Agriculture P1 Questions and Answers - Butula Sub-County Post Mock Exams 2021/2022

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INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES.

  1. Write your name & index no on the space provided above.
  2. This paper consists of three sections A, B and C
  3.  Answer all questions in section A and B.
  4. Answer any two questions in section C.
  5. All answers should be written in the spaces provided.

FOR EXAMMINERS USE ONLY

SECTION

QUESTIONS

MAXIMUM SCORE

CANDIDATES SCORE

A

1-21

30

 

B

 

20

 

C

 

20

 

 

 

20

 

                TOTAL SCORE

90

 

QUESTIONS

SECTION A (30 MARKS)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. State two benefits of optimum soil temperature in crop production (1mk)
  2. State four reasons for deep ploughing during land preparation (2mks)
  3. What is increasing return in crop production (2mks).
  4. Name one physiological disease in tomatoes (½ mark)
  5. Name FOUR farm records that should be kept by a poultry farmer (2mks).
  6. List three forms in which soil water exists (1½mks)
  7. State four sources of capital to a wheat farmer in Kenya (2mks)
  8. Sate two ways of increasing light intensity in crops (1mk)
  9. State three methods of preparing planting materials (1 ½ mks)
  10. Name three methods of harvesting trees. (1½ mks)
  11. Calculate the amount of K20 contained in 400Kg of compound fertilizer 25:10:5 (2mks)
  12. Give four importance of top dressing pastures (2mks).
  13. Give THREE reasons for treating water on the farm. (1 ½ mks).
  14. List three tertiary operations carried out in the farm (1 ½ mks)
  15. Give THREE classifications of farm credit according to the repayment periods. (1½ mks).
  16. Give TWO factors that determine the quality of hay. (1mk)
  17. Give two reasons for training in crop production (1mk)
  18. State two cultural measures taken by farmers to control weeds in the farm (1 mk).
  19. Give one signs shown by crop when they are attacked by nematodes (½ mks)
  20. Outline two circumstances when opportunity cost is ZERO ( 1 mk).
  21. Outline three items that a maize farmer can enter into his consumable inventory records. (1 ½ mks)

SECTION B (20 MARKS).
Answer all questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. Study the diagrams below and answer the questions that follows
    22 augadyh
    1. Identify the weeds A & B
      A ……………………… (2mks)
      B ………………………………
    2. State one reason why the weed labeled A is difficult to control. (1mk)
    3. State TWO economic importance of the weed labeled B in Agriculture. (2mks)
  2. The diagram below illustrates materials and a method of vegetative propagation. Study it and answer the questions that follow.
    23 jygauyda
    1. Identify the method of crop propagation illustrated above. ( 1mk)
    2. Give TWO Advantages associated with the method named (a) above, (2mks)
    3. State TWO characteristics of certified seeds. (2mks)
  3. Shown below is a layout of a compost heap. Study it carefully and then answer the questions that follow.

    4

     

    3

    2

    1

    MAIZE STALKS

    Ground Level
    1. Name the materials in each of the parts labeled 1, 2, 3 and 4 (2 marks)
      1………………………………………………….3……………………………………
      2………………………………………………….4………………………………………
    2. State one role of each of the material in the parts labeled 1 and 3. (2 marks)
      1…………………………………………………………………………………
      2…………………………………………………………………………………
    3.                        
      1. Give one reason for adding water to a compost heap. (1mark)
      2. Give one reason for regularly turning the materials in a compost heap (1 mark)
  4. Illustrated below are crop pests. Study the illustrated above.
    25 uaggudga
    1. Identify each of the pests labeled G, G, and H. (3mks)
      F……………………………………………………………………………………………
      G……………………………………………………………………………………………
      H…………………………………………………………………………………………
    2. State one damage caused by pest G to the crops infested (1 mark)

SECTION C (40 MARKS).
Answer any TWO questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1.                              
    1. Outline FIVE (5) advantages of land consolidation (5mks).
    2. Explain eight factors that can encourage soil erosion (8mks)
    3. Outline 7 importance of drainage as a land reclamation practice (7mks)
  2.                    
    1. Describe field production of dry beans under the following sub headings:
      1. Land preparation: (4mks)
      2. Planting (6mks)
    2. Explain 5 factors affecting rooting of cuttings in vegetative propagation (10mks)
  3.                  
    1. The tables below gives information on supply and demand schedules for tomatoes in a local market
      Table 1 prices and quantities of tomatoes supplied
      Tomatoes (kg)   price per kg (Ksh.) 
      150   16.00
      130   14.20
      125   13.80
      112   13.00
      106   12.70
      85   11.80
      50   10.60
      42 10.40
      30  10.20
      25  10.10
      Table 2: prices and quantities of tomatoes demanded
      Tomatoes (kg)   Prices per Kg (Ksh) 
       80   18.00
       87  16.70
       101   15.50
       119   14.10
       135   13.20
       155   12.40
       171  11.80
       185 11.30
       191  11.10
       205   10.80
      1. Using the above data, plot supply and demand curves on the same axes. (8marks)
      2. Determine the price at which 120kg of tomatoes were supplied on the market. (1mark)
      3. How many kilograms of tomatoes were bought at a market price of Ksh. 13.00 (1mark)
      4. What was the equilibrium price for tomatoes on the market (1mark)
    2. Explain five advantages of mulching in crop production (5marks)
    3. Outline activities that may be undertaken in organic farming (4marks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1.                        
    • Enhance seed germination
    • Enhance plant growth
    • Enhance soil microbial activities
    • Improves quality of crops e.g. Tea, pineapple
  2.                      
    • Facilitates aeration
    • Facilitates drainage
    • Breaks hard pans/facilitates water infiltration
    • Brings up previously leached nutrients
    • Facilitates development of deep rooted crops –
    • Exposes soil borne pests and diseases agents -
    • Removes deeply rooted weeds.
  3. This is the production in which each additional unit of input results to a larger increase in output than the proceeding unit of input
  4. Blossom end rot
  5.                          
    • feeding record
    • Production record
    • Health records
    • Marketing records
    • Labour records
  6.                            
    • Hygroscopy
    • Superfluous
    • Capillary
  7.                          
    • Inheritance
    • Own savings
    • Gift/donation
    • Loan
  8.                    
    • Pruning
    • Wider spacing
    • Thinning
  9.                            
    • Breaking seed dormancy
    • Seed inoculation
    • Chitting
    • Seed dressing
  10.                          
    • Pruning
    • Coppicing/tree felling/logging
    • Pollarding
    • Thinning
    • Lopping
  11.                              
    • 5/100 x 400kg = 20kg
    • A mark for formulae
    • A mark for answer with units
  12.                          
    • To add (replenish) soil nutrients and ensure proper nutrient balance
    • To improve the nutrients value of the crops.
    • To correct or amend both physical and chemical properties eg soil structure.
    • Enable soil micro-organisms to break down organic residues into available nutrients.
  13.                          
    • Kill disease causing organism
    • Remove chemical impurities like excess flomides harmful to human beings
    • Remove bad smell and bad taste.
    • Remove solid/sediments in water
  14.                          
    • Ridging
    • Rolling
    • Levelling
  15.                        
    • Short term
    • Medium
    • Long terms
  16.                          
    • Stage of harvesting the forage crop
    • Leaf:stem ratio
    • Forage species used
    • Length of the drying period
    • Weather condition during drying
    • Condition of the storage structure.
  17.                        
    • Clean fruit
    • Provide support to weak stems
    • Enhance light penetration
    • Easen field operation
    • Control soil borne pest and disease
    • Prevent lodging of fruits
  18.                        
    • Early planting
    • Mulching
    • Deep ploughing
    • Crop rotation
    • Use of clean implements
    • Use of cover crops
    • Use of clean planting materials
  19.                          
    • Stunted growth
    • Wilting
    • Discoloration of foliage
    • Gal formation/root knots
  20.                          
    • When there is no alternative or choice.
    • When goods are limited in supply
    • When the factors of production are freely offered
  21.                          
    • Fertilizers
    • pesticides
    • Herbicides
    • Fungicides
    • Seeds
  22.                        
    1. A – Oxais/oxalis latifolia/oxalis spp
      B – Devils horse whip/Achyranthesaspera/Achyranthes spp
    2. A – has underground storage structures that regenerate easily.
    3. B – It is a weed in annual crops
      It irritates farm workers reducing their efficiency
  23.                          
    1. Tissue culture (1 mrk).
    2.                        
      • Mass production of propagules
      • used to establish pathogen free planting materials
      • Help in the control of viral diseases
      • Faster method than cultural methods.
      • Requires less space.
    3.                    
      • Free from weed seeds
      • Free from pests
      • Free from diseases
      • Have 100% germination potential
  24.                      
    1.                      
      1. Grass, leaves, refuse
      2. Manure
      3. Wood ash
      4. Top soil
    2.                      
      1. Organic matter to form manure
      3. Improve pH and nutrients in the compost manure
    3. To regulate temperature
    4. For even decomposition of manure
  25.                      
    1. F – Locust
      G – Aphids
      H – Quelea
    2. Pierce plant parts
      introduce disease causing organisms
  26.                      
    1.                      
      • weed, pest and disease control is enhanced.
      • Enables construction of permanent structures
      • Soil conservation and land improvement
      • Farm planning and adoption of crop rotation programme.
      • Proper land supervision
      • Gives the farmer legal ownership of land if already registered.
      • Easy provision of extension services by the government. ( 5 x 1 = 5mks).
    2.                      
      • lack of ground cover exposes soil to agents of soil erosion
      • Steep slopes increases the speed of surface ran off hence erositive powerSof work -
      • Light/sand soils are easily carried away by agents of erosion.
      • Shallow soils are easily Saturated with water and carried away
      • High rainfall intensity leads to Saturation of soils hence increases in soil erosion/surface run off.
      • Frequent cultivation/over cultivation pulverizes the soil making it easy to detach and carry away
      • Over stocking leads to overgrazing this destroys ground cover exposing it to agents of erosion.
      • Burning /Deforestation destroy vegetation cover and exposes soil to agent of erosion.
      • Ploughing up and down the slope creates channels.
      • Cultivation of river banks destroys riverine vegetation and destroys soil structure exposing it to agents of erosion.
      • Cultivation the soil when too dry destroy soil structure making it easy to be eroded - Long slopes increases volume and speed of runoff hence increasing erosive power.
        (Factor with explanation to score) (8x 1 = 8mks
    3.                    
      • improve soil structure
      • raises soil temperature
      • Lowers the water table
      • Improve soil aeration
      • Improve microbial activities
      • Increases soil volume
      • Reduces soil erosion
      • Removes toxic substances
  27.                          
    1.                      
      1. Land preparation
        • Prepare land during dry season; to kill all the weeds;
        • Carry out secondary cultivation; to produce a medium tilth;
      2. Planting:
        • Plant at the beginning of the rains;
        • Plants recommended varieties / suitable for the ecological conditions;
        • Plants certified / healthy /well selected seeds;
        • Plant at a spacing of 45 -60 cm by 15 – 23cm.
        • Place 2-4 seeds per hole
        • Plant as a depth of 2.5 – 5.0 cm;
        • Apply phosphatic fertilizer; at a rate of 250kg /ha of SSP.
    2. chemical treatment/hormones
      • Oxygen supply
      • Light intensity
      • Temperature
      • Relative humidity
      • Leaf surface area (1x2 marks well explained)
  28.                        
    1.                    
      1.                        
        • Heading (H) = 1mk
        • Smooth curves (SC) = 2X1 = 2mks)
        • Curve identified (CI) = 2 x ½ = 1mk
        • Curve plotting (CP) = 2x1 = 2mks
        • Scale (S) = 2 x ½ = 1mk
        • Labeling axes (A) = 2 x ½ = 1mk
          ( 8 mks)
      2. Ksh. 13.40 ᶤ 10cts (13,30- 13.50)
      3. 140 ᶤ 1kg (139 – 141 kg)
      4. Ksh 13. 80 ᶤ 10cts (13.70 – 13. 90)
    2.                  
      • Has an insulating effect thus modifies /regulates soil temperature
      • Prevents water evaporation therefore moisture is retained in the soil for the plant to use
      • Controls soil erosion by intercepting rain drops before they hit the soil reducing the speed off surface runoff and increasing water infiltration
      • Organic mulch decomposes into humus thereby improving soil structure/water holding capacity/water retention.
      • After decomposition improves soil fertility by releasing nutrients
      • After decomposition organic mulch it buffers soil PH/ increase cat ion exchange capacity
        NB/ explanation must come out for score)
        (5x1 = 5mks)
    3.                    
      • Mulching
      • Application of organic manure/organic fertilizers
      • Crop rotation
      • Use of medicinal plant products to control diseases and parasites
      • Rearing of livestock on natural feed staff/organic growth feedstuffs
      • Physical/cultural/Biological pest/weed/parasite and disease control/accept specific control measure given

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