History Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Cekenas Mock Exams 2022

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  1. Identify the branch of history that deals with control systems in the society. (1mk)
  2. Identify one community in Kenya which belongs to the Southern Cushitic group. (1mk)
  3. State one political function of the Oloibon among the Maasai during the 19th century. (1mk)
  4. Apart from Fort Jesus, name the other monument built by the Portuguese at the Kenyan coast. (1mk)
  5. State two ways in which Christianity undermined African culture. (2mks)
  6. Identify the main reason for the formation of the inter-party parliamentary group (I.P.P.G) of 1997. (1mk)
  7. Identify two education commissions established in Kenya before independence. (1mk)
  8. Mention the treaty that brought to an end the scramble for and partition of East Africa. (1mk)
  9. State one way in which national integration has promoted economic development in Kenya. (1mk)
  10. State two ways in which the rule of law is maintained in Kenya. (2mks)
  11. Highlight two reforms that resulted from the Lyttleton constitution of 1954. (2mks)
  12. Identify two pillars of Nyayo philosophy. (2mks)
  13. Identify two situations when the office of the president may become vacant in Kenya. (2mks)
  14. Identify two types of land ownership in Kenya. (2mks)
  15. State the composition of the County Executive Committee. (2mks)
  16. State one function of the supreme court of Kenya. (1mk)
  17. Give two functions of the commission on revenue allocation in Kenya. (2mks)


    1. Identify five reasons that led to the migration of the Luo from their original homeland to the present day Kenya. (5mks)
    2. Describe the political organization of the Maasai during the pre-colonial period. (10mks)
    1. State five reasons for the Portuguese success in the conquest of the Kenyan coast. (5mks)
    2. Explain five social effects of the Indian Ocean trade on the people of Kenya up to 1500AD. (10mks)
    1. Outline five challenges experienced by the European settlers in Kenya during the colonial period. (5mks)
    2. Explain five consequences of colonial land policies on Africans in Kenya. (10mks)
    1. State five challenges that have contributed to the high illiteracy levels in Kenya since independence. (5mks)
    2. Discuss five factors that have facilitated industrialization in Kenya since independence. (10mks)


    1. State three functions of the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission (IEBC). (3mks)
    2. Outline six challenges that Kenya encountered in the search for a new constitution. (12mks)
    1. State three objectives of devolution. (3mks)
    2. Explain six functions of the National Assembly in Kenya. (12mks)
    1. Identify three stages in the law making process in Kenya. (3mks)
    2. Explain six reasons why it is important for the National government to prepare a budget annually in Kenya. (12mks)


  1. Political history
  2. Dahalo/ Sanye
    • Advised the council of elders
    • Blessed warriors before going to war.
    • Presided over major ceremonies
  4. Vasco da Gama pillar (in Malindi)
    • Preached against African customs e.g. polygamy, FGM.
    • Undermined African religious beliefs
  6. To ensure a level playing ground for all political parties/ promote free and fair elections.
    • Phelp Stokes commission
    • Beecher commission
    • Fraizer commission
  8. Heligoland treaty/ Anglo German treaty of 1898.
    • It has enabled citizens to work/ employed in any part of Kenya.
    • Enabled free movement of goods/ services within the country.
    • Has enabled citizens to invest in any part of the country.
    • Has enabled people to buy property anywhere to the country
    • All citizens/ people are treated equally before the law.
    • An accused person is assumed/ treated as innocent until proven guilty/ taking suspects to court of law for trial.
    • An accused person is given a fair hearing / a chance to defend themselves / right of appeal.
    • By ensuring independence of the judiciary
    • By guaranteeing representation of accusers.
    • Africans were allowed to elect representatives to the legislative council.
    • Two Indians and one African acquired executive positions
    • It led to the establishment of a multi-racial council of ministers
    • The ban of political parties was lifted.
    • Peace
    • Love
    • Unity
    • Death of the president
    • Resignation
    • Impeachment of the president
    • Removal of the president on grounds of incapacitation
    • Public land
    • Community land
    • Private land
    • The County governor
    • Deputy governor
    • Members appointed by the governor with the approval of the county assembly.
    • Makes decisions that are binding/ interpreting the constitution
    • Handle presidential election petition
    • Handles appeals from the court of appeal
    • Ensure equitable sharing of revenue between national and county government.
    • Make recommendations on matters concerning the financing of county governments as required by the constitution
    • Determines, publishes and reviews the criteria by which to identify marginalized areas.
      • Due to drought/ famine/ natural calamities.
      • Spirit of adventure
      • Population pressure
      • Internal conflicts/ feuds
      • Outbreak of diseases/ epidemics
      • Search for better fishing grounds
      • External attacks
      • Need for pasture and water for their livestock
      • Ruled by a council of elders
      • Council of elders maintained law and order, declared war and settled disputes.
      • Age-set system was an important institution
      • Institution of the Oloibon
      • Existed a class of warriors who raided and also defended the community.
      • Had superior weapons
      • Lack of unity among coastal cities
      • Received reinforcement from India
      • Waged surprise attacks
      • Had well trained soldiers
      • Some towns did not offer any resistance
      • Led to intermarriages
      • Africans were converted to Islam
      • Islamic culture was adopted by the coastal people.
      • Development of new architectural designs
      • Introduction of sharia laws
      • Emergence of Swahili language
      • Emergence of wealthy merchants.
      • Constant raids from the Africans
      • Inadequate labour force
      • Lack of basic agriculture skills
      • They were not familiar with the seasons
      • Inadequate capital
      • Lack of a market
      • High cost of farm inputs
      • Inadequate transport and communication network.
      • Led to loss of land by Africans
      • Brought to an end the widespread migration
      • Land shortage within the reserves
      • Africans remained as squatters and labourers on the settler farms
      • A new system of individual land ownership with a land certificate was introduced
      • Emergence of classes among Africans, those who could afford to buy land became rich.
      • Introduction of taxes made Africans seek wage labour in European farms.
      • Traditional social and economic structures were disrupted.
      • Cultural beliefs that discourage people from schooling
      • Inadequate educational facilities
      • High poverty levels
      • Misconception that one can succeed without education
      • Nomadic way of life hinders provision of education
      • Negative attitude towards adult education
      • Insecurity
      • Availability of modern energy sources
      • Availability of skilled and non-skilled labour
      • Good transport and communication network
      • Raw materials from agriculture
      • Existence of mineral resources
      • Government support
      • Availability of a market
      • Registration of voters and maintaining of voters register
      • Developing a code of conduct for elections
      • Conduct party elections
      • Determine the ratio of party nominees in respect to party nominated MPs.
      • Promote free and fair elections
      • Supervise elections
      • People resisting change
      • Illiteracy/ ignorance
      • Conflict of interest
      • Divergent views
      • Lack of funds for civic education
      • Personal interest overriding national interests
      • Lack of political good will due to failure of 2005 referendum.
      • To promote democratic and accountable exercise of power.
      • To foster national unity.
      • To recognize the right of communities to manage their own affairs
      • To give powers of self-governance to the people
      • To promote and protect rights of minorities
      • To promote social economic development throughout Kenya.
      • Ensure equitable sharing of national resources.
      • Facilitate decentralization of state organs
      • Enhance checks and balances and the separation of power
      • Make and amend laws
      • Determine allocation of public revenue
      • Approves national government expenditure
      • Exercises oversight over public revenue and expenditure
      • Reviews conduct of executive in order to check government excesses
      • Approve presidential appointees
      • Approve declaration of war and extension of a state of emergency
      • Represent the people’s interests
      • Exercise oversight over state organs.
      • First reading
      • Second reading
      • Committee stage
      • Report stage
      • Third reading
      • Presidential assent
      • The government is able to identify ways of spending without wastage.
      • Ensure equitable sharing of resources
      • Government is able to win the confidence of both local and international development partners
      • The government is able to set aside some funds for emergency purposes.
      • The government is able to assess its performance in the previous financial year and make improvement.
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