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Answer ALL the questions in this section.

  1. Identify one example of the Highland Bantu. (1mk)
  2. State the main economic activity of the Cushites during the pre-colonial era. (1mk)
  3. State two roles played by Seyyid Said in the spread of Christianity in Kenya (2mks)
  4. Define the term citizen according to the Kenyan constitution 2010. (1mk)
  5. Identify one political cause of conflict in Kenya (1mk)]
  6. State two factors that led to the decline of Kilwa as early urban centre (2mks)
  7. Identify one factor that determines the form of a constitution a country may adopt (1mk)
  8. Name one way in which direct democracy is exercised (1mk)
  9. State two achievements of the Imperial British East Africa Company in colonial Kenya (2mks)
  1. State two reasons why the British applied indirect rule in administering Kenya (2mks)
  2. Identify two reasons why Africans were denied right to grow cash crops until 1937 (2mks)
  3. State the main reason why the white settlers were disappointed with the Devonshire white paper of 1923 (1mk)
  4. Identify the main reason for convening of the second Lancaster House conference of 1962 (1mk)
  1. State two characteristics of early political organizations (2mks)
  2. Name the electoral body that is responsible for conducting elections in Kenya (1mk)
  3. State two functions of the court of appeal in Kenya (2mks)
  4. Identify the main function of the correctional services in Kenya (1mk)

Answer THREE questions from this section

    1. State three social reasons for the migration of the plain Nilotes (3msk)
    2. Explain the political organization of the Nandi during the pre-colonial period (12mks)
    1. State the reasons for the success of Portuguese conquest along the East Coast of Africa(5mks)
    2. Explain the effects of the long distance trade (10mks)
    1. State five factors that led to the growth of Nairobi as a modern urban centre (5mks)
    2. Describe the features of the independence constitution (10mks)
    1. Identify the reasons for the Maasai collaboration in the pre-colonial period (5mks)
    2. Explain five reasons why armed resistance failed in Kenya during the colonial period (10mks)

Answer TWO questions in this section

    1. State three circumstances that may lead to revocation of citizenship by registration(3mks)
    2. Explain the importance of national integration (12mks)
    1. Identify three advantages of democracy (3mks)
    2. Explain six rights of an arrested person (12mks)
    1. State the factors that undermine free and fair elections in Kenya (3mks)
    2. Explain six functions of the National police service (12mks)


  1. Identify one example of the highland Bantu (1mk)
    • Akamba
    • Agikuyu
    • Aembu/Ambere
    • Ameru
  1. State the main economic activity of the Cushites during the pre-colonial era (1mk)
    Pastoralism/livestock keeping /herding livestock.
  1. State two roles played by Seyyid Said in the spread of Christianity 2x1=2mks
    • He provided security to the missionaries.
    • He gave missionaries introductory letters to give to the local chiefs.
  1. Define the term citizen (1mk)
    A person who has the legal right to belong to a particular country
    Reject if the candidate has not written legal right.
  1. Identify one political cause of conflicts (1mk)
    • Different political ideologies
    • Failure to uphold the country’s laws
    • Denial of citizen’s rights
    • Improper conduct of elections
    • Border disputes between countries or countries
  1. Two factors for the decline of Kilwa. (2mks)
    • Disruption / decline of gold trade
    • Dynastic rivalries between the royal families
    • Constant rebellion by the vassal states
    • Attack by the Portuguese
  1. One factor that determinethe form a constitution a country may adopt. (1mk)
    • Geographical factors
    • Historical background
    • Religious & cultural background
    • Racial composition
  1. One way in which direct democracy is exercised (1mk)
    • Referendum
    • Plenscite
    • Initiative
    • Recall
  1. Two achievements of the IBEA company (2mks)
    • Managed to suppress rebellions against the British.
    • Helped to secure freedom for many slaves
    • Started construction of rocks
    • Started development of early industries
    • Laid foundation for colonial administration through establishment of forts
  1. Reasons why British used indirect rule in Kenyan (2mks)
    • Lacked adequate funds for administration
    • Inadequate personnel
    • To avoid African resistance
    • The method was successful in India & Uganda
    • In some parts, there existed well established traditional systems of government.
  1. Reasons why Africans were denied the rights to grow cash crops (2mks)
    • To avoid competition
    • They lacked know how and experience
    • In order to provide labour in settlers forms
    • To avoid spread of diseases.
  1. Why the whites were disappointed with the Devonshire white paper. (1mk)
    They were denied self-government for the white highlands
  1. Main reasons for the convening of the second Lancaster house conference (1mk)
    Drafting of the independence constitution
  1. Characteristics of early political organizations (2mks)
    • Were ethnic-based
    • Led by mission –educated Africans
    • Were non-violent
    • Had similar grievances
    • Membership was limited
    • Received support from Asians
  1. Electoral body that is responsible for conducting elections in Kenya (1mk)
    • Independent Electoral and Boundaries commission
      Reject Abbreviations i.e IEBC
  1. Functions of the court of Appeal (2mks)
    • Hears appeals from the High Court
    • Hears appeals from other courts or tribunals
    • May order a retrial of a case by a lower court
  1. Main function of correctional services in Kenya (1mk)
    To rehabilate the wrong doers


    1. Three social reasons for the migration of plain Nilotes (3mks)
      • Spirit of adventure
      • Internal conflicts
      • Human and livestock diseases and epidemics
      • Population pressure
    2. Political organization of the Nandi during the pre-colonial period (12mks)
      • Lived in autonomous territorial units (Bororiet)
      • They had a council of elders (KOK)
      • Duties of council of elders included ; maintain law & order, settled disputes
      • Leadership was based on age-grades
      • The Orkoiyot is respected as the central authority and unifying factor
      • He advised the council of elders
      • Young men joined junior warriors after circumcision and they defended the community from external attacks.
    1. Reasons for the success of Portuguese conquest along the East African Coast (5mks)
      • Disunity of the Coastal city states
      • Had superior weapons
      • Reinforcement from Goa in India
      • Better naval power
      • Lack of resistance from some towns
      • Portuguese made alliance with some local rulers
      • Weakness of Rival navies eg Turkish & Persia
    2. Effects of long-distance trade (10mks)
      • Increased contacts among the people of the interior through trading activities
      • Introduction of New items eg cloth & glasses
      • Opening up of the interior which exposed it to the foreigners leading to colonization
      • Spread of Islam into the interior
      • Introduction of New crops eg maize, rice
      • Define of indigenous industries as foreign goods were introduced and slave trade in the International trade
      • Emergence of powerful chiefs and kingdoms through acquisition of firearms and wealth.
    1. Factors for the growth of Nairobi (5mks)
      • Cool temperatures
      • Plenty of water
      • Trading activities
      • Colonial headquarters
      • Suitable landscape
      • Rich Hinterland
      • Construction of the Uganda -Railway
    2. Features of theindendence constitution (10mks)
      • Bicameral legislature
      • Federalism –country divided into seven regions
      • Executive – provided executive powers on Governor general acting on behalf of the queen
      • Bill of rights – detailed to include fundamental rights of an individual
      • Judiciary – was independent and impartial
      • Citizenship – All indigenous Kenyans were entitled to Kenyan citizenship as well as Europeans and Asians
      • Electoral commission – was impartial and Independent
      • Multi-party democracy was provided
    1. Reasons for the Maasai collaboration (5mks)
      • Nandi power had weakened them
      • Civil wars between Kwavi&Purko
      • Natural calamities eg small pox & drought
      • Famine
      • Kedong massacre which killed many
      • British efficiency on report of the Massacre which made Lenana happy
    2. Reasons why the armed resistance failed in Kenya (10mks)
      • Kenyan societies were organized in small autonomous groups making it hard to fight the enemy
      • Disunity of communities who kept fighting one another.
      • Inferior weapons while British had sophisticated weapons like guns
      • African warriors were not well trained
      • Epidermics and natural calamities reduced the population
      • Poor leadership
      • The death of their leaders demoralized them
      • Some Africans collaborated with British against fellow Africans


    1. Revocation of citizenship by registration (3mks)
      • If citizen is acquired by fraud, false representation or failure to provide full information.
      • If one support an enemy of Kenya during war
      • If a person has within five years after registration been convicted to a prison term of three years or more
      • If a person has at any time after registration been convicted of treason or of an offence of which a penalty of seven or more than seven years may be imposed
    2. Importance of National integration       (12mks)
      • Enhances conditions favourable for peace and prosperity
      • Promotes national unity
      • Promotes the achievement of rapid economic and social development
      • Eliminates and reduces inter-community conflicts and suspicion
      • Enhances nationalism and patriotism
      • Creates favourable investment conditions that attract foreign investments.
    1. Disadvantages of democracy (3mks)
      • Disregards the interests of the minority as government fulfil wishes of majority.
      • Democracy is expensive to implement
      • The wealthy are likely to use their resources to influence voters
      • Democracy may promote inefficient leadership as those elected are the popular
      • Democracy is time-consuming since certain procedures must be adhered to.
    2. Explain six rights of an arrested persons (12mks)
      • To be informed promptly in the language that the person understands of the reason for arrest, the right to remain silent and consequences of not-remaining silent.
      • To communicate with an advocate and any person of help to him or her
      • Not to be compelled to make any confession or admission that could be used against the person in court
      • To be held separately from persons who are serving a sentence.
      • Brought to court within 24 hours of arrest.
      • To be charged or be informed the reason for retention
      • Be released on bond or bail on reasonable conditions
      • Not to be remanded in custody for an offence punishable by fine or imprisonment ret more than six moths
    1. Factors that undermine free and fair elections in Kenya   (3mks)
      • Inadequate civil education
      • Rigging or elections
      • Illiteracy among citizens
      • Violence
      • Bribery
    2. Functions of the National police service (12mks)
      • Maintaining law and order
      • Arresting suspected criminals and taking them before a court of law
      • Collecting and evaluation intelligence information and documents for fighting crime
      • Directing traffic and inspection of motor vehicles.
      • Monitoring the incoming and outcoming traffic at border posts and entry points
      • Collaborating with Interpol in fighting international crime
      • Providing corruption and promote practice of transparency and accountability
      • Training staff to highest possible standards of competence and integrity.
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