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  1. List two examples of material remains in an archaeological site.
    • cloth
    • Beads
    • Coins
    • Pottery remains
    • Basket
  2. What was the name of Charles Darwin’s book in which he published his on evolution theory. (1mks 
    • The origin of species
  3. Identify two centers of early Agriculture.   (2mks)
    • Egypt
    • Mesopotamia
  4. Names two West African Kingdoms that were involved in Trans- Saharan trade. (2mk
    • Ghana
    • Mali
    • Songhai
  5. State two features of the camel that enables it to be the most suitable animal for transport in arid areas. (2mks)
    • Camels do not sweat
    • Camels have a big water holding capacity.
    • Has broad padded two toed feet
    • Tick fur to protect it from the heat of the sun and cold at night.
  6. State one theory that explains the origin and spread of iron working in Africa. (1mk)
    • Independent
    • Diffusion 
  7. What was the main discovery of William Morton? (1mk)
    • He discovered anesthesia
  8. Identify two major factors that contributed to the decline of Meroe. (1mk)
    • Rise of Axium Kingdom in Ethiopia
    • Desertification due to deforestation 
  9. Which company ruled southern Rhodesia on behalf of the British? (1mk) 
    • British South Africa Company          
  10. Give the main reason why European powers held the Berlin conference of 1884-1885. (1mk)
    • To lay down rules of partition of Africa.
  11. Identify two positive result of Lewanika’s collaboration with the British.  2mks)
    • Establishment of schools.
    • Lewanika retained his position as a leader
    • Improvement of infrastructure
    • His kingdom was protected from external enemies
  12. State one European nation that was led by a dictator after the First World War. (1mk)
    • Germany
    • Italy
  13. Name one member country of the common wealth in Africa which is not a former British colony.(1mk)
    • Togo
    • Morocco
    • Rwanda 
  14. Identify two military facts formed during cold war.    (2mks)
    • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
    • Warsaw pact of 1955
  15. Identify two African delegates who attended the fifth pan African conference in Manchester in 1945.    (2mks)
    • Obfemi Awolowo
    • Jomo Kenyatta
    • Peter Abrahams.
    • Kwame Nkrumah
    • Hastings Kamuzu Banda
  16. What was the main reason that led to the army muting in Congo in 1960.    (1mk)
    • Belgian domination in the army and government affairs.1x1=1
  17. Which is the highest court in India.  (1mk)
    • The supreme court   

SECTION B (45 Marks)

Answer any three questions in this section

    1. State three differences between apes and man’s ancestors.      (3mks)
      • Hominids have bigger heads than apes and this indicates a larger  brain capacity .
      • This size of jaws of man is smaller than in apes
      • Man’s hands have thumbs but apes don’t
      • Man’s feet and toes are shorter 
    2. Explain the impact of early agriculture on people Way of life.    (12mks)
      • increase in population due to better feeding habits.
      • led to development of a sedentary/settled lifestyle.
      • led to division of labour as people began to specialize in various occupations
      • Development of trade due to surplus production
      • Settled life enhance cultural interactions
      • led to rise of political organization and development of rules and regulations (government)
      • Emergence of social classes 
    1. Identify three traditional forms communication      (3mks)
      • Fire and smoke signal
      • Horn blowing
      • Screams and cries
      • Drum – beat
      • Messengers
    2. Explain six positive impacts of telecommunications today
      • Has led to faster communication
      • Has enhanced international trade.
      • Has provided mass entertainment.
      • Has promoted air and water transport
      • Has promoted education through research.
      • Has been used to improve security
      • Has provided many job employment opportunities in many countries in many countries.
      • It is a source of government revenue through taxation and licensing.
    1. State three conditions that an African had to fulfil so as to be assimilated in Senegal.   (3mks)
      • Be able to read and write French
      • Have knowledge of French government
      • Had worked in the civil service for a number of years
      • Should dress  and eat like a French man.
    2.  Explain six effects of direct rule in Zimbabwe.    (12mks)
      • Large tracts of African land was alienated.
      • African indigenous / traditional rulers lost their authority
      • African culture was greatly undermined
      • The white settlers enhanced crop production
      • Transport ,trade and industries were developed in settler regions.
      • Economic exploitation and political repression provoked African nationalism 
    1. Mention three ways in which Julius Nyerere assisted African nationalist in Mozambique in their struggle for independence.  (3mks) 
      • He welcomed liberation movements from Mozambique to set headquarters in Tanzania.
      • He  promise political support .
      • He encouraged different associations to merge to a strong movement.
      • He allowed them to undertake guerilla training in Tanzania.
      • He allowed political exiles into Tanzania 
    2. Explain methods used by African nationalists in their struggle against apartheid rule. (12mks)
      • They formed political parties to air grievances
      • Used force to fight unjust rule.
      • Used diplomacy in attempt to get government attention.
      • Those arrested and detained went on hunger strike to press the government to grril their .
      • Use of mass media to highlight injustices of the regime.
      • used the clergy to campaign against apartheid

SECTION C (30mks)

Answer Any Two Question in this section

    1. Identify three kinds of spirits in the shone kingdom  (3mks)
      • vadzimu –family spirits
      • Mhondoro –clan spirits
      • Chamiruka –National spirits
    2. Describe the political organization of the Shona in the 19th century  (12mks)
      • The empire was ruled by was emperor Mwene Mutapa.
      • The key factor of integration was religion Mwari Cult
      • The national symbol of unity was the royal fire
      • Vassal chiefs rekindled their fires from the national fire as recognition of their loyalty to Mwene Mutapa.
      • The empire was divided into provinces ruled by lesser chiefs .
      • Mwene Mutapa had senior officials to assist him in administration; court steward, treasurer, commander in law of the king, Queen mother emperor sister , emperor’s nine wives .
      • The king had a standing army which was used for defence and expansion.
    1. Mentor three aims of common market for east and southern Africa.(COMESA). (3mks)
      • Attain sustainable growth in all fields of economy
      • Promote joint development in all fields of economy
      • To cooperate in promotion of foreign cross-border and domestic investment
      • To promote peace in member states
      • Strengthen relations between COMESA and the rest of the world
    2. Explain six challenges facing East African community.   (12mks)
      • Suspicion among member statescomplain by business men of exertion of tariffs
      • Trans border smuggling of vehicls and other goods
      • Fishing conflicts in Lake Victoria
      • Loyalty to other organizations complicates the work of EAC
      • Unequal developments in member states
      • Lack of common currency hinders trade
    1. Identify five source of British constitution.  (5mks)
      • Statutes/magna carta
      • Customs
      • Historical documents
      • Precedents
      • Hansand
      • Royal declaration
    2. Explain the functions of the monarchy in Britain.    (10mks)
      • Giving assent to laws
      • Appointment of judges
      • Pardoning and giving reprieve to convicted offenders.
      • Appoints the archbishop of the Anglican church in England.
      • Appointing the prime minister and approving the cabinet.
    1. Identifly five sources of British constitution. (5mks)
    2. Explain the function of the monarchy in Britain.   (10mks)
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