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  • This paper consists of three sections A, B and C.
  • Answer all the questions in section A, three questions from section B and two questions from section C.
  1. Name the Pre-historic site in Kenya where the Kenyapithecus fossil was discovered. (1 mk)
  2. State two economic activities which the maasai acquired as a result of the interaction with the Agikuyu during their settlement in Kenya. (2 mks)
  3. What was the base of the political organization of the Iteso during the Pre-colonial period. (1 mk)
  4. State one importance of the Devonshire White paper in 1923 on Africans. (1 mk)
  5. Name two women who actively participated in mau mau war. (2 mks)
  6. Give two reasons why the Omani rulers were interested in establishing their control over the Kenyan Coast. (2 mks)
  7. Give two functions of local native councils (LNC) during colonial period. (1 mk)
  8. Define the term dual citizenship. (1 mk)
  9. Identify two conditions for one to be declared duly elected as President of the republic of Kenya.(2 mks)
  10. Name the two houses of parliament under the new constitution of Kenya. (2 mks)
  11. Give one political reason for the construction of the Kenya Uganda railway. (1 mk)
  12. State the main constitutional amendment in Kenya in 1991. (1 mk)
  13. Give two functions of the colonial chiefs in Kenya. (1 mk)
  14. Give two methods used to resolve conflicts in Kenya. (2 mks)
  15. Identify two groups which monitors human rights in Kenya. (2 mks)
  16. Give one way through which the colonial government controlled the migration of Africans to the urban centres. (1 mk)
  17. Identify one category of national government expenditure.(1 mk)

    SECTION B: (45 MARKS) (Answer three questions only)
    1. Highlight the political organization of the Maasai in the Pre-colonial period. (5 mks)
    2. Explain the effects of the migration and settlement of the Bantu Speakers in Kenya. (10 mks)
    1. Why were the British interested in establishing control over Kenya during the scramble for Africa.(5 mks)
    2. Discuss six reasons why the Nandi resisted against the British for a long time. (10 mks)
    1. Highlight three factors which enabled the white settlers to establish large scale farming in Kenya. (3 mks)
    2. Explain the effects of indirect rule in Kenya. (12 mks)
    1. Identify five challenges facing industrial development in Kenya. (5 mks)
    2. Explain five functions of the National Land Commission in Kenya. (10 mks)

      SECTION C: (30 MARKS) (Answer any two questions from this section)
    1. State three factors that can make a person be disqualified from being elected a member of a county assembly in Kenya. (3 mks)
    2. Discus six reasons for the devolution of government in Kenya. (12 mks)
    1. Give three branches of Kenya Police Service. (3 mks)
    2. Explain six functions of the Kenya Defence forces. (12 mks)
    1. Give  three functions of the supreme court in Kenya. (3 mks)
    2. Explain the key changes in the new constitution of Kenya (2010) (12 mks)


  1. Fort tenan (1 x 1 = 1mk)
    1. Iron working
    2. Farming/crop cultivation (2 x 1 = 1mk)
  3. Clan (1 x 1 = 1mk)
  4. A missionary (John Arthur) was nominated to the Legco to represent African interests. (1 x 1 = 1mk)
    1. Marshal Muthoni
    2. Wambui wagarama
    3. Nduta wa kore (2 x 1 = 2mks)
    1. The Kenyan coast had favourable climate.
    2. The Kenyan coast good natural harbours
    3. They wanted to control Indian Ocean trade.
    4. The coast of Kenya had fertile soils for agriculture.
      (2 x 1 = 2mks)
    1. To collect taxes
    2. Providing basic services e.g hospitals.
    3. Maintain law and order among Africans.
      (2 x 1 = 2mks)
  8. It is the legal right of belonging to two countries.(1 x 1 = 1mk)
    1. Must be a Kenyan citizen by birth.
    2. Must receive fifty percent plus one of total votes cast
    3. Must attract 25% of the votes cast in more than half of the counties.(2 x 1 = 2mks)
    1. Senate
    2. National Assembly(2 x 1 = 2mks)
    1. For ease transportation of soldiers to resisting communities.
    2. To open up the landlocked, Uganda.
    3. Eradicate slave trade.(1 x 1 = 1mk)
  12. Repealing of section 2A of the constitution which allowed multipartism.(1 x 1 = 1mk)
    1. To collect taxes.
    2. Recruitment of labour into European farms.
    3. Maintain law and order.
    4. To control the brewing of liquor.(2 x 1 = 2mks)
    1. Arbitration.
    2. Negotiation.
    3. Diplomacy
    4. legislation(2 x 1 = 2mks)
    1. Lawyers and judges.
    2. Trade unions.
    3. Journalists.
    4. Religious organisations.
    5. Special Commissions.(2 x 1 = 2mks)
    1. Through the use of Kipande system/pass laws.
    2. Through arresting Africans get in urgan centres.(2 x 1 = 2mks)
    1. Capital expenditure.
    2. Recurrent expenditure.(1 x 1 = 1mk)

      • The clan was the basic political unit. ii) Every clan had a council of elders
      • The council of elders acted as judges and settled disputes.
      • The maasai had a leader known as Oloibon.
      • Oloibon advised the warriors and blessed them before going to war.
      • Maasai had worriers who defended the community from external attacks.
      • The age-set was an important political institution.(5 x 1 = 5mks)
      • Led to increased population in the regions where they settled.
      • They intermarried with the people they came into contact with.
      • The Bantu spread the knowledge of iron working to other communities.
      • There was increased cultural interaction.
      • They spread agricultural practices/ideas in Kenya.
      • It led to inter-community conflicts especially over the land.
      • It led to increased trade relations between the Bantu and other communities.(5 x 2 = 10mks)
      • They wanted to acquire raw materials for their industries.
      • To acquire colonies to serve as markets for their industrial goods.
      • They wanted to invest their surplus capital in Kenya.
      • To acquire white highlands to practice commercial farming.
      • To abolish slavery and introduce legitimate trade.
      • To spread Christianity.(5 x 1 = 5mks)
      • Reasons for the Nandi resistance.
      • The Nandi were motivated by their superiority. They were determined to safeguard their independence.
      • The Nandi were determined to defend their land from alienation by the British.
      • The Nandi military was well trained through raiding.
      • The Nandi were united under the able leadership of Koitalel Arap Samoei.
      • They had a tradition of resisting any intruder.
      • They were resisting confiscation of their livestock by the British.
      • The Nandi hated the British pink complexion.(5 x 2 = 10mks)
      • The government alienated African land for white settlement.
      • The colonial government provided technical assistance.
      • Government provided marketing facilities for settlers.
      • The government restricted Africans from growing cash crops.
      • The government provided credit facilities for settlers.
      • Continued flow of African labour to settlers.(3 x 1 = 3mks)
    2. Effects of indirect rule.
      • Accumulation of wealth by African chief at the expense of local people.
      • There was preservation of African culture.
      • Low levels of development in regard to infrastructure.
      • Local chiefs became unpopular due to their oppressive nature - forced labour and high taxation.
      • Conflict between educated elites and the illiterate local chiefs.
      • Loss of independence among local people, thus resentment.
        (6 x 2 = 12mks)
      • Importation of products from other countries denying local producers market.
      • Lack of adequate finances to support industrial developments.
      • Stiff competition from more developed and industrialised countries.
      • Low technology hence levels of production.
      • Low domestic market due to low purchasing power due to poverty.
      • Lack of raw materials necessary for industrial expansion.(5 x 1 = 5mks)
      • To manage public land on behalf of the national and county government.
      • To recommend a national land policy to the government.
      • To advise the national government on registration of land.
      • To investigate the historical injustices on land issues in Kenya.
      • To monitor and have oversight responsibilities over land.
      • To encourage application of traditional land conflict resolution

        SECTION C
      • If he/she has worked with I.E.B.C for the last 5 years.
      • If one has not been a citizen of Kenya for the last ten (10) years.
      • If one has been found guilty of abuse of public office.
      • If one has been found of unsound mind.
      • If one is serving a jail term of 6 (six) months.(3 x 1 = 3mks)
      • To encourage equal distribution of resources all over the country.
      • It encourages political participation hence enhancing democracy.
      • It empowers communities to manage their own resources.
      • It enhances local communities a sense of ownership.
      • It has provided efficiency in provision of services.
      • It facilitates decentralization of state organs from the capital to other areas.
      • To encourage diversity.
      • To protect the rights of minorities.(6 x 2 = 12mks)
      • Regular police.
      • The Administration Police Service.
      • Criminal Investigation Department (C.I.D)
      • General Service Unit (G.S.U)
      • Anti-stock theft unit.(3 x 1 = 3mks)
      • They defend the country from external attacks.
      • They help in preserving internal security.
      • They participate in national building initiatives e.g road construction.
      • They take part in united nations peace keeping missions.
      • Kenya Air force helps in control of locust invasions.
      • Army provides emergency services during floods by evacuating civilians.
      • The navy checks on illegal landing of unauthorised sea vessels.(6 x 2 = 12mks)
      • It deals with Presidential petitions.
      • It determines appeals from the court of appeal.
      • It listens to petitions on the interpretation and application of the constitution.
      • All courts are bound to decisions of the supreme court.
      • It provides advisory opinion at request of National government.(3 x 1 = 3mks)
      • The powers of the Executive (President) were reduced.
      • Introduction of two housed of parliament i.e senate and National Assembly (Bicameral Parliament)
      • There are only two ways of becoming a Kenyan citizen i.e Birth and registration.
      • Introduction of devolved (County government).
      • Creation of the National Land Commission.
      • Enlarged bill of rights.
      • Establishment of Independent Commissions.
      • Introduction of a third gender rule.(6 x 2 = 12mks)
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