment
      • It operates at grassroots level these use locally available skills   (Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks)
    4. Field study in a coffee factory near your school
      1. State three reasons why you would visit the area of study in advance
        • To be able to formulate appropriate objectives for the study
        • To help in identifying methods of data collection
        • To help estimate the cost of the study
        • To seek permission
        • To determine the appropriate routes
        • To help in preparing the working schedule
        • To identify problems likely to be encountered
        • To estimate the time required for study
        • To determine the suitability of the area of study
        • To determine appropriate tools for the study (Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)
      2. You have prepared a work schedule for the study, state three items you would include in your schedule
        •  The time for departure
        • Time to spend in the study
        • Time for lunch
        • Time for end of the study (Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)
    1. Draw an outline map of Kenya
      p2 ans 10a
    2. On the map indicate
      1. Kakamega forest
      2. Mt. Kenya forest
      3. Arabuka sokoko forest
      1. Natural causes of forest depletion
        • Climatic hazard such as drought
        • Pests and diseases
        • Over population of wildlife leading to destruction (3 x 1 = 3 marks)
      2. Describe four problems facing forests in Kenya
        • Forest fires caused by hunters destroy large section s of forests
        • Pests and diseases destroy trees and lower their quality
        • Excessive logging which in most cases is illegal
        • Human encroachment resulting from high population growth
        • Adverse climatic conditions such as drought or floods destroy sections of the forests (Any 4 x 2 = 8 marks
      1. State three factors favouring production of soft wood forests in Canada
        • High precipitation that favours tree growth
        • Rugged relief discourages any form of agriculture
        • Many waterfalls used to generate H.E.P for use in paper mills
        • Presence of many rivers providing transport for the logs and also providing water for use in pulp industry
        • Valley bottoms provide suitable sites for paper mills (Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)
      2. Explain three reasons why the Kenyan government should conserve her forests
        • Provide utility products e.g. timber which is used in construction
        • Forests are habitat for a wide range of animals and micro-organism hence helps in conserving and maintaining bio-diversity
        • Forests are rich reservoirs of research materials e.g. scientist carry research studies on medicinal plants which help cure certain diseases
        • Forests create micro-climate hence regulate climate of the surrounding areas
        • Forests support agriculture and H.E.P production by being water catchment areas and preventing soil erosion
        • Forests regulate carbon dioxide hence helps reduce global warming
        • Presence of forests and forest activities has led to development of infrastructure which opens up remote areas
        • Forestry as an industry provides more employment opportunities e.g. as forest guards and carpenters, this raises the standards of living
        • Flora and fauna of the forests have an aesthetic appeal hence attracts tourists who bring foreign exchange
        • Forests and its products have medicinal value which helps treat a variety of diseases (Any 2 x 2 = 6 marks)
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