Geography Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Cekenas Mock Exams 2022

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    1. Define mining (2marks)
    2. Give three ways in which minerals occur (3marks)
    1. Apart from tropical hardwood forests name two other types of natural forests (2marks)
    2. State three characteristics of tropical hardwood forests that make it difficult to exploit (3marks)
    1. Name two breeds of dairy cattle reared in Kenya (2marks)
    2. State three human factors that favour dairy farming in Denmark (3marks)
    1. Differentiate between fishing and fishery (2marks)
    2. State measures used by the Kenya government to conserve marine fisheries (3marks)
    1. State three physical factors which influence the location of settlements (3marks)
    2. Identify two functional zones of an ideal urban Centre (2marks)


  1. The table below shows tonnage of trade items in Kenya from various parts of the world in 2005 and 2006. Use it to answer question (a) and (b)
    Place of origin Tonnage per year
    2005 2006
    Europe 942000 985000
    Africa 120000 154000
    Asia 97000 128000
    North America 94000 103000
    Australia and New Zealand 19000 24000
    All other countries 29000 41000
    TOTAL 1,301,000 1,435,000
      1. Which continent had the highest increase in tonnage of trade items in Kenya between 2005 and 2006 (2marks)
      2. Calculate the percentage increase in trade tonnage from Australia and New Zealand between 2005 and 2006 (2marks)
      3. Draw a divided rectangle 15cm long to represent the tonnage of trade items in Kenya in 2006 (8marks)
      1. State two advantages of using divided, rectangles to represent geographical data (2marks)
      2. State four reasons why in 2005 and 2006 there was higher tonnage for trade items from Europe compared to that from Africa continent (3marks)
    3. Explain four ways through which the Kenyan government is promoting external trade (8marks)
      1. State three physical conditions that favour sugarcane farming in Kenya (3marks)
      2. Apart from Bungoma name two counties where sugarcane is grown on large scale (2marks)
      1. Describe the cultivation of sugarcane in Kenya (6marks)
      2. Explain four problems facing sugarcane farming in Kenya (8marks)
      1. Give three by-products from sugarcane (3marks)
      2. Give three uses of sugar (3marks)
      1. State two farming methods that assists in soil rehabilitation (2marks)
      2. Give two methods that are used to drain swamps in Kenya (2marks)
      1. Name two rivers that supply water to Mwea Tebere irrigation scheme (2marks)
      2. Give the method of irrigation used in Mwea Tebere irrigation scheme (1mark)
    3. Explain how the following factors influenced the establishment of Mwea Tebere irrigation scheme
      • Soil (2marks)
      • Government policy (2marks)
      1. Describe the process of land reclamation in Mwea Tebere irrigation scheme (4marks)
      2. State four characteristics of three the polders of Netherlands (4marks)
    5. Your class intend to carry out a field study on irrigation farming in Mwea Tebere irrigation scheme
      1. Name two crops that you are likely to identify in the scheme (2marks)
      2. State two reasons for the need of sampling the area of study (2marks)
      3. Give two the after study activities you are likely to engage in (2marks)
      1. What is industrialization? (2marks)
      2. Name a town in Kenya where each one of the following industries is located
        oil refining (1mark)
        Paper manufacturing (1mark)
        Motor vehicle assembly (1mark)
        Textile industry (1mark)
      1. Give five reasons why the development of Jua kali industry is encouraged in Kenya (5marks)
      2. Explain four factors that led to the development of iron and steel industry in the Ruhr region of Germany (8marks)
    3. Explain three causes of the decline in the textile industry in Kenya (6marks)
      1. Give three reasons why road transport is better developed than air transport is East Africa (3marks)
      2. Name two international airports in Kenya (2marks)
    2. Explain four factors that have hindered the development of river transport in Africa (8marks)
    3. The diagram below shows the great lakes -St Lawrence seaway. Use it to answer question C, i) ii) and (iii)
      1. the port marked N and P (2mark)
      2. the lake marked L (1marks)
      3. the waterfall marked M (1 mark)
    4. Explain four benefits of the Great lakes -St. Lawrence’s seaway to the economies of Canada and USA(8marks)


    1. Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals from the earth’s crust
    2. beds and seams
      As weathering products
      As alluvial deposits
      Veins and lodes
    1. Coniferous forest
      Temperature hardwood
      Mangrove forest
      Mixed forests
      Mountain forest
    2. Trees occur in mixed stand
      Trees have lianias/buttress roots
      Trees are usually heavy
      Trees have huge trunks
      Trees takes long to mature
      Trees grows close to each other / thick forests
    1. Frieshian / Holstein
      Swiss brown
    2. Availability of markets
      Availability of extension services
      Well-developed transport/communication network
      Plenty of fodder
      Advanced technology / skills
      Well-developed co-operative movement/ availability of capital
    1. Fishing refers to catching aquatic resources while a fishery is a water body from which aquatic resources are got
    2. Restocking overfished areas
      Licensing fishermen to reduce their number
      Enacting laws against water pollution
      Standardizing size of net
      Banning fishing in certain seasons/ part of the sea
      Enforcing international agreements
    1. Water supply
      Availability of land
      Gently sloping land
      Absence of pests/ diseases
      Fertile soils
      Suitability of climate
      Good drainage
    2. Central business district(CBD)
      Transitional zone
      Industrial zone
      Residential zone
      Sub-urban zone
      1. Europe
      2. 2006 = 24000
        2002 = 1900
        Difference = 5000
        5000 x 100%
        = 26.3% or 266/19%
        Or 26%
      3. Europe =  985000  x 15 cm = 10.30cm
        African = 154000   x 15cm =1.6cm
        Asia = 128000  x 15cm =1.34cm
        North America =  103000  x 15cm =1.10cm
        Australia and New zea land   24000   x 15cm =0.25cm
        All other countries =  41000   x 15cm = 0.43cm
      1. Divided rectangles are easy to interpret
        They can be used to represent a wide range of data
        Easy to draw
        They give a clear visual impression
        They allow for comparison
      2. Low level of technology Africa limits production of proceed goods
        Different political ideologies among member countries in African restrict trade
        Insufficient transport facilities between Kenya and other different countries in Africa limits volume of trade
        Political instability / civil war in some part of Africa limit trade
        Trade in Kenya still follow pattern i.e. Kenya was colonized by Britain (Europe) hence established trade / political pattern
        Ignorance of what is produced in member countries of Africa.
        Most of the countries in Africa produce similar goods to that of Kenya hence low volume of trade
    3. Signing international trade agreements with other countries like in COMESA to increase volume of export
      Establishing the export processing zones (EPZ ) to produce more goods for export
      Reducing import duty on raw materials to attract more industrial for products export
      Encourages foreign investors to establish industries to increase export of goods
      Introduced export compensation scheme on raw materials for producing export goods
      Participating in trade fairs and international exhibitions to display export items so as to have a wider market
      Improving transport and communication for easy flow of raw materials to the industries /commodities to the market
      Looking for new markets especially in the far East to expand export market
      Licensing investors willing to engage in export trade
      Encouraging industries/ farmers to produce quality goods for export
      1. High temperature (20-27º C)
        Gently sloping land/undulating land
        High rainfall (1200-1500mm) well distributed throughout the year
        Sunny condition for sugar concentration
        Deep well drained day/black cotton soils
      2. Kakamega
      1. Land is cleared of vegetation and ploughed
        Harrowing is done to loosen the large lumps of soils
        Shallow furrows are dug 1.2 – 1.8m apart cutting are planted in the furrows
        Top dressing fertilizers are applied
        Weeding is done regularly/ herbicides are applied
        After 18month the cane is ready for harvesting
        The cane is cut using pangas
        The cut cane is loaded into lorries for transportation to the factory
      2. Pests e.g. termites, white grub/ diseases e.g. ratoon stunting and smut attack the crop and lowers the yields lowering /farmers income.
        Prolonged drought often destroys the crops leading to low yields
        Poor feeder road in some areas leads to delay in delivery of the cane to the factory lowering the quality / profit to the farmers
        High cost of farm inputs reduces the farmers profit margins
        Accidental fire/ fire set by arsonists destroy the cane resulting in heavy loses to the farmers
        Delay in harvesting reduces the quality / tonnage of the cane reducing the farmers earnings
        Flooding of the market by cheap imported sugar causes unfair competition thus lowering demand for locally produced sugar and payment to farmers
        Closures of some factories has deprived farmers of their sources of income
        Mismanagement of industries leads to low and delayed payments discouraging the farmers
        Low / delayed payments demoralizes the farmers
      1. Bagasse
        Filter cake/ mud
        Cane juice
      2. As a sweetener
        It is used in baking/ confectionary
        Used in soft drinks
        Used to make sweets/ ice cream
        Is used in production of drugs
      1. Soil terracing
        Ploughing along the contour
        Controlling / Regulating grazing
        Planting cover crops
        Mixed cropping
        Crop rotation
        Adding manure/fertilizers
      2. Constructing drainage pipes
        Digging open ditches / canals
        Pumping out the water
      1. Thika
      2. Basin / flood
    3. Soil (2mks)
      Presence of black cotton soil which is suitable for cultivation of rice/ retains water for along time
      Government policy (2mks)
      There was need to keep political detainees busy this made the colonial government to set up the scheme where there was large detention camp
      1. Canals are constructed to direct water from rivers Thiba/Nyamindi/Murubara
        The land is divided in rectangular portions surrounded by ridges/ bunds
        Water is directed into canals then into the paddy fields
        The plots is are ploughed/rotavated
        The plants remained are buried in the mud to facilitate their decomposition
        Leveling of the fields is done ready for planting
      2. The soils are highly desalinated
        They are protected by the dykes against gales/sea encroachments
        They are surrounded by ring canals to facilitate drainage
        They are divided into specific land use activities/rectangular portions
        The land is intensively utilized
        Horticulture is the predominant agricultural activity
        The largely lie below sea level
        They are large in size/area/ a crease
        They are gently sloping
      1. Rice
      2. To reduce the cost of study
        To minimize biasness during the study
        To save time during the study
        Enables detailed study
      3. Displaying the photographs taken during the field study
        Writing a report about the study
        Discussing the findings in groups
        Reading further on the topic of study
        Analyzing the data collected
        Presenting the findings
      1. Is the process and pace a country sets to establish industries
      2. Oil refining - Mombasa
        Paper manufacturing  - Webuye
        Motor vehicle assembly - Nairobi, Mombasa,Thika
        Textile industry - Thika, Nairobi,Mombasa,Eldoret,Kisumu,Nakuru, kitui
      1. Mainly produces for local market thus saving foreign exchange
        It produces relatively cheap products that are affordable to many improving living standards
        It facilitates decentralization of industries thus curbing rural-urban migration
        It uses locally available/scrap metals/ recycled raw materials thus reducing cost of imports/conservers environment
        Has promoted development of technical skills/innovations useful in other sectors of the economy
        It creates employment raising living standards
        It requires less capital to establish
      2. Presences of navigable rivers e.g. Rhine/canals which provide cheap transport for bulky raw materials and finished products
        Availability of raw materials iron ore /limestone/coal from the rhine valley for use in the industries
        Presences of coal in rhine valley / imported petroleum which provided power
        Availability of water from River Rhine//Lippe for various industries uses
        The dense and affluent population in Germany/ Europe provided a large and ready large market for iron and steel
        Highly skilled labour from within the region to work in industries
        Availability of capital from rich families/merchants for stabilizing industries
    3. Large scale importation of second hand clothes has reduced demand for locally produced textile/ second hand clothes are cheaper than locally produced new textile
      These has been declined in the production of cotton which has led to limited supply of raw materials for the textile industry
      Liberalization of the economy has encouraged business people to import textile from other countries instead of selling locally provided ones
      Mismanagement of textile factories has led to closure of some industries
      Belief that imported garments are superior to locally produced once has reduced demand for local garments
      Decline in the economy has discouraged investors who would set up textile industries in Kenya
      1. Most vehicles are cheaper to buy and maintain than air crafts
        Roads transport is more flexible than air transport
        Construction of roads is cheaper than that of airports
        Fare / freight charges on roads are lower than that of air transport
        Motor vehicles require less skills to operate than aircraft
      2. Jomo Kenyatta international airport / Nairobi
        Isiolo international airport
        Kisumu international airport
        Eldoret international airport
        Moi international airport /Mombasa
    2. Many river passes through different climatic regions causing fluctuations in river water
      Presences of rapids/waterfalls which hinders navigation
      \Many rivers are short or shallow making it difficult for movement of water vessels
      Presence of floating vegetation/sudd hinders navigation
      Silting at river mouths hinder port development
      Many rivers pass across political boundaries which hinder river transport development
      Low levels of technology hinder process of developing rivers transport
      1. N – Quebec
        P - Chicago
      2. Superior
      3. M- Niagara
    4. Dams/reservoirs found along the route provide HEP for domestic/ industrial use
      The sea way /Niagara fall attract tourists who bring in foreign exchange used to develop other sector of the economy
      Has created employment opportunities in the transport sector of the economy raising the standard of living of the people in the area
      Provide cheap means of transport for both imports and export thus encouraging trade
      It has led to the growth of towns/ ports which have become focal points for economic activities
      There has been extensive industrial development in the area / growth of Pittsburg industrial conurbation due to accessibility to the raw materials
      The countries earn revenue from tariffs charged on ships which is used to develop other sectors of the economy
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