Agriculture Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Samia Joint Mock Examination 2023

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  • This paper has three sections A,B and C.
  • Answer all questions in sections A and B.
  • Answer any two questions in section C.

Answer all the questions in this section

    1. State four importance of keeping livestock healthy. (2mks)
  2. Distinguish between the following practices as used in livestock production.
    1. Crutching and ringing in sheep management. (1mks)
    2. Steaming up and flushing. (1mks)
  3. State 3 observable features that help to differentiate the Dromedary camel from the Bactrian camel (1½mks)
  4. Name two functions of the crop in digestive system of chicken. (1 marks
    1. Give three reasons for candling eggs in poultry production. ( ½ marks)
    2. State three qualities of the shell that should be considered when selecting eggs for incubation (1½ marks)
  6. Give four predisposing factors to mastitis in dairy cattle (2mks)
  7. Outline four mechanical methods of controlling ticks. (2mks) 
  8. State four structural features of idea calf pen (2mks)
  9. Give two problems associated with tractor hire services. (1mk)
  10. Give the functions of following farm tools and equipments. (2mks)
    1. Sickle
    2. Strip cup
    3. Claw hammer
    4. Mason’s trowel
  11. State four properties of a good vaccine. (2mks)
  12. Give four factors that affect digestibility of feeds in animals. (2mks)
  13. Outline four farm structures that are necessary for handling dairy animals. (2mks)
  14. Give three ways in which farmers market beef cattle in Kenya. (1½mks)
  15. List four farm implements attached to power take off(PTO) (2mks)
  16. State four practices that afarmer should carry out to reduce egg eating in poultry house.(2 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. A farmer wants to prepare 500kg of calf rearing ration containing 22%DCP using rice bran(10%DCP) and simsim seed cake(35%DCP).How much of each feedstuff should the farmer purchase to prepare the ration (show your working) (5mks)
  2. The diagram below illustrates livestock rearing practices. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow:-
    1. Identify the operation carried out on the part labeled A (1 mk)
    2. Give two reasons for carrying out the operation identified in (a) above (2mks)
    3. Mention one problem that would occur if the operation that should be carried out on part labeled B is not carried out (1mk)
    4. State one precautions that should be observed when shearing wool on part labeled C (1mks)
  3. The diagrams below illustrate behavior of chicks in abrooder
    1. Describe the behavior of chicks in brooders labeled Q, R and S (3mks)
    2. Mention two other observable behavior in chicks in brooder labeled P other than the behavior shown above (2mks)
  4. The diagram below represents an important farms structure. Study it and the answer. Study it and answer the questions that follow
    1. Identify the farm structure (1mk)
    2. Label the parts. B and D (2mks)
    3. State two maintenance practices carried out in the structure above. (2mks)

Answer any two questions in this section in the spaces provided.

    1. Describe parts and functions of a plunge dips (14mks)
    2. State six advantages of live fences. (6mks)
    1. Describe the management of one day old chicks in a brooder until they are eight weeks.(12mks)
    2. Explain four causes of cannibalism in poultry production. (8mks)
    1. Describe Newcastle disease under the following sub–headings.
      1. Causal organism (1mk)
      2. Signs of infection (7mks)
      3. Control measures (2mks)
    2. Explain five factors to consider when selecting a breeding stock. (10mks)


SECTION A (30 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. Activities undertaken in organic farming.
    • Mulching using organic materials
    • Crop rotation
    • Use of medicinal plant materials
    • Use of organic manure.       (4 x 1⁄2 = 2mks)
  2. Methods of breaking seed dormancy.
    • Mechanical method
    • Heat treatment
    • Chemical treatment
    • Soaking in water.     (4 x 2 = 2mks)
  3. Effects of very early defoliation of forage
    • Forage has very high moisture content
    • Forage has very high protein content
    • Has very low DM content / low DM yield
    • Has low crude protein content
    • Has high DM digestibility and low digestible nutrients.
    • Leads to gradual weakening of the stand    (4 x 2 = 2mks)
  4. Disadvantages of using plastic pipes for conveying irrigation water
    • Can burst under high pressure
    • Become brittle when exposed to the sun
    • Can be eaten by rodents
    • Less durable compared to metal pipes
    • Can be destroyed during farm operations. (4 x 2 = 2mks)
  5. Advantages of intercropping
    • Better ground cover
    • Smothers weeds
    • Maximum use of land
    • High yields per unit area
    • Maximum use of labour     (4 x ½ = 2mks)
  6. Conditions necessary for successful grafting
    • The scion and root stock should be compatible
    • The scion should have buds
    • The graft section should be wrapped well with grafting tape (2 x = 1mk)
  7. Problems associated with the use of organic manure
    • Bulkiness
    • Labourious in application and transport
    • Spread diseases, pests and weeds
    • Loss of nutrients if poorly stored
    • Crops do not benefit if used when not fully decomposed. (4 x½ = 2mks)
  8. Reasons for sub-soiling in land preparation
    • Facilitate adequate gaseous exchange
    • Break up hard pans
    • Facilitate water infiltration
    • Bring to the surface leached minerals. (4 x 2 = 2mks)
  9. Distinction between topping and reseeding in pasture management
    • Topping is the removal of stemmy fibrous materials left over after a period of pasture grazing while re-seeding is filling the gaps on denudated pasture.  (2 x 1 = 2mk)
  10. Environmental factors that affect selectivity and effectiveness of herbicides
    • Temperature
    • Light
    • Wind
    • Soil
    • Light   (4 x ½ = 2mks)
  11. Categories of vegetables
    • Leaf vegetables
    • Root vegetables
    • Fruit vegetables
    • Pod vegetables
    • Stem vegetables
    • Bulb vegetables.     (5 x ½ = 2 1/2 mks).
  12. Factors determining the amount of fertilizer applied
    • Amount of nutrients needed
    • Fertilizer grade available (2x2 = 1mk)
  13. Information contained in a marketing record
    • Commodity
    • Quantity sold
    • Date
    • Where sold
    • Price per unit
    • Total value    (4 x ½= 2mks)
  14. Factors that determine the demand of a commodity
    • Price
    • Population
    • Income
    • Preferences and tastes
    • Price of related goods
    • Advertisement
    • Beliefs, customs and taboos
    • Price expectation
    • Level of taxation
    • Perishability
    • Future expectations / uncertainity (4 x ½ = 2mks)
  15. Symptoms of viral diseases
    • Leaf chlorosis
    • Leaf curling
    • Malformations
    • Rosetting   (4 x ½= 2mks)
  16. Forms of Agro-forestry.
    • Agrosilviculture
    • Silvopastoral
    • Agrosilvopastoral.     (3 x ½= 1 ½ mks).

SECTION B (20 marks)
Answer all the questions in the spaces provided

    1. Percentage of air
      (500 − 410) cm3 x 100
              250 cm3
      = 36%       (2 x 1 = 2mks)
    2. To drive off all the water / moisture  (1 x 1 = 1mk)
      • Soil living organisms
      • Mineral matter  (2 x 1 = 2mks)
    1. Multiple stem pruning method.    (1 x 1 = 1mk)
      • Capped multiple stem pruning
      • Non-capped multiple stem pruning   (2 x 1 = 2mks)
    3. Disadvantages of the above method
      • breaking of stems and branches
      • difficulty in gathering berries from top points
      • difficulty in spraying the tall bushes.      (3 x 1 = 2mks)
    Fertilizer inputs (units)   Maize yield                       Marginal product (bags)   Average product (bags)
     0  50     −   −
     1  62  12  62 
     2  66  04  33 
     3  68  02  22.67 
     4  69  01  17.25 
     5  69  00  13.8 
                                                                                                                                                                               (10 x 1/2 = 5mks)
    1. Bench terrace (1 x 1 = 1mk)
    2. Practices undertaken
      1. planting grass
      2. constructing a stone wall  (2 x 1 = 2mks)
    3. Ways by which the structure assists in soil and water conservation
      • slows down surface run-off
      • carry away excess water
      • increase water infiltration  (2 x 1 = 2mks)

Section C    (40 marks)
Answer any two questions in the spaces provided after question 23.

    1. Procedure of transplanting tree seedlings
      • Dig the holes for transplanting early before transplanting day.
      • Separate top soil from the sub-soil
      • Transplant at the onset of long rains.
      • Water the seedlings a day before transplanting.
      • Mix the top soil with well rotten manure
      • Refill the hole halfway with the top soil mixed with manure
      • Remove the polythene sleeve using a sharp knife.
      • Place the seedling at the center of the hole.
      • Add more soil to fill the hole completely.
      • Plant the seedling at the same depth as it was in the nursery. Firm gently around the plant
      • Water the transplanted seedling if necessary
      • Mulch if necessary
      • Provide temporary shade.
      • Protect the seedling from damage by animals. (10 x 1 = 10mks)
    2. Cultural methods of controlling crop diseases
      • using healthy planting materials
      • practicing field hygiene
      • proper seed bed preparation
      • proper spacing
      • heat treatment
      • proper drying of cereals
      • use of disease resistant varieties. (6 x 1 = 6mks)
    3. Macronutrients required by plants for proper growth
      • Nitrogen
      • Phosphorus
      • Potassium
      • Magnesium
      • Sulphur
      • Calcium     (4 x 1 = 4mks)
    1. Farming practices that destroy soil structure
      • Mono-cropping
      • Burning vegetation
      • Over-stocking
      • Deforestation
      • Continuous cropping
      • Cultivation up and down the slope   (5 x 1 = 5mks)
    2. Harvesting of cotton
      1. Harvesting is done by picking manually.
      2. During harvesting, two containers are used for grade AR and BR.
      3. Grading starts in the field during harvesting.
      4. Cotton seed is sorted into grade AR and BR    (4 X 1 = 4mks)
    3. Reasons why land consolidation should be encouraged
      • Facilitates proper supervision of land
      • Facilitates economic use of time and saves on transport costs Sound farm planning and adoption of crop rotation programmes
      • Facilitates soil conservation and land improvement Facilitates construction of permanent structures and
      • Facilitates economic operation of activities on the land
      • Enhances control of weeds, pests and diseases.
      • Makes it easy for extension officers to provide agricultural advice. (5 x 1 = 5mks)
    4. Reasons for keeping financial records.
      • Make sound management decisions
      • Determine whether the farm is making profit
      • To secure loans
      • Assessing tax chargeable.
      • To prepare farm budgets
      • Evaluating assets and liabilities  (6 x 1 = 6mks)
    1. Ways in which Kenyan government can improve food production
      • farmer's training
      • provision of extension services to advice farmers on modern production techniques
      • provide subsidies on farm inputs
      • imposing high taxation on imported food products to discourage importation
      • provision of credit facilities
      • quality control to ensure production of high quality products that can attract foreign markets.
      • Supporting research into new and improved varieties of crops for high yields.
      • Farm input supplies
      • Provision of marketing services
      • Provision of tractor hire services
      • Ensuring effective control of weeds/ pests/diseases.
      • Ensuring effective soil and water conservation measures. (10 x 1 = 10mks)
    2. Factors influencing seed rates in crop production
      1. Intended use of the crop; e.g. fodder maize requires higher seed rate grain maize
      2. Germination percentage; high seed rate is required for seeds with low germination percentage.
      3. Method of planting; broadcasting requires high seed rate than row planting.
      4. Number of seeds per hole; two or more seeds per hole requires high seed rate than one seed per hole.
      5. Soil fertility; infertile soils require low seed rate since crops are widely spaced than in fertile soil.
      6. Growth habit of the crop; tall/tillering varieties require low seed rate compared to short/less tillering varieties.
      7. Spacing; high seed rate is required in closer spacing than wider spacing.
      8. Seed purity; impure seed will lead to high seed rate compared to pure seeds. Crop stand; higher seed rate is required for pure stand and low seed rate for mixed stand.   (6 x 1 = 6mks)
    3. Treatment of water to remove solid impurities
      • At intake, water is passed through a series of sieves with different sizes of mesh to trap large solid particles.
      • Alluminium sulphate (alum) is added to water in the mixing chamber to coagulate solid particles suspended in water.
      • Water is passed to a large circular coagulation tank where coagulated solid particles settle.
      • Water is then passed through a filtration tank where all the remaining solid. particles are removed.
      • The layers of sand and gravel in the filtration tank allow water to seep through slowly and leave all the solid particles behind.  (4 x 1 = 4mks)
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