Geography Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Samia Joint Mock Examination 2023

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Instructions to candidates

  • This paper has two sections: A and B
  • Answer all the questions in section A
  • Answer question 6 and any other two questions from section B
  • All answers must be written in the answer booklet provided


Answer ALL the questions in this section

    1. Name two branches of Geography  (2 marks)
    2. Give three reasons why it is important to study geography in secondary schools (3 marks)
    1. What is due point (2 marks)
    2. State three factors that influence atmospheric pressure (3 marks)
    1. Give three human causes of earthquakes. (3 marks)
    2. Give two major earthquake zones of the world  (2 marks)
    1. Identify two sources of underground water.   (2 marks)
    2. State three conditions that favour the formation of artesian well.  (3 marks)
    1. Define the term ice berg  (2 marks)
    2. The diagram below shows types of moraines. Identify the moraines labeled A, B and C.  (3 marks)


Answer Question 6 and any other two questions from this section

  1. Study the map of Kisum East 1:50,000 Sheet 116/2) provided and answer the following questions.
    Use the marginal information
      1. Give the longitudinal extent of the area covered by the map  (1 mark)
      2. What is the vertical interval of the area covered by the map (1 mark)
      3. Give the magnetic declination of the map (1 mark)  
      1. Name three human made features in the grid square 0193 (3 marks)
      2. Calculate the area of Kisumu town, Give your answer in kilometer squire. (2 narks)
    3. Describe the relief of the area covered by the map. (4 marks)
      1. Draw a cross-section along Northing 96 between Easting 95 and 02  (2 marks)
        (Use scale 1cm represents 20 metes)
        On the cross-section show: -
        • Bound surface road (1 mark)
        • River Awach (1 mark)
        • Plantation (1 mark)
      2. Calculate V.E  (2 marks)
      3. Citing evidence, give three social functions of Kisumu town.   (6 marks)
      1. What is a mineral (2 marks)
      2. Describe the following characteristics of minerals
        • Lusture    (2 marks)
        • Colour    (2 marks)
        • Density   (2 marks)
    2. Briefly describe three types of sedimentary rocks.  (6 marks)
    3. Students of Namunyweda carried out a field study on rocks around their school.
      1. State a reason why they carried
        • A hammer           (1 mark)
        • Polythene bag    (1 mark)
        • Litmus paper      (1 mark)
      2. State four follow-up activities they engaged in  4 marks)
    4. Explain the significance of rocks under the following headings
      1. Tourism    (2 marks)
      2. Water      (2 marks)
      1. State the two causes of waves in the oceans.  (2 marks)
      2. The diagram below shows parts of a wave.
        Name the parts marked W, X and Y.       (3 marks)
      1. Name three types of submerged coasts.  (3 marks)
      2. Explain three processes involved in marine erosion.  (3 marks)
      1. Using well labeled diagrams, explain how the following coastal features are formed.
        1. Stacks (4 marks)
        2. Beaches  (4 marks)
    4. State three ways which Kenya benefits from her coastal features.  (3 marks)
      1. Define the term soil.  (2 marks)
      2. Name two types of soil according to texture.  (2 marks)
    2. Briefly explain how the following factors influence soil formation.
      1. Climate  (4 marks)
      2. Living organisms  (4 marks)
      1. Differentiate between soil profile and soil catena (2 marks)
      2. List three processes which influence the development of soil profile.  (3 marks)
    4. Explain how the following human activities lead to soil erosion.
      1. Continuous ploughing (2 marks)
      2. Cutting down trees (2 marks)
    5. Identify four consequences caused by severe soil erosion in an area.  (4 marks)
    1. What is intrusive vulcanicity? (2 marks)
      1. Explain how a dyke is formed. (4 marks)
      2. Apart from dykes name three other intrusive volcanic features  (3 marks)
    3. State four characteristics of a composite volcano (4 marks)
    4. You intend to conduct a field study on volcanic features
      1. State the objectives of your study (2 marks) 
      2. State four reasons why you should conduct a pre-visit  (4 marks)
    5. Explain three effects of volcanicity to human activities.   (6 marks)



    1. Two branches of Geography
      • Physical Geography
      • Human and Economic Geography
    2. Reasons why it is important to study Geography
      • Career subject
      • Enables one to acquire basic skills and knowledge which contributesto local, region and national development.
      • Through the study of fieldwork, geography teaches on how to manage time properly by drawing a time schedules
      • Focuses on physical study of the earth.
      • Enables learners to understand and appreciate different environment influence.
      • Creates awareness in the people on the significance of management and conservation of the environment.
    1. Dew point
      • Temperature at which the moisture in the atmosphere changes into liquid state.
    2. Factors that influence atmosphere pressure.
      • Altitude
      • Temperature
      • Earth rotation
    1. Human causes of earthquakes
      • Underground nuclear test
      • Movement of trains
      • Use of explosives
      • Construction of large reservoirs
    2. Two major earthquake zones
      • Along boundaries of tectonic plates.
      • Southern Europe and Southern Asia.
      • Ring of fire (circum –pacific belt)
    1. Sources of underground water.
      • Lakes and sea water.
      • Rivers
      • Melt water
      • Magmatic water
    2. Conditions that favour formation of artesian well.
      • Aquifer must be sandwiched between two impermeable rocks.
      • Aquifer must be exposed to an area of sufficient precipitation (intake area)
      • Mouth of well must be lower than the intake area.
      • Aquifer must be of the same permeable material.
    1. Ice berg
      • Large floating mass of ice in the ocean/sea.
      • A - Lateral moraine
      • B - Medial moraine
      • C - Terminal moraine
      1. 34o 45o E – 35o 00 E
      2. 20 M
      3. 2o 321
        • Plantation
        • Settlement
        • Main track
        • Agricultural department
        • Complete squares = 5km 2
        • Incomplete squares = km 2
        • Area = 13km2 ± 0.1
      • There is an escarpment in North Eastern part of the area covered by the map.
      • There are several river valleys.
      • There are slopes from North South.
      • There highest point is 1872m above sea level.
      • There are steep slopes
      • There are gentle slopes
      • There is a plain (Kano plain)
          V.E = Vertical scale    
                    Horizontal scale
                 =  1: 20 (100)
                     1: 50 000
                 =    1      =      1    
                    2000        50000
                =     1   x    5000
                    2000         1
        = 25 or 25 times
      • It is an education centre – Schools
      • Correction function – Prison
      • Health function – Hospital
      • Burial function - Cemetery
      • Administration function - D.O
      • Religious function - Church
      1. Mineral
        • Inorganic substance with definite chemical composition.
          (i) Characteristics of minerals
        • Lusture – Minerals different in their brightness
        • Colour – Mineral display different colours.
        • Density – Minerals have different weight
    2. Three types of Sedimentary rocks
      • Mechanically formed Sedimentary rocks - Rock fragments are transported by wind/water/ice. They are deposited in layers. Over a long period of time, they are compared into a hard rock
      • Organically formed Sedimentary rocks – Dissolved minerals are transported in layers. Over a long period of time, the remained are compacted formed a hard rock.
      • Chemically formed Sedimentary rock – Dissolved minerals are transported into water bodies. They are then precipitated over a long period of time. Precipitates are compacted to form a hard rock.
        • Hammer – To break rocks
        • Polythene bag – To carry samples of rocks.
        • Litmus paper – to test pH
      2. Follow up activities
        • Writing a report
        • Group discussion
        • Class presentation
    4. Significance of rocks
      1. Tourism
        • Some rocks form unique features that attract tourists earning the country foreign exchange.
      2. Water
        • Some rocks act as storage for water which can be supplied for cosmetic/industrial/agricultural use
        • Wind
        • Earthquakes
        • W – Wavecrest
        • X – Trough
        • Y – Wavelength
        • Ria
        • Flord
        • Longitudinal
        1. Abrasion (corrosion)
          • Wave erode through hurling water containing pebbles, rock fragments or sand on the coast. It leads to cliff undercutting.
        2. Hydraulic action
          • Is direct wave force
          • The water from a breaker splaster on the cliff eroding it.
          • Cliffs that have cavities/cracks are subjected to great compression of air. Once the wave retreats, the air explodes causing rock breakup.
        3. Solution (corrosion)
          • Rain water/waves dissolves limestone rocks
        4. Attrition
          • Is where the materials carried in the wave pebbles, sand and shingle hit/knock against each other reducing in size.
            (Any 3 well explained points 6mks listing only 1mk each)
      1. Stack
        • Is a rock pillar rising steeply from the sea which has been isolated by the erosive work of waves.
        • Formed by the collapse of an arch leaving a stack from isolated from the headlands.
        • Visible during the high and low tide levels.
      2. Beaches
        • Are accumulation of sand, pebbles and shingles between the low tides and the high tides upper limits of the wave action
        • Concave in profile.
        • Formed by wave deposition in a process called longshore drift.
        • Waves bring materials to a gentle coast. The swash being greater than the backwash deposits shingles, sand and pebbles which over time accumulate to form beach.
      • Tourists attraction
      • Fishing (Oceans)
      • Transport and communication (sea transport)
      • Limestone – building and construction.
      • Tidal/wave energy can be harnessed from waves.
      • Sand – building and construction.
      • Harbours are built on headlands promoting trade and anchoring of ships.
      • Forestry – mangrove trees which provides timber.
      • Lagoons and mudflats can be irrigated for rice production.
      1. Define the word soil.
        • Is the uppermost surface layer of unconsolidated material which lies on the surface of the earth and in which plant grow.
      2. Name two types of soil according to texture
        • Loam
        • Silt
        • Clay
        • Sand gravel
    2. Explain how the following factors influence soil formation.
      1. Climate
        • Rainfall provides the moisture required for rocks to weather chemically and eventually from soil.
        • High temperature increases the rate of weathering and also accelerate the rate of bacterial activity which generates some organic matter in the soil.
        • Climate influence the process of erosion by water wind and ice.
      2. Living organisms
        • They assist in breaking down the rock through harrowing, ploughing and root penetration.
        • They influence the chemical composition by removing organic acid solution/minerals.
      1. Differentiate between soil profile and catena.
        • Soil profile is vertical arrangement of different layers of soil from the surface to the bedrock while soil catena is the sequence of different soils down a slope on the surface of the land.
      2. Processes of development of soil profile.
        • Podsolization
        • Salinization
        • Solodization
        • Calcification
        • Ferralization
    4. How the following human activities lead to soil erosion.
      1. Continuous ploughing
        • It weakens the soil structure making it easy to the agent of erosion to carryit away.
      2. Cutting down trees
        • Exposes the soil to the agents of soil erosion the ground is left bare.
    5.  Explain two consequences of soil erosion.
      • Soil water washed into water bodies contain agro-chemicals that are harmful to aquatic life.
      • Water reservoirs get silted reducing their capacity and affecting their efficiency.
      • When gullies are deepened to the water tables underground water is exposed.
      • Productive topsoil is lost forever and only unproductive stony soil erosion is left.
    1. Intrusive volcanicity
      • Where magma from the earth’s mantle fails to reach the earth surface, it become intruded within crystal rocks.
      1. Formation of dyke
        • Magma cuts across the bedding planes of crystal rocks.
        • The magma cools solidity within the cracks
        • It remains vertically like a pillar.
      2. Other intrusive feature.
        • Laccolith
        • Lapolith
        • Sill
        • Phacolith
        • Batholith
    3. Characteristics of composite volcano
      • It is cane shaped
      • It is stratified/layer of lava
      • Has conelets (parasitic)
      • It has steep slopes
      • Made from acidic lava
      • Has a crater at the top.
      1. Objective
        • To find out the volcanic features present
        • To determine the PH of lava.
        • To study effects of volcanicity of human activities
      2. Reasons for pre-visit
        • Prepare a working schedule
        • To familiarize with the route
        • Enable estimate costs
        • Seek permission
        • Know which tools to carry.
        • To draw up objectives
        • Identify suitable data collection methods.
    5. Explain three of volcanicity to human activities.
      • Vacant rocks weather to form fertile soils for agriculture.
      • Geysers can be harness to produce geothermal power
      • Vacant features e.g. mountains are a tourist attraction hence forex.
      • Igneous rocks are used for building construction.
      • Crater lakes are sources of fish for human food.
      • Volcanic mountainbring rainfall on windward side hence encourage agriculture.
      • Volcanic eruption cause environmental pollution from release of dust, gas &sulphur dioxide.
      • Volcanic mountain bring rain shadow effect on leeward side hence drought.
      • Volcanic eruption causes loss of lives.
      • Volcanic Mountainsare barrier to transport and communication.
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