Agriculture Paper 2 Questions and Answers - 2021 KCSE Eldoret Diocese Mock Exams

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Questions

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  • This paper consists of three sections: A, B and C
  • Answer all the questions in section A and B and any two questions from section C

SECTION A (30 MARKS)
(Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided)

  1. Name two kinds of livestock which can be castrated using a rubber ring. (1mark)
  2. Define the term “breach of birth” as used in livestock production. (1 mark)
  3.         
    1. Name the camel breed that is adapted to cooler regions and has a wooly body covering. (1/2 mark)
    2. Give three ways used to improve production in indigenous cattle. (1 1/2 mark)
  4. Give four methods of administering vaccines to livestock. (2 marks)
  5. State two uses of bedding materials in a poultry house in deep litter system. (1mark)
  6. Give any two pairs of livestock tools which are always used together. (1 mark)
  7. List two types of feed additives. (1 mark)
  8. State three factors that may lead to dip wash being exhausted or weakened while in the dip tank. (1 1/2 marks)
  9. State four practices which are carried out to control mastitis in lactating cows. (2 marks)
  10. Give two signs of heat in rabbits. (1 mark)
  11. State four maintenance practices carried out on the water-cooling system of a tractor (2 marks)
  12. State four observations on the behavior of chicks which would indicate that the temperature in the brooder is too high. (2 marks)
  13. Highlights four desirable characteristics that should be considered when selecting a heifer for milk production. (2 marks)
  14. Give four functions of calcium in dairy cows. (2 marks)
  15. Name two notifiable diseases in cattle. (1 mark)
  16. State any two channels through which beef is marketed in Kenya. (1 mark)
  17. State four factors that may influence the pulse rate of a sheep. (2 marks)
  18. List three properties of concrete that make it suitable for constructing farm building.(11/2 mark)
  19. Give four reasons why breeding boar may be culled. (2 marks)
  20. Give two functions of a footbath in a plunge cattle dip. (1 mark)

SECTION B (20 MARKS)
(Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided)

  1. The diagram below represents an implement.
    1. Identify the implement. (1 mark)
    2. Name the parts labelled U and V and give one function of each. (2 marks)
      U
      V
    3. State two ways of adjusting the depth of ploughing when using the implement. (2 marks)
  2. Study the diagram of an egg below and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Name the parts labeled O, and P (2 marks)
      O …………………………………………………………………………………
      P ……………………………………………………………………………………
    2. State the functions of the parts M and L. (2 marks)
      M
      L
    3. Why should the egg be turned during incubation. (1 mark)
  3. Below is an illustration of a farm structure.
    1. Identify the structure above. (1 mark)
    2. State Six livestock routine practices which may be carried out in the structure above (3 marks)
    3. Give Two maintenance practices which should be carried out in the structure above. (1 mark)
  4. The diagram below shows the farm equipment. Study it carefully and use it to answer the questions that follow.
    1. Name the parts labeled A, B and C (3 marks)
      A………………………………………………………………………………………
      B………………………………………………………………………………………
      C………………………………………………………………………………………
    2. State the use of the equipment shown above. (1 mark)
    3. Give one maintenance practice carried out on the equipment. (1 mark)

SECTION C
(Answer any two questions in this section on the spaces provided)

  1.          
    1. Describe the live cycle of a named tapeworm (Taenia spp). (10 marks)
    2. Describe the management practices that would ensure maximum yield of fish in a fish pond. (5 marks)
    3.  Explain five functions of water in nutrition. (5 marks)
  2.     
    1. Discuss the management of layers from one day old to the start of laying in a deep litter system. (l0 marks)
    2. State any five advantages of using animal power in the farm. (5 marks)
    3. Describe five importance of keeping animals healthy. (5 marks)
  3.           
    1. Discuss mastitis disease under the following subheading:
      1. Causal organism (1 mark)
      2.  Predisposing factors (4 marks)
      3. Symptoms (4 marks)
      4. Control and treatment (3 marks)
    2. Explain eight factors that affect milk composition in dairy farming. (8 marks)

Marking Scheme

  1. Livestock which can be castrated using a rubber ring
    • He goat
    • Male calves
    • Rams
      2x1/2=1mk
  2. Definition of “breach of birth” as used in livestock production
    • It’s a presentation during parturition where the hind legs of the new born comes out first 1x1=1mk
  3.  
    1. Camel breed that is adapted to cooler regions and as a wooly body covering
      • Bareterian 1x1/2= 1/2 mk
    2. Give three ways used to improve production in indigenous cattle
      • Cross breeding with exotic breeds with superior
      • Supplementary feeding
      • Proper control/prevention of livestock diseases
        3x1/2=11/2mks
  4. Methods of administering vaccines to livestock
    • Injection
    • Oral/through the mouth
    • Nasal/inhalation
    • Through the cloaca
    • Ocular/through the eye
      4x1/2=2mks
  5. Uses of bedding materials in a poultry house in deep litter system
    • To provide warmth
    • To absorb moisture to prevent dampness
      2x1/2=1mk
  6. Pairs of livestock tools which are always used together
    • Trocar and canula
    • Hypodermic syringe and a needle
    • Elastrator and rubber ring
    • Bull ring and lead stick
      2x1/2=1mk
  7. List two types of feed additives
    • Hormone eg. stilbestrol and oxytocin.
    • Antibiotics e.g. tetramycin.
    • Medicant e.g. caccissostate. 3x1/2=11/2mks
  8. Factors that may lead to dip wash being exhausted or weakened while in the dip tank
    • Evaporation
    • Dilution by rain water in case of roof leakage
    • Leakage at the bottom/cracks at the bottom or walls
    • Dirt/impurities from the animal’s body
      3x1/2=11/2mks
  9. Practices which are carried out to control mastitis in lactating cows
    • Practice farm hygiene/milk infected cause last/use separate udder cloth for each cow/use disposable udder cloth
    • Practice that dips after milking
    • Practice good milking technique
    • Apply milking salve/jelly to prevent drying and cracking of teats
    • Immediate treatment of infected cows to avoid spread of the disease/treat any would on the teat/udder 4x1/2 =2mks
  10. Signs of heat in rabbits.
    • Restlessness
    • Frequent urination
    • Swollen vulva
    • The doe throws itself on its sides
    • Rubs herself against the wall/object.
    • The doe peeps through the cage wall.
  11. Maintenance practices carried out on the water cooling system of a tractor
    • Keep the radiator fins free of rubbish and dirt
    • Ensure the fun belt has the right tension
    • Ensure all loses are tightly fitted to prevent leakage
    • Top up the level of water in the radiator before using the tractor
    • Replace worn out parts eg fan belt, hose pipes radiator cap
    • Lubricate radiator pump regularly
    • Repair the radiator
    • Tighten loose bolts and nuts
      4x1/2=2mks
  12. Behavior of chicks which would indicate that the temperature in the brooder is too high
    • Chicks moves away from the source
    • Parting/opening beaks
    • Opening/spreading the wings
    • Making abnormal noise
    • Drinking water excessively
    • Chicks may lie flat on their bellies
      4x1/2=2mks
  13. Desirable characteristics that should be considered when selecting a heifer for milk production
    • Level of production
    • Health/growth rate/age
    • Fertility rate/mothering ability
    • Body conformation
    • Disease resistance
    • Temperament / adaptability
      4x1/2=2mks
  14. Functions of calcium in dairy cows
    • A component of milk
    • Formation of skeleton/teeth
    • Blood clotting
    • Nerve functioning/control milk fiver
  15. Notifiable diseases in cattle
    • Anthrax
    • Foot and mouth disease
    • Rinderpest
    • Rabies
    • Lumpy disease
  16. Channels through which beef is marketed in Kenya
    • Local butcheries
    • Kenya meat commission
    • Livestock marketing division 2x1/2=1mk
  17. Factors that may influence the pulse rate of a sheep.
    • The sex of the animal
    • Age of the animal
    • Degree of excitement
    • The physiological status of the animal e.g pregnancy
      4x ½ =2 marks
  18. Properties of concrete that make it suitable for constructing farm building
    • Its durable
    • It is easy to clean
    • It is fire proof
    • Can be molded into various shapes 3x1/2 =11/2mks
  19. Reasons why breeding boar may be culled. (2 marks)
    • It avoids incidences of blow fly infestation
    • Old age.
    • Poor health.
    • Infertility / low libido.
    • To stop breeding.
    • Hind leg weakness / when too fat or too lazy.
    • Bad temperament / aggressiveness.
    • Poor performance of offspring
      2x1/2=1mk
  20. Functions of a footbath in a plunge cattle dip
    • Wash animal hooves to remove mud
    • Contain chemicals to control foot rot
      2x ½ =1 mark
  21. Farm implement.
    1. Identify the implement.
      • Disc plough
    2. Name the parts labeled U and V and give one function of each.
      • U - Furrow wheel/depth wheel
        - Controls the depth of ploughing
      • V - Disc
        - Cut and invert the furrow slices
    3. Ways of adjusting the depth of ploughing
      • Add weight to the plough beam
      • Adjust the cutting angle of discs
      • Use of draft control lever
      • Exert more hydraulic force
      • Use fewer discs
  22.           
    1. The parts of an egg labeled N,O and P
      • O – Outer shell membrane
      • P – Shell
    2. Functions of
      • M – to keep the yolk and germ spot in position/ Germ spot to keep facing up.
      • L – for gaseous exchange
    3. Reason for egg turning during incubation is
      • To avoid the developing embryo from sticking on one side of the egg hence embryonic mortality
  23.                 
    1. Crush 1mk
    2.      
      • Spraying against external parasites
      • Dehorning
      • Hoof trimming
      • Taking body temperature
      • Treating sick animals
      • Milking 6 x ½ = 3mks
    3.       
      • Repair broken wooden post/timber
      • Clean after use
      • Regular inspection
      • Replace yoke when the need arises 2 x ½ = 1mk
  24.            
    1. Name the parts labeled A, B and C (3 marks)
      • Spray tank
      • Trigger
      • Nozzle
    2. State the use of the equipment shown above. (1 mark)
      • Spraying chemical solutions.
    3. Give one maintenance practice carried out on the equipment. (1 mark)
      • Clean after use
      • Oil the moving parts.
      • Store under shade.
  25.           
    1. Live cycle of a tapeworm (taenia spp)
      • Mature segments / proglottids full of eggs are dropped with human faeces
      • Eggs are then released from the segments
      • Cattle/pigs ingest the eggs during grazing/feeding
      • In the intestines the eggs hatch into embryos
      • The embryos penetrate the intestine walls and enter the blood stream
      • The embryos first localize in the liver
      • From the liver, the embryos are distributed into the muscles in the body
      • In the muscles, they become cysts/bladder worms
      • Human being are injected when they eat raw/under cooked beef/pork with the cysts
      • In the human small intestines, the cysts wall dissolves, the bladder worms emerge and attach on the intestine walls
      • They then develop into adults worm and starts laying eggs
        10x1=10mks
    2. Management practices that would ensure maximum yield of fish in a fish pond
      • Control stocking rate
      • Control of water pollution
      • Supply adequate feed regularly
      • Provide appropriate feed
      • Aerate the water by ensuring constant inflow and outflow
      • Control predators
      • Harvest fish at the correct maturity age
      • Maintain appropriate water level in the fish pond always
        5x1=5mks
    3. Functions of water in nutrition
      • Components of body cells and many body fluids e.g blood
      • Used in biochemical reactions in the body eg digestion
      • Regulate body temperatures trough sweating and evaporation
      • Excretion of metabolic wastes from the body
      • Formation of the products eg milk, eggs etc
      • Makes cells turgid to maintain their shape
      • Transportation of nutrients
        5x1=5mks
  26.                   
    1. Management of layers from one day old to the start of laying in a deep litter system.
      • Disinfect the brooder 2 — 3 days before the day old chicks are brought in.
      • Spread newspaper over the litter to prevent chicks from eating litter.
      • Spread some food on the newspaper so that chicks can learn to eat.
      • Remove the newspaper when the chicks have learnt to eat from feeders
      • Feed on chick mash up to 8th week.
      • Gradually introduce growers mash from week
      • Debeak (on the 10th day)
      • Keep chicks in the brooder for 6—8 weeks.
      • Provide and maintain source of heat as necessary.
      • Provide adequate clean water
      • Vaccinate against common diseases especially Newcastle.
      • Control external parasites
      • Insulate sick chicks
      • Treat sick chicks.
      • Introduce roosts for perching (on 6th week)
      • Introduce grit / sand to help in digestion.
      • Hang green vegetable to keep them busy.
      • Feed on grower’s marsh to 18th – 20th week.
      • Gradually replace by layers mash from 18th week.
      • A specific day/week must be indicated to award mark.
        (1 ×10 = 10 mks)
    2. Five advantages of using animal power in the farm.
      • Does not require skilled labour as compared to engine power.
      • Animals are cheaper to buy and maintain.
      • Work output is higher than that of human beings.
      • Can work in areas where tractor can’t reach.
      • Work better on small holdings than tractors.
        (1 x 5 = 5 mks)
    3. Importance of keeping animals healthy.
      • Grow fast and reach maturity quickly.
      • Gives animals a longer economic and productive life.
      • Maintains a high productivity.
      • Produce good quality products thus command high market value.
      • Will not spread diseases to other animals.
      • Are economical and easy to keep.
  27. Mastitis disease under the following subheading
    1.                    
      1. - Streptococcus agalactinae /
        - Staphylococcal mastitis
      2.            
        age
        Stage of lactation period
        Udder attachment
        Incomplete milking
        Mechanical injuries
        Poor sanitation
        Poor milking technique.
      3.    
        Pus, blood, thick clots in milk or watery milk
        Pain when milking / udders / teats are swollen
        Death of infected quarter.
        Salty taste in milk, fine clots or flakes in fore milk
      4.    
        Empty the affected quarter of udder and instill antibiotic
        Use teat dip on each teat after every milking.
        Use the right milking technique.
        Strict cleanliness and use of disinfectant during milking.
        Dry cow therapy. / Infusing a long acting antibiotics into the teat canal when drying off the cow.
        Use a strip cup to test for mastitis, infected animals should be milked last.
        Use separate udder clothes
        Remove sharp objects from grazing and milking areas to prevent teat injury
        Open wound on the teats should be treated immediately
    2. Eight factors that affect milk composition in dairy farming. (8 marks)
      • Age of the animal – Butter fat in milk becomes less as an animal grows old thus young animals produce milk with higher BF than older animals.
      • Breed – Different breeds of cattle produce milk with differing percentages composition e.g. Jersey produces higher BF than Friesian.
      • Type of food eaten by an animal – Roughage feeds produce milk with higher fats, lactose and protein compared to grains.
      • Disease – Diseases such as mastitis reduce lactose composition in milk because bacteria attack milk sugars.
      • Physiological condition – of the animal.
      • Sick / extremely emaciated animals register low percentage of BF.
      • During late pregnancy cows produce milk with low BF content.
      • Stage of lactation – The butter content in milk is highest at the middle phase of the lactation period and lowers towards the end of lactation.
      • Time of milking – Milk produced in the morning has lower BF content than produced in the evening.
      • Season of the year – BF content increases during cold season.
      • Completeness of milking – The last drawn milk from the udder contains 10% total BF content.
      • Thus milk drawn last from the udder has higher BF content. 

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