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Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. State four light breeds in poultry (2 marks)
  2. Give two effects of lice infestation in sheep production ( 1 mark)
  3. State four advantages of contemporary comparison in selection of livestock. ( 2 marks)
  4. State two reasons for docking in sheep management             (1 mark)
  5. State two functions of differential in a tractor transmission system. (1 mark)
  6. Give four effects of protein deficiency in livestock production. (2 marks)
  7. State four predisposing factors of pneumonia in livestock production. (2 marks)
  8. Give four factors influencing milk let down in dairy cattle production. (2 marks)
  9. Name four instances where animal power is advantageous over other form of powers. (2 marks)
  10. State four reasons for handling dairy cattle in livestock production. (2 marks)
  11. Give factors considered in choice of rearing systems in poultry production. (2 marks)
  12. State four factors that affect the choice of feedstuff in livestock. (2marks)
  13. Give four practices carried out on fish before preservation. (2 mark)
  14. State four disadvantages of live fence in livestock production. (2 marks)
  15. a) Give four prophylactic measures used in controlling diseases in livestock.   (2 marks)
  16. State four practices that ensure maximum harvest of fish. (2mks)
  17. State two functions of caecum in poultry production. (1 mark)

Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. Below is an illustration of a farm implement. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Identify the farm implement. (1mk)
    2. Name the parts labeled L, M, O and P.             (2mks)
    3. Give one function of the parts M, N and P.             (3mks)
  1. Below are illustrations of farm tools and equipment. 
    1. Identify the tool labelled J and K
    2. State one use of tool M and N.          (2mks)
    3. Explain one maintenance practice carried on tool J.    (1mk)
  1. The diagram below illustrates a calf rearing practice.
    1. Identify the practice illustrated above.                                             (1mk)
      1. Describe the procedure followed in the feeding practice named in (a) above. (3mks)
      2. Give two precautions taken while using the rearing practice stated in (a) above. (1mk)
  2. The diagram below is an illustration of an egg. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow. 
    1. Name the parts labelled I, J, K and M. (2 Marks)
    2. Give two qualities of the part labelled H that would be considered when selecting eggs for incubation.
    3. What is the function of the part labelled L                                                             (1 Mark)

SECTION C (40 Marks)
Answer any two questions from this section.

    1. State five reasons for feeding livestock                                                                                  (5 marks)
    2. Describe the factors a farmer should consider when selecting a gilt for breeding. (8 marks)
    3. Outline seven management practices that a farmer should carry out to maintain good health in a herd   of cattle.   (7 marks)
    1. Outline routine maintenance practices that should be carried out in deep litter system. (5 marks)
    2. State eight practices that would ensure clean milk production. (8 marks)
    3. Compare the use of an ox-drawn mouldboard plough with that of a tractor drawn plough   (7 marks)
    1. Give FIVE general characteristics of dairy cattle breeds        (5marks)
    2. Outline the procedure one would follow when castrating a male piglet. (5mks)
    3. Outline five causes of stress in poultry. (5 marks)
    4. Describe the life cycle of two host tick                                     (5 marks)



    • sykes
    • ancorna
    • minorca
    • leghorns                                                            
      (4x½ =2mks)
    • Lose vitality
    • Lose weight
    • Have retarded growth
    • Cause irritation hence loss of feeding time
    • Cause emaciation
    • Cause anaemia
    • Possible to compare animals of different age groups since heifer locations are known
    • Possible to make direct comparison of bulls at different AI centres.
    • It’s accurate
    • Eliminates differences brought out by the environment since average performance of herd is used.
    • Facilitate tupping/mating
    • Prevents blowfly infestation
    • Gives good fat distribution throughout the body/ marbling (Any 2x½ =1mk)
    • Speed reduction mechanism
    • Enables one of the wheels to move faster than the other when negotiating corners. (2x½ =1mk)
    • Retarded growth
    • Lowered productivity
    • Lowered reproductivity due to reduced animal vigour/low fertility
    • Lowered resistance to diseases or infections.
    • Cause wearing out of body tissues                        
      (any 4x ½ =2mks)
    • Poor ventilation
    • Overcrowding
    • Age-young animals
    • Effects of diarrhoea/other illnesses                                    
      (4x ½ =2mks)
    • Taking the cow into the milking shade
    • Rattling sound of buckets
    • Sight of a milk man/milk woman
    • Sight or smell of food in the feed trough
    • Massaging or washing of the udder with warm water.
    • Suckling by the calf
    • Sight of the calf for cows inclined to suckling calves            
      (any 4x½ =2mks)
    • land is not accessible by tractors
    • Where the land is steep/very steep slopes
    • Small pieces of land
    • Lands that are irregularly shaped
    • Cost of hiring tractors is high
    • Other sources of power unavailable.         
        (any 4x½ =2mks)
    • During confinement in sick yard/confined grazing units.
    • Stall feeding/watering
    • When transporting animals to markets/agricultural shows/slaughter houses.
    • During service of the animal e.g. AI
    • During land spraying against external parasites.
    • During removal or harvesting of livestock products e.g. honey/milk
    • When carrying out routine management operations e.g. deworming/castration/dehorning/hoof trimming/debeaking/injection of drugs. (any 4x½ =2mks)
    • Availability of capital
    • Security
    • Market availability
    • Labour availability
    • Knowledge of the farmer
    • Availability of land for rearing
    • Topography of the land.
    • Availability of appropriate equipment.                        
      (any 4x ½ =2mks)
    • Cost of feedstuff
    • Availability
    • Nutritional composition
    • Physical/processing nature of feedstuff.            
      (4x½ =2mks)
    • Cleaning the fish to remove mud/any worms
    • Cleaning abdominal cavity thoroughly
    • Keep fish in open containers
    • Removing scales and slime
    • Opening the fish on the side to remove gut and the intestines/ gutting. (any 4x½ =2mks)
    • Take many years to grow and make an effective fence.
    • Cannot be used for paddocking because they occupy a wide space
    • Hedges can be used as hiding places for rodents and thieves.
    • Thorny species cause injuries to livestock
    • Their growth may be irregular thus allowing gaps for animals and thieves to pass through.
      (any 4x½ =2mks)
      • Use of prophylactic drugs
      • Carrying out regular vaccinations
      • Control of vectors
      • Treatment of sick animals. (4x½ =2mks)
      • Control of water pollution.
      • Supply of food / nutrients for aquatic use.
      • Aerating water / flowing water.
      • Maintaining appropriate depth of water in the pond.
      • Control of stocking rate.               
          (4x½ = 2mks
    • Have microorganisms to digest cellulose
    • Absorb water and the byproducts of microbial digestion.       (2x½ =1mk)

      SECTION B (20 MARKS)
    1. Ox plough / Ox-drawn mouldboard plough.             
      (1 x 1 = 1mk)
    2. L – Beam
      M – Landwheel
      O – Landside
      P – Mouldboard                         
      (4x1 = 4mks)
    3. M – Regulates the depth of ploughing.
      N – cuts the furrow slice horizontally.
      P – Inverts the cut soil/ furrow slices         
      (3 x 1 = 3mks)
    1. Identify
      bit brace (½ x 1 =½mk)
      K; Bit (½ x 1 =½mk)
    2. Use of tool
      Expand rubber ring (1 x 1 =1mk)
      Measure and hold drug to be administered. (1 x 1 =1mk)
    3. Maintenance practices of tool J.
      • Oiling /lubricating moving parts to reduce friction. (1 x 1 =1mk)
      • Clean after use to remove dirt (rej washing for cleaning). (1 x 1 =1mk)
    1. feeding practice
      Artificial rearing/bucket feeding (1 x 1 = 1mk)
      1. Procedure of rearing practice
        • Put clean milk in a clean bucket
        • Place clean index finger into the calf’s mouth through the diastema
        • Allow the calf to start suckling the finger
        • Lower the finger slowly until it is submerged in milk as the calf sucks
        • Slowly withdraw the finger
        • Repeat steps until the calf learns. (6 x ½=3mks)
      2. Precautions in rearing practice
        • Right amount of milk
        • Interval feeding
        • give milk at the right temperature
        • Clean equipment
        • Observe personal hygiene. (2 x ½ = 1mk)
    1. I-Inner shell membrane     = ½ mk
      J-Outer shell membrane               = ½ mk
      K-Albumen                                     = ½ mk
      M-Challazae                                    = ½ mk
      • Smoothness of the shell
      • Cleanliness
      • Oval in shape
      • Absence of cracks on the shell                         (4x½ =2mks)
    3. Provide nutrients for the developing chick           (1x1=1)


      • Provide energy/ maintenance of body temperature
      • For growth and repair of body tissues
      • For maintenance of good health
      • Production of various products
      • Enhance reproduction.                         (5x1=5mks)
      • Should be of age/mature 5-7 months old/90-100kg live weight
      • Good mothering ability
      • Able to grow fast
      • Good conformation
      • With no physical defects
      • Healthy
      • Has 12-14 evenly spaced teats
      • Highly prolific
      • Able to withstand heat strsess during mating.                                    
        (any 8x1=8mks)
    3. Management practices for good health
      • provide balanced ration to increase disease resistance
      • select healthy breeding stock
      • cull animals susceptible to certain diseases
      • use appropriate breeding methods to avoid disease transmission
      • provide proper housing e.g calf pens to avoid diseases.
      • maintain high level of hygiene
      • isolate or confine sick animals from healthy ones
      • Treat sick animals
      • impose quarantine incase of out breaks of notifiable diseases
      • use prophylactic drugs e.g dewormers
      • carry out regular vaccination
      • control vectors such as ticks
      • slaughter & dispose properly affected animal if cannot be cured. 1x8=8mks
      • Repair/replace broken parts
      • Regular cleaning to remove dirt
      • Dust/fumigate/spray to control parasites and diseases
      • Apply old engine oil on timber parts.
      • Ensure good drainage around the house
      • Maintain a footbath at the entrance.
      • Regular changing of litter                         (5x1=5mks)
      • The milkman should be clean
      • Test for mastitis before milking
      • Milk person should be healthy
      • Ensure utensils/equipment are clean
      • Ensure milking parlour is clean
      • Ensure milking herd is free from zoonotic diseases e.g. TB
      • Cows with mastitis should be milked last
      • Clean the udder before milking
      • Cover the milk after milking
      • Avoid feeds/weeds that would taint milk just before milking.
      • Proper storage of milk/cool dry place.                         (any 8x1=8mks)
      • Ox-draw plough mould board is lighter hence does not compact the soil as much as the tractor drawn mouldboard plough.
      • Ox-plough can be used for more farm operations e.g. weeding, ploughing, harvesting root crop than tractor mouldboard.
      • Oxplough requires less skills to operate compared to the tractor plough.
      • Tractor plough is faster than oxplough hence can plough a large area within a short time.
      • Source of power for oxplough is not as reliable as the source of power for tractor plough.
      • Ox plough relatively shallow compared to tractor drawn plough that plough deeper.
      • Oxplough can be used in steeper slopes where tractor plough cannot plough.
      • Ox plough requires more people to operate than tractor plough.
      • Ox plough is cheaper to buy than tractor plough.
      • Ox plough is cheaper to maintain than tractor plough. ACCEPT TABLE FORM                        (7x1=7mks)
    1. Give five general characteristics of dairy cattle breeds            (5 mks
      • Have straight top line
      • Well set hind quarters
      • Large well developed udder
      • prominent milk vein
      • Lean bodies with little flesh
      • Have large stomach capacity
      • Are docile with mild temperament    
    2. Procedure followed when castrating a male piglet
      • Restrain the animal properly
      • Use one hand to pull the testicles slightly and hold with the help of the other hand, make a cut or slit at the base of the scrotum.
      • Squeeze out the testicles until the spermatic cords are extended and exposed then cut.
      • Remove the testicles
      • Stitch and disinfect the scrotum using antiseptic e.g healing oil and release the animal. (add any other point) (5 x 1 = 5mrks)   
      • Sudden change in routine
      • Diseases and pest infestation.
      • Lack of food and waterStrangers and predators in the house.
      • Sudden noise such as that of tractor, plane
      • Poor handling of birds
      • Overcrowding
      • Climate weather change
      • Poor lighting in the house
      • Introduction of new birds
      • Unbalanced diet. (any 5x1=5mks)
      • Eggs on the ground hatch to larvae
      • the   larvae climbs on the first host ;
      • suck blood become engorged and moults to a nymph;
      • the nymph suck blood from the same host, become engorged and fall down;
      • where it moults to an adult.
      • The adult looks for a second host where it sucks blood mates and fall down to lay eggs
        (5 x 1 = 5mrks)
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