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MARCH 2018



Answer all the questions in the space provided

  1. State four advantages of plantation farming (2mks)

    • Generate foreign exchange when products are exported
    • create employment opportunities
    • Products of high quality and quantity are obtained
    • Huge economic benefits (profit) are obtained due to utilization of economies of scale
    • May lead to provision of improvement of infrastructure and amenities eg roads, electricity etc
    • Expands domestic / local market
    • Government earns revenue from taxation. (1/2 mark each x 4) = 2 marks
  2. List any four advantages of mixed farming (2mks)

    • Mutual benefits between livestock and crops
    • Income is earned throughout the year
    • Diversification of farm enterprises / Security of income
    • Livestock eg oxen are used to provide farm power
    • Enables good distribution and use of farm power. (any 4 x 1/2 = 2 marks)
  3. State four ways through which pests affect agriculture (2mks)

    • Feed on whole or part of plant, hence lower quantity and quality
    • Transmit crop diseases
    • Injure plant parts / lowers rotting / expose it to secondary infection
    • Increase costs of providing crops / pesticide are expensive. (4 x 1/2 = 2 marks)
  4. State four ways in which minimum tillage can be achieved (2mks)

    • Application of herbicides for controlling weeds
    • Use of mulch to control weeds
    • Timing cultivation
    • Restricting cultivation to planted ares
    • Establishing cover crops
    • Slashing weed. (4 x 1/2 = 2 mks)
  5. Outline four importance of keeping breeding records in dairy farming (2mks)

    • Selection and culling
    • Controlling breeding
    • Shows fertility and prolificacy of animals
    • Shows ancestral history of the animal
  6. Give a reason for each of the following practices during compost making (2mks)

    1. Adding top soil
      To introduce micro organisms for decomposition.
    2. Adding farm yard manure
      Provides nutrients to micro-organisms
    3. Adding ash
      Improves levels of phosphorus and potassium
    4. Adding calcium ammonium nitrate
      To raise level of nitrogen in the manure.
  7. State four characteristics of intensive farming (2mks)

    • High capital investment
    • High labour investment per unit area.
    • High yield per unit area
    • Use of skilled labour.
    • Modern technology applied. 4 x 1/2 = 2 marks
  8. Give the element whose its deficiency is characterized by the following

    1. Intervenial chlorosis of leaves (1/2 mk)
    2. Blossim-end-rot in tomato fruit (½ mk)
    3. Scorched edges of a leaf (½ mk)

  9. Give the practices done to achieve single stem capped system pruning in coffee production (2mks)
    • Main stem capped at 53cm
    • Best growing suckers allowed to grow upwards
    • Second capping at 114 cm
    • Final capping is done at 163 cm

  10. State three, areas that should be avoided when sampling soil (1½mk)
    • Dead furrows
    • Terrace stands
    • Swampy areas
    • Near trees and boundaries
    • Between slope and bottom land

  11. Outline how you would prepare a store for grain storage (2mks)
    • Clean by removing all debris of previous crops
    • Dusting with appropriate chemical to control storage pests
    • Clear vegetation around to keep off various vermin
    • repair broken / worn out parts, replace thatch / roofing materials

  12. State four ways by which a farmer can improve his pasture (2mks)
    • Controlled rotational grazing
    • Re-seeding / over sowing
    • Fertilizer application
    • Mixed grass and legumes pastures
    • deferment

  13. Give the importance of a land title deed (3mks)
    • It is a proof of ownership
    • Reduce land ownership disputes
    • Can be a security in acquisition of loan
    • The owner can lease out whole of part of his land for income
    • It is an incentive for investment by the farmer on long term project.

  14. What do you understand by the term.
    1. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) (1mks)
      It is the use of a combination of more than one method to control pests.
    2. List two factors that affect efficiency of pesticides in crop production (1mk)
      • Concentration of pesticide
      • Timing of application / development stage of pest
      • weather condition at the time of application
      • Persistence of pesticide

  15. Name four methods of controlling smut disease in maize (2mks)
    • Hot water treatment
    • Use of certified seeds
    • Crop rotation
    • Field hygiene

Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided 

  1. A cow requires 4kgs of dry matter (DM) for every 100kg of body weight per day
    1. Calculate the amount of dry matter a cow weighing 500kg would require per day (show your working ) (2mks)

      500kg/100kg x 4 = 20kg DM/day

    2. Given the silage has 40% DM how many kilograms of silage should the cow be given per day (show your working) (2mks)

      A cow should be given 50% of its daily DM requirements from silage and other 50% from other feeds.
      Amount of DM required from silage is therefore 10kg

      100kg silage contain 40kg DM
      ?          10kg DM

      Let the amount of silage required to give 10kg DM be x.

      x/100 = 10/40 (1mk)
      x = 10 x 100kg/40 = 20kg

    1. The diagram below shows various fencing post. Name post E, F, G and H (4mks)


      E - Strainer Post
      F - Strut
      G- Dropper
      H- Standard

    2. Give three ways of improving the above type of fence so that it becomes more effective Controlling animals and human movement (3mks)
      • Adding wooven / barbed wire
      • Planting thorny wire fences / trees along side
      • Adding more droppers

  3. Below is an illustration of the stomach of a young ruminant animal

    ruminant intestines

    1. Name the parts labeled I, II, III and IV (2mks)
      1. Rumen
      2. Reticulum
      3. Omasum
      4. Abomasum

    2. What are the functions of the parts labeled II (2mks)
      • Trapping non food materials such as nylon
      • Rejecting large food materials which are returned back to the mouth 

    3. Why is the part labeled (IV) much bigger than (I) in type young ruminant animals (1mk)
      It is not developed yet since it is not yet in use.

    4. Give four difference between ruminant and non-ruminant (4mks)

      Ruminant Non-Ruminant
       (i) They have four stomach compartments  Have one compartment
      (ii) They regurgitate food material They cannot regurgitate food material
      (iii) They chew curd They cannot chew curd

Answer any two questions in this section in the spaces provided

    1. Discuss the harvesting of cotton under the following subheadings
      1. stage of harvesting (3mks)
        • 4-41/2 months after planting when balls open.
        • Start picking as soon as the balls open.
        • Do it on weekly intervals to prevent disolouration of lint.

      2. methods and procedure of harvesting (4mks)
        • Picking is done manually.
        • The seed cotton is sorted into two grades AR-first grade free from inset damage and foreign matter and be clean white. BR-may not have all these qualities.
        • The picker carries two containers while harvesting one for grade AR and the other for BR.
        • The seed cotton is sorted into two grades AR (Safi) BR (Fifi)

      3. precautions in harvesting (3mks)
        • Ensure no foreign matter such as leaves and twigs are mixed with seed cotton
        • Avoid picking when cotton is wet.
        • Avoid handling harvested cotton using sisal bags since their fibres may mix with the seed cotton creating problems during ginning.

    2. Explain how various field practices help to control crop diseases (10mks)
      • Crop rotation-breaks life cycles of pathogen.
      • Rogueing-checks disease spread.
      • Planting certified/clean seeds-prevents introductior of pathogens into the field.
      • Early planting/timely planting-crops establish as ar before the outbreak of diseases.
      • Proper spacing-creates unfavorable micro-climate or some pathogens.
      • Weed control removes alternate hosts of some patogens.
      • Use of clean tools and equipment reduces chances of contaminating crops with pathogens.
      • Pruning-removes diseased plant parts and creates unfavorable micro -climate.
      • Quarantine- prevents spread of pathogens.
      • Heat treatment -kills pathogens.
      • Destruction of crop residue-kills pathogens and destroys breeding grounds.
      • Pest control reduces disease vector,
      • Proper fertilizer / manure application controls deficiency diseases
      • Close season breaks life cycles of pathogens (stating 1/2 mark explanation 1/2 mark)

  2. Describe the production of beans under the following sub headings
    • Ecological requirements (4mks)
      • Beans do best in well drained soils rich organic mater.
      • Beans cannot tolerate water logged soils.
      • It requires moderate rainfall.
      • Heavy rain is destructive during flowering stage.
      • Beans grow well at an altitude between 0-2709 above sea level.
      • It requires less humid conditions.

    • Seed bed preparation (5mks)
      • Seedbed preparation should be done early enough!
      • Clear the land and remove stumps.
      • Remove all weeds ensure that underground roots are exposed to the sun
      • Carry out primary cultivation
      • Carry out secondary cultivation
      • Carry out secondary cultivation to achieve medium till

    • Planting (5mks)
      • Planting - Timely planting should be observed.
      • Beans should be planted at the onset of rains.
      • Any delay in planting results into low yields.
      • Dry planting can be done in semi-arid areas
      • Use certified seeds.
      • Seed rate of 50 kg -100kg/ha depending on Variety (pure stand)
      • Use the spacing of 60 x 15cm for indeterminate varieties and 30-45 x15 cm for determinate varieties.
      • Use 200kg DSP/ha pure stand 200 kg/ha can also be used on pure stand crop.
      • Place fertilizer along planting furrows or holes and mix with soil before planting the seeds
      • Place 2 seeds per planting hole.
      • Cover the seeds or holes well.

    • Pest and pest control (6mks)
      • Bean fly - Early planting, crop rotation seed dressing spraying with dimethoate malathion
      • Bean aphid --spray regularly especially during dry season with dimethout, malathion.
      • Flower trips -spray with malathion, diazinon, dimethoote.
      • American bollworm-spray with malatthion diazinon
      • Bean bruchid
      • Cutworm
      • Golden ring moth
      • Pea pod borer
      • Spiny brown bugs

    1. Explain five advantages of mulching in crop production (5mks)
      • Has an insulating effect thus modifies/regulates soil temperatures
      • Prevents water evaporation therefore moisture is retained in the soil for the plant use.
      • Controls soil erosion by intercepting rain drops before they hit the soil,
      • Reducing the speed of runoff and increasing rate of water infiltration
      • Organic mulch decomposes into humus thereby improving soil structure/water holding capacity/drainage/aeration
      • After decomposition it improves soil fertility by releasing nutrients.
      • Controls weed by covering the soil and sup repressing their growth.
      • After decomposition organic mulch betters soil PH increases calcium exchange capacity

    2. Outline five activities that may be undertaken in organic farming (5mks)
      • Mulching
      • Application of organic manure/organic fertilizers
      • Crop rotation
      • Use of medicinal plant products to control diseases and parasites
      • Rearing of livestock on natural/feedstuffs without use of chemical additives
      • Physical/cultural/pests/weed parasite and disease control.

    3. Discuss ten benefits a farmer is likely to get using vegetative propagation in production of oranges (10mks)
      • Production/development of early maturing crop
      • Development of high yielding orange crop
      • Makes the plant to assume the desired shape/size eg budding spread sideways easy to manage
      • Can obtain two or more orange varieties on the same root stock
      • Ensures maintenance of genetic clonal characteristics to ensure uniformity.
      • Facilitates development of drought resistant crop
      • It facilitate propagation of seedless orange varieties.
      • It's used to develop tree plant that are less thorny
      • Facilitates fast multiplication of the desired crop variety of oranges
      • Is utilized to develop orange crop that is resistant to diseases
      • Is utilized in repair treatment of damaged parts of orange trees. (10mks)
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