HISTORY PAPER 2 - 2019 KCSE KASSU JOINT MOCK EXAMS (QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)

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Instructions to candidates

  • This paper consists of THREE sections A, B and C
  • Answer ALL questions in section A (25 marks)
  • Answer any THREE questions in section B (45 marks)
  • Answer any TWO questions in section C (30 marks)
  • This paper consists of three printed pages.
  • Candidates should check to ascertain that all pages are printed as indicated and that no questions are missing.
  • Candidates should answer all the questions in English

SECTION A (25 MARKS)
Answer ALL questions from this section

  1. Identify one limitation of archeology as a source of information in history (1 mk)
  2. State two distinct features of Homo erectus (2mks)
  3. Identify two types of irrigation methods used by early Egyptians (2mark)
  4. Identify one main item of trade from west Africa during the trans-Atlantic trade (1 mk)
  5. Mention two factors to consider before sending an effectives message (2marks)
  6. What is the main advantaged of cell phone (1 mk)
  7. State one factor that led to the decline of Kilwa (1 mk)
  8. Identify one function of Lukiiko in the Buganda kingdom in 19th century (1 mk)
  9. Give two importance of Odwira festival in the Asante kingdom (2 mks)
  10. Mention one country in Africa that was not colonized by European powers (1 mk)
  11. Identify two communes where the assimilation policy succeeded in West Africa (2 mks)
  12. Give one reason why the United States of America was reluctant to join the First World War(2marks)
  13. Name the organ of the United Nation that promotes justice in the world (1mk)
  14. Identify two signatories of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) (2mks)
  15. Give one organ of the League of Nations (1mk)
  16. Name two main political challenges which have faced Democratic Republic of Congo since independence (2mks)
  17. Identify two ways through which the congress checks the excesses of power by executive in the united states of America. (USA) (2mks)

    SECTION B (45MARKS)
    Answer any three questions from this section
  18.  
    1. Give five physical changes which occurred in early human beings as they evolved from ape like creature to modern man       (5 marks)
    2. Explain five effects of early agriculture in Mesopotamia                                  (10marks)
  19.  
    1. Identify five problems faced by Trans Saharan traders                                           (5 mks)
    2. Explain five disadvantages of railway transport                                                  (10marks)
  20.  
    1. Give three social aspects of the shone during the pre-colonial period             (3 marks)
    2. Describe the political organization of Shona kingdom during the pre-colonial period (12 marks)
  21.  
    1. Mention five factors that facilitated the growth of nationalism in Ghana        (5 marks)
    2. Explain five reasons why FRELIMO succeeded in its armed struggle against the Portuguese    (10 marks)

      SECTION C (30 MARKS)
      Answer any two questions from this section
  22.  
    1. State three reasons why the British used direct rule to administer Zimbabwe (3marks)
    2. Explain six reasons for the failure of direct rule in southern Nigeria              (12marks)
  23.  
    1. State five aims of Economic Community Of West African States (ECOWAS) (5 marks)
    2. Explain five challenges that faced the East African community (EAC) up to 1977 (10marks)
  24.  
    1. State five functions of British Monarch                                                                 (5 marks)
    2. Explain five functions of the Electoral Commission of India                           (10 marks)


MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A(25 MARKS )
Answer all questions from this section

  1. Identify one limitation of archeology as a source of history (1 mk)
    • It is expensive to organize visits to museums and archaeological sites for information.
    • It is difficult to locate sites as artifacts are buried.
    • It is time consuming.
    • Some artifacts & fossils are fragile and hence they can break during excavation or transportation.
    • It cannot be used to study recent history.
    • It may not be accurate as it depends on conclusions (inferences) & reconstructions.
    • The dating is not accurate as it can only be estimated.
    • There are very few archaeologists.
    • It is difficult to identify particular people by name, language, place of origin etc.
    • It depends on other disciplines for analysis.  Any 1 x 1 mrk
  2. State two distinct features of Homo erectus (2mks)
    • He had a big brain capacity of about 700-1250cc / High thinking capacity
    • He walked upright / bipedal.
    • He had ability to grasp objects.
    • He had a more developed speech than the earlier creatures.
    • He had a long skull.
    • He had protruding jaws.
    • He was about 5ft, 6 inches tall.
      Any 2 x 1 = 2 mrk
  1. Identify two types of irrigation methods used by early Egyptians(2mark)
    • Shadoof
    • Canal
    • Basin
      Any 2 x 1 = 2 mrks
  1. Identify one main item of trade from west Africa during the trans Atlantic trade(1 mk)
    Slaves                     1 x 1 = 1 mrk
  1. Mention two factors to consider before sending an effectives message (2marks)
    • The urgency / Time / Speed.
    • The clarity / Complexity / Simplicity.
    • The distance between the sender and the receiver.
    • Availability of facilities / Method / Means.
    • The confidentiality of the message.
    • The cost of the means to be used.
      Any 2 x 1 = 2 mrks
  2. What is the main advantaged of cell phone (1 mk)
    It is portable          1 x 1 = 1 mrk
  1. State one factor that led to the decline of Kilwa(1 mk)
    • Disruption of gold trade due to civil wars
    • Rebellions from some towns colonized by kilwa
    • Conquest by the Portuguese.
      Any 1 x 1 = 1 mrk
  1. Identify one function of Lukiiko in the Buganda kingdom in 19th century (1 mk)
    • It advised Kabaka.
    • It represent people’s needs to Kabaka.
    • It acted as court of Appeal / It advised on disputes.
    • It directed the collection of taxes / how the wealth of the kingdom would be spent.
    • It help Kabaka in administration.
    • It made laws for the kingdom.
    • It checked the activities of the government / checking on the executive.
    • It debated on issues that affected the kingdom.
      Any 1 x 1 = 1 mrk
  1. Give two importance of Odwira festival in the Asante kingdom (2 mks)
    • It promoted unity among the people.
    • It provided an opportunity for the kings to settle disputes.
    • It brought the kings together to pledge loyalty / tribute to the Asantehene.
    • It provided an opportunity for the kings to honour the dead.
      Any 2 x 1 = 2 mrks
  1. Mention one country in Africa that was not colonized by European powers(1 mk)
    • Ethiopia
    • Liberia
      Any 1 x 1 = 1 mrk
  1. Identify two communes where the assimilation policy succeeded in West Africa.
    • Goree
    • St Louis
    • Rufisque
    • Dakar. Any 2 x 1 = 2 mrks
  2. Give one reason why the United States of America was reluctant to join the first world war (2marks)
    • This was according to the Monroe Doctrine of 1823 which discouraged her from   interfering with any European affairs.
    • Some of her citizens also were of German origin and hence feared a rebellion from them.
    • The war had not touched her directly until 1916.
    • She feared an outbreak of a civil war between Americans of German descent and those of other European nationalities.
    • She traded with both parties
      Any 1 x 1 = 1 mrk
  1. Name the organ of the united nation that promotes justice in the world (1mk)
    International court of justice(ICJ)
    1 x 1 = 1 mrk
  1. Identify two signatories of the strategic arms reduction treaty (START) (2mks)
    • George bush(senior)
    • Mikkail Gorbachev 2 x 1 = 2 mrks
  2. Give one organ of the League of Nations (1mk)
    • Assembly
    • council
    • Secretariat
    • Permanent court if international justice
    • International labour office
      Any 1 x 1 = 1 mrk
  1. Name two main political challenges which have faced democratic republic of Congo since independence(2mks)
    • Civil wars
    • Coup de tat’s
  2. Identify two ways through which the congress checks the excesses of power by executive in the united states of America. (USA)
    • The Congress checks the power of the president by approving all appointments made by him.
    • The Congress can refuse to approve use of government funds for a foreign policy.
    • The Congress can impeach the president.
    • The Supreme Court can declare a president to have acted unconstitutionally.
    • The constitution limits the president to 2 four-year terms in office.
    • The mass media can check on the president’s action and speech.
    • Pressure groups also act on the president’s action.
    • The Public opinion reflects the wishes of the people and the president has to respect it..
    • The President’s party is always careful not to lose its majority in congress.
      Any 2 x 1 = 2 mrks

      SECTION B (45MARKS)
  3.  
    1. Give five physical changes which occurred in early human beings as they evolved from ape like creature to modern man(5 marks)
      • Man became upright / bipedal.
      • He became less hairy.
      • His skull’s size became large.
      • The jaws & teeth become smaller.
      • The hands & arms became shorter.
      • The legs and toes became shorter.
      • He became taller.
      • He had a slender body.
      • He had a bigger brain.
        Any 5 x 1 = 5 mrks
    2. Explain five effects of early agriculture in Mesopotamia (10marks)
      • It enabled the people to settle down and concentrate on farming.
      • Population increased, due to the increase in food production.
      • Food production increased, hence improved standards of living.
      • Urban centres develop eg Ur, Uruk, Babylon and Nippur.
      • Trade between communities emerged and increased, due to the production of surplus food.
      • Specialization in craft activities followed
      • Influenced the development of writing (cuneiform) & arithmetic to keep records.
      • The invention of the wheel followed to facilitate the transporting process during farming.
      • The construction of storage facilities
        Any 5 x 2 = 10 mrk 
  4.  
    1. Identify five problems faced by Trans Saharan traders (5 mks)
      • Long and stressful journey.
      • Dangers in the routes e.g. could be attacked by wild animals and other desert creatures.
      • Extreme weather conditions of the desert, e.g. very hot during the day very cold during the night.
      • Traders often lost their way in the desert due to frequent shifting of routs.
      • Scarcity of basic needs e.g. water and food.
      • Attacks by hostile desert communities.
      • Many were killed by the frequent sand storms.
      • Disruption of their journey during inter- community wars / Insecurity due to declining and falling of kingdoms.
      • Language barrier / Lack of common language for transacting trade.
      • Exhaustion of trade goods especially gold.
      • They were robbed by desert people.
        Any 5 x 1 = 5 mrks
    2. Explain five disadvantages of railway transport (10marks)
      • It is expensive to constructs and maintain.
      • It is less flexible- no diverging or reverse.
      • It can cause fatal accidents.
      • It pollutes the environment.
      • It is not self-sufficient since it has to be supplemented by road transport.
      • Rails do not offer door to door services.
      • They are costly to build and maintain
      • Different rail gauges used by different countries require trans-shipment, thus delays.
      • Steep gradients are unsuitable for railways as it requires leveling, embarkments and constructions of bridges.
        Any 5 well explained x 2 = 10 mrks
  5.  
    1. give three social aspects of the Shona during the pre-colonial period (3 marks)
      • Mwene Mutapa was the Chief priest and he was regarded as a semi-divine king.
      • They believed in a supreme creator God whom they called Mwari.
      • They believed in both good and bad spirits: Vadzimu(family spirits) Mhondoro (Clan spirits) and Chamiruka (National Spirit).
      • They had intermediaries (Svikiro) who was a departed family or clan member.
      • Chamiruka settled clan disputes and protected the clans (community)
      • Rozwi clan provided priests who presided over religious ceremonies and sacrifices.
      • They were divided in to clans whose names were coined from animals like monkeys, whose meat was never consumed.
      • They lived in circular stone buildings.
      • They respected the elders for peace when they die.
      • They had sacred places for worship eg Shrines, where sacrifices were offered.
        Any 3 x 1 = 3 mrks
    2. Describe the political organization of Shona kingdom during the pre-colonial period (12 marks)
      • They were ruled by a King (Mwene Mutapa) who had absolute authority over the subjects.
      • The King’s position was hereditary so as to reduce succession disputes.
      • The King was assisted by several people eg the court steward.
      • There was an advisory council whose work was to advise the king.
      • The Kingdom was divided into provinces under provincial / lesser chiefs who were directly answerable to the king.
      • The provinces were divided in to chiefdoms ruled by chiefs.
      • Under the chiefs there were head men who were in charge of the villages.
      • They had a standing army whose main duty was to defend / expand the empire.
      • The king was a simbol of unity as he was semi-divine.
      • There existed priests who acted as spies for the king.
        Any 6 x 2 = 12 mrks
  6.  
    1. mention five factors that facilitated the growth of nationalism in Ghana (5 marks)
      • Inadequate African representation in the Legislative Council caused discontent among the Ghanaians. (political)
      • Loss of power by the traditional African Chiefs created discontent against the colonial government. (political)
      • The need to guard against possible land alienation by the British united the Africans. (economic)
      • Introduction of taxation by the colonial government made the Ghanaians to resent. (economic)
      • The meager earnings by Africans from the sale of cocoa to Europeans created discontent among them. (economic)
      • The order by the colonial government that the farmers uproot their cocoa due to prevalence of the “Swollen shoot” disease upset them. (economic)
      • The involvement of ex-service men in the 2nd World War inspired them to fight for their independence. (political)
      • The attainment of independence by India / Pakistan in 1947 encouraged the Ghanaians to demand or their right to govern themselves. (political)
      • The existence of the young educated Ghanaians who had understood the ideas of democracy / freedom, who inspired the masses towards a worthy cause. (social)
      • High rate of unemployment among the Africans created resentment / discontent. (economic)
      • The UNO Charter’s declaration of the importance of political independence of all people inspired the Ghanaians. (political)
      • The charismatic leadership by Kwame Nkrumah and other leaders united the people in their struggle against colonial domination. (political)
      • The selective granting of trading licenses to European traders while denying the same to the Africans created discontent. (economic)
      • Sharp increase in food prices. (economic)
        Any 5 x 1 = 5 mrks
    2. Explain five reasons why FRELIMO succeeded in its armed struggle against the Portuguese(10 mks)
      • Support from the Africans since they wanted to liberate the country.
      • The country as ideal for guerilla warfare.
      • They attacked the Portuguese from different points.
      • They fought on a terrain to which they were familiar.
      • Constant supply of information from the Africans.
      • Support from the communist countries e.g. USSR and China for the basics e.g. medicine.
      • OAU liberation committee with its Headquarters at Dar-Salaam hosted the guerillas.
      • They incorporated women who mobilized Africans in the country.
      • They collaborated with fighters from Southern Rhodesia.
      • The African combatants were friendly with the locals for total support.
      • Unity through mingling of people from different ethnic communities
        Any 5 x 2 = 10 mrks

        SECTION C(30 MARKS)
        Answer any two questions from this section
  7.  
    1. State three reasons why the British used direct rule to administer Zimbabwe (3marks)
      • They had enough personnel on the sport who were familiar with the area as well as the British administrative system.
      • The British South Africa Company had enough finance to pay the administrators.
      • They aimed at controlling the economy of Zimbabwe to maximize profit.
      • They wanted to ensure complete control of the Africans to avoid resistance.
      • Zimbabwe lacked a centralized system of government / The traditional system and indigenous political institutions since they had been destroyed during the British wars of conquest.
      • The 1896-1897 Shona-Ndebele uprising shook European confidence in local administrators.
      • The British aimed at establishing a British dominion settlement.
      • The British found the Zimbabweans uncooperative.
        Any 3 x 1 = 3 mrks
    2. Explain six reasons for the failure of direct rule in southern Nigeria (12marks)
      • Did not have a centralized indigenous system of administration.
      • Lack of homogeneity in the South because there were many tribes and hence many languages.
      • The British introduced new ideas e.g. forced labour and taxation for which they were opposed.
      • The failure of the British administrators to understand the socio-economic and political system of Southern Nigeria which was based on the office of the Oba made them give up easily.
      • Opposition from the educated elite who felt left out of administration of their own country / Leadership.
      • Oba’s of Southern Nigeria had defined powers, so when they were given wide ranging, the people became disunited / Excessive powers made them unpopular.
      • Misuse of power by the warrant chiefs who raised taxes for their own benefit. They also sexually harassed women.
        Any 6 x 2 = 12 mrks
  8.  
    1. State five aims of Economic Community Of West African States (ECOWAS) (5 marks)
      • To liberalize trade between member states.
      • To improve relationship and movement of between member states.
      • To improve living standards of members
      • To create custom union in the region.
      • To promote industrial development among members states.
      • To promote cultural interaction among member states.
        Any 5 x 1 = 5 mrks
    2. Explain five challenges that faced the East African community (EAC) up to 1977   (10marks)
      • Unequal distribution of services and benefits from the organization by the member states made Tanzania and Uganda envy Kenya’s monopoly of the organization.
      • Ideological differences among the three member states made them pursue different economic policies.
      • Personal differences between leaders like Amin and Nyerere made it difficult for them to call meetings that would promote dialogue and unity.
      • The coup that overthrew Obote Milton of Uganda undermined the unity that was desired for the survival of the organization / political instability in Uganda undermined the organization.
      • The fear that the Kenyans were benefiting from the community in terms of employment.
      • Hostility towards nationals from member states.
      • Financial constraints resulting from failure by member states to remit funds to the organization.
      • Shortage of funds in managing the Community’s resources by member states led to unlawful nationalization of the organization’s assets.
      • Tanzania’s closure of the common border with Kenya halted the community’s interests.
      • National interests overshadowed the organization’s interests.
      • Personal ambitions by the leaders.
      • Too much power was vested in the hands of the authority ie, heads of the three states.
        Any 5 x 2 = 10 mrks
  9.  
    1. State five functions of British Monarch (5 marks)
      • He/she approves / assents bills before they become laws.
      • He/she approves all appointments to important state offices.
      • He/she is involved in enacting treaties between the government and other countries in relation to foreign policy.
      • He/she summons / Prorogues / dissolves parliament with consultation with the PM.
      • He/she gives consent to all cabinet appointments.
      • He/she has power to pardon people who have been accused of committing various offences.
      • The Monarch appoints Bishops of the Church of England / Create peers ie members of any of the five noble ranks like Barons, Viscounts, Earls, Dukes and Marquins who have the right to sit in the House of Lords.
      • He/she advises / counsels the Head of Government.
      • He/she confers honors to people who have rendered distinguished / outstanding services to the state e.g. nominating a member to the House.
      • He/she is the Commander in- Chief of the Armed Forces.
        Any 5 x 1 = 5 mrks
    2. Explain five functions of the electoral commission of India(10 marks)
      • Preparing a register of voters
      • Drawing boundaries of constituencies
      • Compiling a list of parties to participate in an election
      • Establishing pooling dates
      • Allocating of symbols to political parties
      • Receiving nomination papers from prospective candidates
      • Counting of votes
      • Announcing of results.
        Any 5 x 2 = 10 mrks

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