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  1. Imaginative Composition .
    • It must be a narrative composition. If not deduct 4 mks (AD)
    • The given words must appear at the end. If missing deduct 2 marks (AD)
    • The story must be related to the given words. If not, treat as irrelevant. Award linguistic mark and deduct upto 4 mks (AD)
    • If the ending words are only implied, deduct 2mks AD b)
    • It must be a story. If not deduct 4 marks (AD)
    • The story must emanate and link up with the saying given. If not, treat as irrelevant and deduct upto 4 mks (AD)
    • The saying need not be the title of the story.
    • The saying need not begin or end the essay, but the moral should clearly indicate it is implied NB: For all the essays, length should not exceed 450 words. Deduct 2 marks if length is exceeded
  1. Compulsory set text

    Margaret Ogola's The River and the Source

    Change is inevitable and cannot be preserved. In the River and the Source, Akoko becomes instrumental in spearheading the change.
    In the contemporary society, a lot of change has been initiated in a manner that transforms the peoples ways of living'.
    1. Polygamy:
      • Otieno has several wives
      • Odero has several wives

        Monogamy: -       
      • Owuor Kembo does not marry a second wife for the first time in their history. He resists the pressure of taking on a second wife from his mother and council of elders because he finds fulfillment in his wife Akoko.
    2. Solving disputes - Disputes were solved by the Council of Jodongo, Akoko goes home after the accusations by her mother-in-law that she had bewitched Owuor Kembo. Elders from both sides settle the dispute however, when Otieno plunders her property, Akoko makes history by taking a pioneering journey to Kisumu to seek justice from the Jorochere (the white man) through her, the whole of Sakwa experiences the impact of the white man's rule.
    3. Traditional worship, the community believed in were God of the eye of the rising sun. However, Akoko advises Nyabera to venture into the hitherto the unknown world of Christianity. This ushers enormous changes in Akoko's lineage.
    4. Marriage was mandatory in the traditional setting. However, with Akoko's blessing, Owour Sino adapts celibacy which is unheard off traditionally. He becomes a catholic priest.
    5. Informal education was the order of the day but with Akoko's encouragement, Awiti pursues education which she rightly believes is the direction that life is taking. She reprimands Nyabera who tries to resist Nyabera's departure to a teachers training college.
    6. Bride price was mandatory for any marriage to take place in the traditional setting.
      However, to the dismay of Oyange Silwal and Mark Sjgu's party Akoko asks for only a token bride-piece setting a precedent which is a clear break with tradition.


      Clearly, Akoko is among the few African women who embraced change without demur. She seems to understand that change is mandatory and people must keep pace with it.
      Mark content: 3:3:3:3: for any four well developed points Conclusion 2 mks Grammar 4 mks Introduction 2mks
    1. The short story

      Uieva Emilia and Waveney Olembo (ED), When the sun goes down and other stories.

      relevant introduction.

      The student should show understanding of what global warming is.

      • The environment is described as having sandy rocks, the air is humid and people cannot feel the sea breeze anymore.
      • The plantations are cracked from the drought.
      • As the woman and her daughter pass-by they witness residences with chairs and little white tables on the terraces among dusty palm trees and rose-bushes because people cannot stay in the houses during the day.
      • There is intolerable heat; a dry burning which comes in through the window. This excessive heat paralyses life.
      • The railway stations are deserted.
      • By eleven the schools, stores and town offices come to a stand still.
      • Houses are closed from inside and blinds drawn, while the whole town goes to sleep.
      • This shows nothing productive goes on. The hours literally go to waste.
      • The towns are described as sad. The priest is reluctant to wake up and discharge his duties de to the heat. He asks the woman to come back at four.
      • The streets are said to be swimming in the heat.
      • The priest advises the woman and the girl to wait until the sun goes down. The sister adds
      • that the sun would melt them. 3:3:3:3 = 12 marks

        Conclusion = 2 marks
      • The effects of global warming are greatly destructive.
      • It is important to take care of our environment.
    2. Drama,

      Francis Imbuga, Betrayal in the city


      The statement absolute power corrupts absolutely is true since some of the characters in Betrayal in the City use power corruptly. The following illustrations show this.(Accept any other plausible introduction) (Award two marks)
      • Boss uses his power to award cronies like his cousin Mulili. Mulili is his ear and eye. When Adika dies during the University students demonstration and Jusper is asked to guard his grave, Doga and Nina wish to carry out the shaving ceremony. Jere and Mulili are sent to stop this ceremony from taking place for the sake of peace. Mulili adamantly denies the couple the chance to carry out this ceremony. This is because he has been promised land and grade cattle. Not even the pleas from the old couple can make him change his mind to allow the shaving ceremony to take place.
      • Power also corrupts when it is misused. During the Entertainment Committee meeting, Kabito and Mulili disagrees. Mulili suggest that the primary school children should line up to wait for the visiting Head of State to entertain him. Kabito opposes this vehemently and this leads to a heated exchange of words, Kabito asks Mulili whether he has ever stepped into a secondary school. Mulili says that Kabito has called him a Primary kid. During the one hour break, Mulili goes to Boss and influences him, he says that Kabito says that Boss hides millions in foreign accounts and that he wanted to rape Regina. This influences Boss, later on Kabito dies through road accident obviously planned by Boss.
      • Boss also uses his power to award Mulili a tender for supplying milk at the university. During the entertainment committee meeting, Mulili says he will investigate who had robbed him off his tender. We learn that when the tender is taken from him by Kabito, Mulili goes to complain to Boss. Surprisingly, it takes Boss just a call, he calls the University Catering Department and the tender is awarded to Mulili.
      • Tumbo is the chairman of the entertainment committee. A play needs to be scripted to entertain the visiting head of state. When he goes to see Regina at her house he finds Jusper and he learns from Regina that he is a good playwright. Jusper gets the job immediately without carrying out a short listing activity to get the best playwright. Jusper is given the task to write out the play. The money allocated is to be divided among Regina, Tumbo and Jusper.
      • The state also uses its power to punish the innocent citizens. When Mosese speaks his mind during Adika's funeral, he is opposed to the fact that the funeral ceremony should not take more than ten mintues, the students should not carry the coffin, weeping in public was illegal. The state organizes by having Nicodemo to plant a kilogram of Opium in Mosese's car and Mosese is arrested for this.
      • The state also uses its power to order that the visiting Head of State should be entertained by the prisoners. Nicodemo is not comfortable since he is the one who planted Opium in Mosese's car, leading to Mosese's arrest. Out of this negligence the play that the prisoners have to act, gives Mosese, Jere and Jusper an opportunity to use real guns since the props are missing. This leads to the death of Mulili who is shot by Jusper.
      • The entertainment committee which has been given the power to oversee the entertainment plans for the visiting Head of State. When they meet it seems their first item on the agenda is the 'size of the potato' Nicodemo asks, "What is the size of the potato?" They even suggest that they should be paid hourly instead of daily. During the one hour break, after they receive the news of the death of Kabito, hey wonder whether they will be paid for that day

      • From the above illustrations, it is clear that absolute power corrupts absolutely.

        Introduction: 2 marks
        Body - mark any 4 well illustrated points -4x3=12 marks
        Conclusion - 2mks
        Grammar and presentation - 4mks
        Total = 20mks
    3. The Novel,

      Witi Ihimaera, The Whale Rider

      Koro Apirana

      • As the main chief, he takes it upon himself to preserve the culture of his tribe.
      • He is a hardworking leader as he spends a lot his time working. We see him moving from one part of the country to another sorting out land and other disputes concerning his people.
      • He is a wise and respectable leader. We are told that people from many parts of the tribe respect his decision and wisdom.
      • He educates/trains the boys about their culture and leadership.
      • He coordinates the activities of saving the ancient Bull whale.


      • Introduction: 2 marks
      • Body-mark any 4 well illustrated points-4x3=12 marks
      • Conclusion-2mks
      • Grammar and presentation -4mks
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