History Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Mokasa II Mock Examination 2021/2022

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HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT 
PAPER 1 

Instructions to Candidates

  • This paper consists of three sections A, B and C.
  • Answer all questions in section A, three from Section B and two from Section C.
  • Answers to all the questions must be written legibly in the answer booklet provided.
  • Candidates should answer the questions in English


Questions

Section A (25 marks)
Answer all questions in this section

  1. State one importance of dating in archaeology. (1 mark)
  2. Name two Plains Nilotes in Kenya. (2 marks)
  3. What is the name given to God among the Somali? (1 mark)
  4. Give one evidence that show that Chinese reached the East African Coast. (1 mark)
  5. Define the term citizenship. (1 mark)
  6. State two economic causes of conflicts. (2 marks)
  7. Identify one non-African minority groups whose rights were protected by constitution of Kenya at independence. (1 mark)
  8. Give two ways in which direct democracy is exercised today. (2 marks)
  9. State two reasons why the colonial government established Local Native Councils in 1924. (2 marks)
  10. Give two reasons why Africans were not allowed to grow coffee until 1937. (2 marks)
  11. What was the main incident behind the banning of Kenya Peoples Union (KPU) party in 1969? (1 mark)
  12. Give the main contribution of Wangari Maathai in the development of Kenya. (1 mark)
  13. Outline two types of cases which are determined by the Courts of Law in Kenya. (2 marks)
  14. Give one importance of peace in promoting development. (1 mark)
  15. What is multi-party democracy? (1 marks)
  16. Give two reasons that may lead to the removal of a County Governor in Kenya. (2 marks)
  17. Give two types of government expenditure in Kenya. (2 marks)

Section B (45 marks)
Answer any three questions from this section

  1.          
    1. State five economic activities of the Abagusii during the pre- colonial period. (5 marks)
    2. Describe the social organization of the Maasai during the pre-colonial period. (10 marks)
  2.            
    1. State five factors which influenced the Akamba to participate in the long distance trade. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five effects of the Indian Ocean Trade on the people of the Kenyan coast up to 1500 AD. (10 marks)
  3.           
    1. State five terms of the Anglo-German Agreement of 1890. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five reasons why the Agiryama resisted the British rule in Kenya. (10 marks)
  4.           
    1. Identify five effects of the national philosophies on development in Kenya. (5 marks)
    2. Discuss five factors that have facilitated industrialization in Kenya since independence. (10 marks)

Section C (30 marks)
Answer any two questions from this section

  1.           
    1. Identify three values of good citizenship in Kenya. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six functions of the Kenya National Commission on Human Rights. (12 marks)
  2.              
    1. Identify three members that constitute the Electoral and Boundaries Commission of Kenya (IEBC). (3 marks)
    2. Describe six functions of the president of the republic of Kenya. (12 marks)
  3.          
    1. Give three ways in which Capital expenditure funds are used by the County governments in Kenya. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six ways in which the National and County Governments relate in Kenya. (12 marks)


Marking Scheme

  1. State one importance of dating in archaeology. (1 mark)
    • It is important in arriving at the age of fossil remains
    • It helps to determined when certain developments took place
      Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  2. Name two other Plains Nilotes in Kenya. (2 marks)
    • Iteso
    • Njemps
    • Samburu
    • Turkana
    • Maasai
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  3. What is the name given to God among the Somali? (1 mark)
    • Allah/Wak/Waa
      1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)

  4. Give one evidence that show that Chinese reached the East African Coast. (1 mark)
    • Remains of Chinese coins
    • Fragments of Chinese pottery/fossils/artifacts
    • Information in the Periplus of the Eritrean sea.
      Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  5. Define the term citizenship. (1 mark)
    • It is the legal right of a person to belong to a particular country.
      1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)

  6. State two economic causes of conflicts. (2 marks)
    • Unequal distribution of economic resources.
    • Disputes over natural resources like land.
    • Differences between employers and workers.
    • Differences over trading policies
    • Corrupt practices/corruption/misuse of public resources
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  7. Identify one non-African minority groups whose rights were protected by constitution of Kenya at independence. (1 marks)
    • The Europeans.
    • The Asians
      Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  8. Give two ways in which direct democracy is exercised today. (2 marks)
    • Through referendum
    • Through plebiscite/consensus
    • Through peoples initiative
    • Exercise the right to recall a non performing member of parliament
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  9. State two reasons why the colonial government established Local Native Councils in 1924. (2 marks)
    • To serve as a link between African people and the Central government
    • To involve Africans in the management of their affairs
    • To provide a forum through which African would express themselves
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  10. Give two reasons why Africans were not allowed to grow coffee until 1937. (1 mark)
    • Africans were expected to provide labour on settler farms
    • Europeans settler did not want to compete with Africans in coffee growing
    • The settlers claimed that Africans did not have enough knowledge of growing coffee as this would lead to low quality products
    • They feared that crops diseases would spread from African farms to settler plantations.
    • Europeans setters claimed that African farmers would produce low quality coffee due to inadequate resources
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  11. What was the main incident behind the banning of Kenya Peoples Union (KPU) party in 1969? (1 mark)
    • The riots instigated by KPU in Kisumu
      1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)

  12. Give the main contribution of Wangari Maathai in the development of Kenya. (1 mark)
    • Environmental conservation/Tree planting
      1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)

  13. Outline two types of cases which are determined by the Courts of Law in Kenya. (2 marks)
    • Civil cases
    • Criminal cases
      2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  14. Give one importance of peace in promoting development. (1 mark)
    • It will promote trade.
    • It will encourage investors to have confidence to invest.
    • Technology, research and innovation will be enhanced
    • Farmers will freely work on their farms thus increased food production.
    • It will enhance international cooperation.
      Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  15. What is multi-party democracy? (1 marks)
    • It is a system of government where several political parties compete for power.
      1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)

  16. Give two reasons that may lead to the removal of a County Governor in Kenya. (2 marks)
    • If he/she violates the constitution/any other law
    • If he/she commits a crime under the national/international law
    • Due to abuse of office/gross misconduct
    • Due to mental or physical incapacity to perform functions of the office
      Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  17. Give two types of government expenditure in Kenya. (2 marks)
    • Capital expenditure
    • Recurrent expenditure.
      2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  18.                  
    1. State five economic activities of the Abagusii during the pre- colonial period. (5 marks)
      • They grew crops
      • They kept livestock/pastoralism
      • They hunted animals and gathered wild fruits
      • They traded with their neighbours
      • They made handicrafts/ Basketry/soapstone
      • They practiced iron working
        Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)

    2. Describe the social organization of the Maasai during the pre-colonial period. (10 marks)
      • The family was the lowest social unit which comprised the father, wife/wives and children
      • Several related families formed a clan
      • Boys and girls were initiated through circumcision at puberty then grouped in to lifelong age sets.
      • They believed in a supreme god called Enkai – the creator.
      • They worshipped god in shrines
      • They were polytheistic in nature
      • They made sacrifices to their god.
      • They had religious specialists and diviners like the Oloiboni.
      • They believed in the existence of ancestral spirits.
      • They were polygamous and exogamous in nature
      • They had important ceremonies like Eunoto that marked the graduation of morans to junior elders
        Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)

  19.        
    1. State five factors which influenced the Akamba to participate in the long distance trade. (5 marks)
      • The harsh environmental conditions/climate forced them to take part in trading activities.
      • Ukambani is centrally located between the coast the interior/proximity to the coast.
      • They had much experience in both local and inter-community trade.
      • They were skilled hunters and iron workers/availability of trade goods.
      • Their leaders e.g. Chief Kivoi encouraged trading activities among his people.
      • There was high demand of their commodities.
      • Existence of well-established trade/ caravan routes
      • There existed market for trade goods
        Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)

    2. Explain five effects of the Indian Ocean Trade on the people of the Kenyan coast up to 1500 AD. (10 marks)
      • It led to development/growth of towns/city states along the coast
      • Many foreigners settled in the East African coast thereby increasing their population in the region
      • Islamic code of law/sharia was introduced which was used to govern the city states/people
      • It led to the spread of Islamic religion in the region
      • Arabic/Persian architecture was introduced which were reflected in the design of houses/mosques built in the region
      • Islamic education was introduced where Islamic schools/Madrassa were constructed
      • There was intermarriage between the early visitors and the coastal inhabitants resulting in a new breed of people called Waswahili
      • Kiswahili language emerged which was a combination of Bantu and Arabic languages
      • There was introduction of new crops like rice, cloves, millet, and fruits which became the staple food of the coastal people.
      • Islamic dressing styles were introduced where men wore long robes/kanzu and women wore veils/buibui
      • There was the growth of wealthy merchants who lived in splendor
      • There emerged a new structure of administration controlled by the Sultans
      • It led to conflict between communities as the demand for slaves increased resulting in insecurity
        Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)

  20.        
    1. State five terms of the Anglo-German Agreement of 1890. (5 marks)
      • Germany recognized Uganda as the British sphere of influence.
      • Zanzibar and Pemba came under the British rule.
      • The Western boundaries of both Uganda and Tanganyika were defined.
      • Britain gave up Heligoland Island in the North Sea to the Germans in return for Witu.
      • Germany was granted Tanganyika
      • The Sultan was left with the 16km coastal strip
      • Britain denounced the claim of a strip of land along the Eastern shores of Lake Tanganyika which was given to the Germans.
        Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)

    2. Explain five reasons why the Agiryama resisted the British rule in Kenya. (10 marks)
      • Forced labour in the European plantation which meant neglecting their own farms/loss of profits which they used to get by selling their farm products.
      • Rape of Agiryama women by the colonial policemen at Vitengeni which was a provocative action against them.
      • Land alienation North of Sabaki River, meaning that the Agiryarna would dwell on less productive areas, leaving the best land to the European settlement.
      • Interruption of their trade with the Swahili/Arab traders which had been their economic main stay for a long time.
      • Interference with their traditions/religion/customs by demolishing their shrines which they regarded as sacred.
      • Forced taxation which meant that Africans had to work on the European farms so as to raise the hut tax charged.
      • They had lost their independence to the British/the British replaced the Agiriama traditional rulers
      • They were forced to join the British army, a thing they disliked
        Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)

  21.                    
    1. Identify five effects of the national philosophies on development in Kenya. (5 marks)
      • The philosophies have encouraged cooperation/unity/understanding among Kenyans
      • They have encouraged Kenyans to actively participate in development projects
      • Through it, education has been promoted through building of schools, colleges and universities
      • They have encouraged social mutual responsibility among Kenyans
      • They have helped improve medical service by constructing dispensaries, health centres and hospitals
      • The plight of disadvantaged people have been addressed by philosophies through organizing harmbees to assist them
      • They have promoted African culture through borrowing of positive African traditions
      • They have promoted spiritual wellbeing through building of churches
      • Development of agriculture has been realized.
      • Development of infrastructure
      • Soil conservation measures were under taken like tree planting and construction of gabions.
      • They have created employment opportunities
      • They have promoted peace and stability in the country
      • They have promoted nationalism and patriotism by encouraging people to work together
        Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)

    2. Discuss five factors that have facilitated industrialization in Kenya since independence. (10 marks)
      • Availability of modern source of energy like hydroelectric power.
      • Availability of skilled and unskilled labour from the large population.
      • Good transport and communication networks
      • The rich agricultural sector provides industrial raw materials.
      • Existence of mineral resources has given rise to industries
      • Presence of both natural and man- made forests has promoted the development of furniture industries in the country.
      • Availability of varied tourist attractions in the country has promoted tourism industry.
      • Availability of water resources rich in fish processing industries in the country.
      • Government has taken the initiative through the establishment of ministries of trade and commerce.
      • Availability of market
        Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)

  22.            
    1. Identify three values of good citizenship in Kenya. (3 marks)
      • One should practice nationalism and serve his/her country with devotion/nationalism
      • One should be patriotic to his/her country/patriotism
      • One should be morally upright/morality
      • One should serve his/her country selflessly with dedication/integrity
      • One should use available resources wisely/thrift
      • One should be ethical in handling issues e.g. transparency, accountability, and hard work/ethics
        Any 3 points @ 1 mark each (3 marks)

    2. Explain six functions of the Kenya National Commission on Human Rights. (12 marks)
      • To protect respect for human rights/to develop culture of human rights in the country.
      • To receive complaints about alleged abuse of human rights from citizens.
      • To monitor/investigate on the observance of human rights in the country and take appropriate action/ report on observance of human rights.
      • To provide shadow report to the United Nations on the status of observance of human rights in the country.
      • To formulate/implement programmes intended to create public awareness of the rights/obligations of citizens.
      • To ensure that the country complies with international treaties/conventions regarding human rights.
      • To work with the National Gender and Equality Commission on Administrative Justice to ensure efficiency/effectiveness/complementarity in their activities/promote gender equality and equity.
      • To make recommendations to the state to improve the functions of state organs.
        Any 6 points @ 2 marks each (12 marks)

  23.                 
    1. Identify three members that constitute the Electoral and Boundaries Commission of Kenya (IEBC). (3 marks)
      • The Chairperson
      • The Vice chairperson
      • Seven commissioners/Commissioners
      • The Secretary/the Chief Executive Officer
        Any 3 points @ 1 mark each (3 marks)
    2. Describe six functions of the president of the republic of Kenya. (12 marks)
      • The president represents the government and the people of Kenya locally and internationally.
      • The president is the head of government and nominates the deputy president who deputizes him. He or she also appoints and dismisses Cabinet Secretaries, the Attorney General, and other office holders as outlined in the constitution.
      • The president addresses the opening of each newly elected parliament.
      • The president has the duty to chair cabinet meetings and directs and co- ordinates the functions of ministries and Government departments.
      • The president is the Commander-in-Chief of the Kenya Defence Forces. He can declare war with the approval of parliament. The president can also declare a state of emergency.
      • The president confers honours to deserving persons in the name of the people and the Republic.
      • The president can pardon criminals convicted in a court of law.
      • The president presides over national days in the country.
      • Has the role to form the government after general elections.
      • The president gives assent to parliamentary bills to become laws.
      • Receives foreign diplomats and consular staff
        Any 6 points @ 2 marks each (12 marks)
  24.                
    1. Give three ways in which Capital expenditure funds are used by the County governments in Kenya. (3 marks)
      • Construction of infrastructure such as County roads and bridges.
      • Construction of public amenities like stadia, social halls, health centres and schools.
      • Construction of County facilities such as county abattoirs, livestock sale yards and markets.
      • Purchase of motor vehicles and equipment.

        Any 3 points @ 1 mark each (3 marks)
    2. Explain six ways in which the National and County Governments relate in Kenya (12 marks)
      • There is mutual respect in exercising/performance of their powers
      • The national government assists or supports the county government as appropriate
      • They should implement legislations of other level of government
      • They liaise for the purposes of exchanging or coordinating policies
      • They co-operate in the performance of functions/exercise of power through setting up of joint committees.
      • They set up mechanisms of settling disputes
      • The National Government has powers to intervene in a County Government if it is unable to perform its functions.
      • The National Government through the president may suspend the County Government.
        Any 6 points @ 2 marks each (12 marks)

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