Agriculture Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Sunrise 2 Evaluation Mock Exams 2022

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INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  1. Write your name and index number in the spaces provided above
  2. Sign and write the date of examination in the spaces provided above
  3. This paper consists of three sections: A, B and C
  4. Answer all the questions in section A and B and any two questions from section C
  5. Do not remove any pages from this booklet

For Examiner’s Use Only

Section

Question

Maximum Score

Candidate’s Score

A

1 – 18

30

 

B

19 – 23

20

 

C

 

20

 
   

20

 
 

Total Score

90

 

QUESTIONS

SECTION A (30 MARKS)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided

  1. State two ways in which agriculture contributes directly to the development of industries (1mk)
  2. What is a micro catchment ? (½ mk)
  3. State any three details contained in a delivery note (2mks)
  4. Outline any four problems farmers face when marketing their products (2mks)
  5. Name three sites for agro forestry trees (1 ½ mks)
  6.                  
    1. State two ways in which land consolidation improves farm management (1mk)
    2. State four advantages confers to a farmer with land title deed (2mks)
  7. Give four reasons for earthing up some crops (2mks)
  8. Give two reasons for testing soil in the farm (1mk)
  9. List four examples of variable inputs in maize production (2mks)
  10. Name four books of account kept by a farmer (2 mks)
  11. Give two functions of the Agricultural Finance corporation (AFC) (2mks)
  12. State two common symptoms of viral infection in crop (1mk)
  13. State four conditions under which opportunity cost equals to zero (2mks)
  14. Name four factors that may affect the selectivity and effectiveness of herbicides (2mks)
  15. Give two means by which water can be conveyed from the place of storage to where it is needed on the farm (1mk)
  16. List four pieces of information likely to be found in a field operation record (2mks)
  17. Give four qualities of good silage (2mks)
  18. A farmer was advised to apply 200kg of CAN/ha, while top dressing bean crop CAN contains 21% N Calculate the amount of CAN applied per hectare (2mks)

SECTION B (20 MARKS)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided

  1. Below are diagrams of common weeds on the farm Use them to answer the questions that follow
    19 auygdad
    1. Identify the weeds A, B, C and D (1mks)
      A
      B
    2. Give one negative effect of weed labeled B in livestock (1mk)
    3. Suggest the most appropriate method of controlling weed labeled D (1mk)
  2. The diagram below illustrates a method of collecting soil samples from a field
    20 adada
    1. Identify the method illustrated above (1mk)
    2. Describe four steps that should be followed when collecting soil samples (2mks)
    3. State two precautions a farmer should take when collecting a representative soil sample from the field for testing (1mk)
  3. The diagram below shows a method of forage preservation
    21 adada
    1. Identify the structure above (1 mk)
    2. State the form in which the forage is preserved as illustrated above (1 mk)
    3. Give the role played by each of the following in the structure above
      1. Polythene sheet (1 mk)
      2. Drainage (1 mk)
    4. Name two other methods of forage conservation (1 mk)
  4. The document shown below is a sample of a delivery note Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow:
    22 adada
    1. Name the column labeled A and B (1mk)
      A
      B
    2. What is the purpose of this document in business transaction? (1mk)
    3. Outline four details that the document should contain for it to be complete (2mks)
  5. Study the illustration in the diagram below and answer questions that follow
    23 adada
    1. Identify the practice being illustrated above (1mk)
    2. State three activities that should be carried out for successful results in the practice shown above (3mks)

SECTION C (40 MARKS)
Answer any two questions from this section in the spaces provided after question 26

  1.                        
    1. Explain the terms risks and uncertainties in farming (2 mks)
    2. State the various risks and uncertainties farmers face in fanning (12 mks)
    3. Explain various ways in which farmers adjust to risks and uncertainties in farming (6mks)
  2.                    
    1. Describe the characteristics of ideal agroforestry tree species (10mks)
    2. Explain five physical methods of pest control (10mks)
    3.                
  3.                      
    1. The following information was extracted from Bidii farm’s book records as at 31st December 2022 The farm had borrowed a long term loan of 1 million from the co-operative bank and owed Ksh10,000 to the co-operative society shop for coffee sprays and cattle feeds The farm is owed Ksh10,000 for milk delivered to New KCC Salaries amounting to Ksh9,500 had not been paid The valuations of the farm were as follows
      Item Ksh
      Cattle 125,000
      Goats 19,000
      Poultry 35,000
      Coffee trees 95,000
      Equipment 40,000
      Farm buildings 145,000
      Stored cattle feed 4,000
      Stored cattle spray 21000
      Money in cash box 2,000
      Land valued at 600,000
      1. Prepare a balance sheet for Bidii farm as at 31st December, 2022 (7mks)
      2. Show whether Bidii farm was solvent or insolvent (1mk)
      3. Explain your answer in (ii) above (1mk)
    2. Explain principles governing formation of cooperatives (8mks)
    3. Describe three advantages of mixed stand of pastures (3mks)

Marking scheme

  1.                    
    • Provision of raw materials;
    • Provide a market for industrial good
    • Provides capital for starting industries; (2 x ½ ) = 1mk
      First 2 correct
  2. A Micro catchment is a structure constructed in the farm to collect and trap run-off water for productive use.
  3.                  
    • Details contained in a delivery note. (1 ½mk)
    • Date of delivery of goods
    • Means of delivery
    • The quantity of goods delivered.
    • The recipient of the goods are received
  4.              
    • Problems farmers face when marketing their agricultural products. 2mks
    • Most agricultural products are bulky. The bulkiness reduce the quantity that can be transported.
    • Agricultural products are seasonal in nature and are abundant only during harvest time and scarce when out of season. This result to many produce going to waste.
    • Most agricultural products require to be stored in well designed and constructed structures. Most of the product go to waste due to poor storage facilities.
  5. Sites for agroforestry trees. (1 ½mks)
    • Boundary/Borders
    • Homesteads
    • River banks
    • Terraces
    • Slopes
  6.                        
    1.                    
      • saves time
      • Makes easy for sound farm plan
      • Easy supervision in the farm
      • Facilitates mechanizations
    2. Advantages of owing a title deed (2mks)
      • Reduces land disputes.
      • It is an official prove of land ownership.
      • Can be used as security for loans
      • Confers full rights of ownership hence act as incentive to invest on long term projects.
      • How to increase light intensity in the field crops
  7.                          
    • promotes tuber expansion
    • Conserve moisture
    • Control soil erosion
    • Provides anchorage
  8.                          
    • To establish the nutrients those are deficient in the soil.
    • To determine the soil pH and hence correct it in case it is too high or too low.
    • To establish a suitable crop that can be grown in a given area.
    • To determine the type of the soil
  9.                      
    • Seeds
    • Fertilizer
    • Pesticides
    • Labour
    • Fuel (4 x ½ = 2mks)
  10.                      
    • journal
    • Cash book
    • Ledger
  11.                      
    • Providing agricultural credit to farmers at reasonable interest rates with a grace period;
    • Providing technical services to the farmers to ensure the best utilization of the borrowed capital.
    • Ensure repayment of the loans by farmers
  12.                      
    • Mosaic/leaf chlorosis;
    • Mottling;
    • Leaf curling;
    • Stunting/ resetting/ short internodes;
    • Malformation/ distortion of parts; (2 x ½ = 1mk)
      First 2 correct
  13.                      
    1.                      
      • where there is no alternative
      • Gift from friends
      • Free goods
  14.                  
    • Rooting system;
    • Growing points;
    • Stage of growth of plant;
    • Leaf angle;
    • Height difference;
    • Leaf texture; (4 x ½ = 2mks)
      First 4 correct
  15.                      
    • By transporting it in containers (by vehicles / animals);
    • By piping;
    • By use of canals/channels/furrows; (2 x ½ = 1mk)
      First 2 correct
  16.                
    • Season;
    • Crop grown/variety;
    • Ploughing date;
    • Inputs used;
    • Pest controlled/method;
    • Disease controlled/method;
    • Weeds controlled /method;
    • Harvesting date
    • Yield
    • Planting date
    • Plot/field number
    • Area of plot/land (4 x ½ = 2mks)
      First 4 correct
  17. Factors that determine quality of silage (2mks)
    • Type of forage/crop used Stage of harvesting
    • Presence of air during ensiling/presence of moulds/bad smell.
    • Texture
      (4 x ½ = 2mks)
      First 4 correct
  18. If 100kg of CAN → 21kgN
    ∴ 200 kg of CAN → 200 x 21
                                        100
    = 42kgN  (2mks)
  19.                        
    1. A – Double thorn/ Oxygonum sinuatum;
      B – Datura / Thornapple / Datura stramonium
      C – Wild oats / Avena fatua
      D – Couch grass / Digitaria scalarum (4 x ½ = 2mks)
    2. Poisonous (1mk)
    3. Using herbicides eg Dalapow, MCPA or Glyphosphate (1mk)
  20.                      
    1. Zigzag method (1mk)
    2.                          
      • Clear vegetation from sampling spot;
      • Make a vertical cut 15 – 20cm deep for crop land / 5cm in pasture land;
      • Put the soil in clean polythene bag using different parts of the field (15 – 20 spots;
      • Repeat the above steps in different parts of the field;
      • Mix the soil from different spots thoroughly and dry it
      • Take a sub-sample from the mixture for testing in the laboratory
        (4 x 1= 4mks)
    3.                      
      • Avoid any contaminations with the soil e.g ash from cigarettes;
      • Avoid sampling soils from unusual areas such as ant-hills, manure heaps;
      • Avoid mixing top soil with subsoil; (2 x ½ = 1mk)
  21.                        
    1.                        
      1. Identification of structure
        Trench silo
        ( 1 x 1 = 1mrk)
        Form in which forage is presented as illustrated above ˗ Silage 1x1 = lmk
        Role played bv:-
        Polythene -keep the structure air-tight/
        Prevents rainfall from getting in ( l x l = l mrk)
      2. Drainage -Drain off rain water/prevents entry of water into the silage ( 1 x 1 = 1 mrk)
        Two other methods of forage conservation
        Hay
        Standing forage / hay(2 x 14 = 1 mrk
  22.                                
    1. A – particulars/ Description; ( ½ mk)
      B – Quantity of goods delivered; (½mk)
    2. This document is written by the seller and always accompanies goods to be delivered to serve as evidence that goods have been physically delivered from the supplier to the buyer.
    3.                    
      • The date of delivery;
      • The quantity and type of goods delivered;
      • The name of the supplier and the buyer;
      • The method of delivery
      • The person who delivers/reseives the goods
      • Condition in which the goods are received;
      • Delivery note serial number; (4 x ½ = 2mks) First 4 correct
  23.                    
    1. Lifting of a seedling; (1mk)
    2.                              
      • Watering the nursery bed thoroughly before lifting;
      • Lifting the seedling using a garden trowel/lifting the seedling with a ball of soil on the roots;
      • Lifting the seedlings in the evening/on a cloudy day;
      • Select only healthy and vigorously growing seedlings; (3 x 1 = 3mks)
  24.                      
    1. risks and uncertainities (2mks)
      • Risk is the divergence between expectations and the actual outcome / difference betweenwhat a farmer could predict and the actual outcome
      • Uncertainity is a state of imperfect knowledge about future events or outcome / a state of not knowing about the future events
    2. Types of risks (12mks)
      • Weather changes eg drought
      • Fire or arson on farm produce
      • Theft of crops or livestock
      • Accident to employer or employees
      • Outbreak of pests and diseases
      • Health of the farmer
      • Types of uncertainties
      • price fluctuations
      • uncertainty of physical yields
      • uncertainty of new production techniques
      • breach of contract
      • obsolescence eg of machinery
      • ownership uncertainties eg about security of tenure
      • government policy
      • transport reliabilities
      • unavailable labor or inputs
    3. Ways in which farmers adjust to risks and uncertainties (6mks)
      • decreasing inputs applied so that incase of failure it will be less than if maximum amount was used / input rationing
      • diversification so that incaseof failure of an enterprise thefarmer will besupported by others
      • flexibilities in farm organization and production methods ,that is the ability of the farmer to change from producing one product to another
      • adopting modem methods of production /mechanization
      • insuring production
      • contracting production
  25.                      
    1.                
      • Nitrogen fixing ability – The trees should be preferably legumes. They should be capable of fixing Nitrogen into the soil for use by other crops;
      • Fast growing ability – trees chosen should be fast growing and early maturing so that they can be put into other uses – thus should have a high biomass production e.g fuel wood
      • Multipurpose nature – the chosen trees should be able to meet other uses such as provision of fuel woods, fodder, poles and timber.
      • By – product production – The best agroforestry tree species should be able to produce economic products and by-products which can be used or sold for income e.g those producing edible leaves, fruits, medicinal products, poles and fodder.
      • Deep rooted with a narrow root zone – when agro-forestry trees have deep roots, they acquire their nutrients from lower soil horizons where most plant roots do not reach-hence minimal competition for nutrients;
      • Non-competitive ability with main crop- a good agroforestry tree species should not compete with the main crops for light and nutrients unnecessarily.
      • Nutritious and palatable – trees used for this purpose should be both nutritious and palatable as leaf fodder for livestock use.
      • Easily coppiced – the trees species which will be able to regenerate after cutting back for pruning are preferred. (5 x 2 = 10mks)
        (Characteristic – 1mk, explaination – 1mk)
    2.                      
      • Use of lethal temperature – These are too hot or too cold conditions which kill pests;
      • Proper drying of produce – drying of grains makes them too hard for pests to penetrate;
      • Flooding – drowns underground pests eg moles and cutworms;
      • Suffocation – pumping carbon(IV) oxide into hermetic Cyprus bins deprives pests of oxygen;
      • Physical destruction – done through trapping, hand picking and killing them.
      • Use of scare crows/ devices – for scaring large animals and birds from crop fields;
      • Use of physical barriers – Barriers such as trenches fences, rat quards prevent pests from getting into crop fields or stores.
      • Use of electromagnetic radiation – electromagnetic radiations are used to kill insect pests through deactivation of enzymes (5 x 2 = 10mks)
        (Method – 1mk, Explanation – 1mk)
  26.                 
    1.                            
      1.            

        LIABILITIES

        ASSETS

         

        Ksh.

        Cts.

         

        Ksh.

        Cts

        Current Liabilities

           

        Current Assets

           

        Debts payable to co-operative society

        10,000

        00

        Money in cashbox

        2,000

        00

        Salaries

        9,500

        00

        Debt receivable from new KCC

        10,000

        00

        Total Current Liabilities

        19,500

        00

        Stored cattle spray

        2,000

        00

        Long Term Liabilities

           

        Poultry

        35,000

        00

        Bank loan

        1,000,000

        00

        Goats

        19,000

        00

             

        Cattle

        125,000

        00

        Total Liabilities

        1,019,500

        00

        Stored cattle feed

        4,000

        00

             

        Total current Assets

        197,000

        00

        Net worth

        57,500

        00

        Fixed Assets

           
             

        Coffee trees

        95,000

        00

             

        Equipment

        40,000

        00

             

        Farm buildings

        145,000

        00

             

        Land valued

        600,000

        00

             

        Total Fixed Assets

        880,000

        00

             

        Total Assets

        1,077,000

        00

        TOTAL

        1,077,000

        00

        TOTAL

        1,077,000

        00

        (7mks)
      2. Bidii farm is solvent (1mk)
      3. The value of assets is more than that of the liabilities hence the farm can meet all her liabilities and still have net capital (1mk)
    2.              
      • open membership
      • equal rights.
      • principles of share limit.
      • interest on shares.
      • withdrawal from membership
      • loyalty.
      • education.
      • co-operative principle.
      • non-profit motive.
    3. three advantages of mixed stand of pastures.
      • Economizes on nitrogenous fertilizers.
      • Provide a good soil cover hence control soil erosion.
      • High nutritive value.
      • High herbage yield.
      • Diversification.

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