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MARCH 2018


Answer all questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. Define the word breech of birth as used in livestock production (1mk)
    Breech of birth is a presentation during parturition where the hind legs of a new born come out first.

  2. Study the table below and fill in the missing words (3mks)





    Young from birth/hatching to weaning

     Calf piglet 


    Young female before first parturition




    Mature male for breeding


     boar  cock
  3. Outline the importance of feed additives (1mk)
    • To stimulate growth and production
    • To prevent disease attacks
    • To improve feeding habits (appetite).

  4. List four implements used to carry out secondary cultivation (2mks)
    • Disc harrow.
    • Spike toothed harrow.
    • Rotavator.
    • Ox- tine harrow
    • Chain harrow.
    • Zigzag harrow.
    • Sprung tine harrow.

  5. Give two reasons why walls of dairy shed should be white washed instead of painting with oil paints (1mk)
    • Avoid poisoning by chemicals or lead that may be in paints.
    • To discourage/avoid tainting of milk if shed is used immediately after painting
    • Discourage insects from inhabiting the shed

  6. State two uses of wind power on the farm (2mks)
    • Winnowing of crops
    • Driving machines e.g. wind mill

  7. Name the two hormones that control milk left down in dairy cow (1mk)
    • Oxytocin
    • Adrenaline

  8. Name any two parts of marking gauge (2mks)
    • Pin
    • Head
    • Stem
    • Shoe
    • Thumbscrew

  9. Give two uses of litter in a poultry house (2mks)
    • Keeps birds busy scratching, hence reduce cannibalism
    • Gives comfort and warmth to the birds
    • Helps in drying droppings

  10. List four post milking practices (2mks)
    • Disinfect the teats
    • Apply milking salve on teats
    • Weigh the milk
    • Cooling the milk
    • Straining/ sieving the milk
    • Clean utensils

  11. Name two diseases that affect female animals only (1mk)
    • Mastitis
    • Milk fever

  12. State four factors that would contribute to depreciation of farm equipment (2mks)
    • Growth, repair and replacement of worn-out body tissues.
    • Production of antibodies which protect the animal from diseases.
    • Production of digestive enzymes to break food particles.
    • Production of certain hormones in the body.
    • Production of such products like meat, milk, egg and wool.

  13. List four functions of proteins in livestock (2mks)
    • Age of the equipment
    • Wear and tear/use
    • Lack of maintenance practice
    • Exposure to weather/improper storage
    • Obsolescence/change in technology

  14. State the measures that prevent egg eating in poultry (2mks)
    • Collect eggs regularly and frequently.
    • Make nests dark
    • Feed balanced diet.
    • Debeak perpetual egg eaters.
    • Supply green leaves to keep birds busy.

  15. Name two livestock diseases controlled by the same vaccine and name the vaccine (1½mks)
    • Anthrax & Black quarter/leg
    • Vaccine - Blanthrax

  16. State three maintenance practices carried out on a milking machine (1½mks)
    • Flushing the tubes under high pressure to it.
    • Greasing / oiling rotating parts in the pump
    • Storing it to dry upside down after thorough washing

  17. Apart from high butter fat which other good qualities is jersey breed having over other exotic dairy breeds (1mk)
    • Hardy / withstand high temperatures
    • Needs less food
    • Excellent grazer on fairly poor pastures.

  18. State two functions of a coulter on a mould board plough (1mk)
    • Makes a vertical cut into the soil ahead of the share to separate the furrow slice from unploughed land.
    • Cut any trash on the surface

  19. Name two dual purpose breeds of cattle (1mk)
    • Sahiwal
    • Red poll
    • Simmental
    • Brown Swiss

Answer all questions in this section in the spaces provided

  1. The diagram labeled G, H and S below illustrated three livestock parasites. Study them and answer the questions that follow;

    parasites agric

    1. Identify the parasites (1 ½ mks)
      G-Liver fluke (Fasciola ssp) S-Tape worms (Taenia ssp)
      H-Round worms (Ascaris ssp)

    2. State the category to which the three parasites G,H and S belong to (1 ½ mk)

    3. Name the parts of organs of the host body where parasites G and S are found respectively (2mk)
      G - Liver fluke is found in the bile duct gali bladder / liver. S-Tape worm are found attached on the wall of the small intestine.

    4. State any three control measures of the parasite G (3 mks)
      • Control of fresh water snail by physically killing them.
      • Control of fresh water snail by use of adding CuSO4 solution to stagnant water.
      • Draining swampy areas
      • Burning swampy bushes during dry weather.
      • Avoid grazing affected animals near marshy or swampy areas.
      • Routine drenching with suitable. Anthelmintic.
      • Rear ducks which feed on snails.

  2. Study the following diagram showing the behavior of chicks with temperature variations in a brooder

    chicks agric

    1. Identify part K (1MK)
      Wire guard

    2. Describe the behavior of chicks in (2mks)
      1. X - Cold/low temperatures thus making chicks move closer to the heat source.
      2. W - Draught strong wind from one side which makes them to move to the opposite side.

  3. A farmer wanted to prepare a 200kg of calf rearing ration containing 20% DCP. Using the pearson’s square method, calculate the amount of maize containing 10% SCP and sunflower containing 35% DCP that the farmer would need to prepare the ration (show your working ) (4mks)

    maize parts agric

  4. Describe the characteristics of eggs selected for incubation (5mks)
    • Be fertilized
    • Medium size (50-60g) in weight
    • Have smooth shells
    • Oval in shape
    • Free of any cracks in the shells
    • Clean/pores open
    • No abnormalities/blood spots/meat spots/double yolk
    • Fresh/week old

Answer any two questions in this section in the spaces provided after question 26

    1. State and explain five factors that influence the siting of farm structures (10mkS)
      • Security : Located near homestead eg poulry house.
      • Accessibility: should be connected with roads for easy of transportation of inputs/outputs
      • Soil type - Should be well drained and unproductive
      • Drainage / Gradient: When there is free flow of water
      • Nearness to water sources eg. Vegetable nursery for easy irrigation
      • Social amenities: Homesteads to be near schools, hospitals and churches
      • Other infrastructure such as near roads and power lines
      • View of farm (panoramic)
      • Future expansion space to be left for future expansion

    2. outline five advantages of fences in a farm (5mks)
      • They mark boundaries
      • Keep off intruders / thieves
      • Control grazing facilitate rotational grazing
      • Prevent damage of crops by animals
      • Control breeding
      • Act as wind breaks
      • Control of pests and diseases by preventing entry of wild and sick animals
      • Live fences have aesthetic value
      • Provide livestock feeds, firewood, mulch and compost manure material
      • Add value to farms

    3. Outline five methods of reinforcing fences to make them stronger (5mks)
      • Cementing the posts
      • Inserting droppers between standard posts
      • Supporting the corner posts with struts and strainers
      • Tightening the wire strainers
      • Fixing braces to support the fencing posts

    1. Describe the management practices that should be carried for a sow and piglets during the farrowing period (12mks)

      • Clean and disinfect the far rowing pen
      • Wash / clean and disinfectant the sow.
      • Treat the sow against external parasites
      • Move the sow to a furrowing pen - 3 days before furrowing
      • Provide a creep area.
      • Provide clean bedding maternal
      • Provide bran for the sow after furrowing.
      • Ensure piglest are breathing.
      • Ensure piglets suckle colostrum
      • Disinfect umbilical cord of piglets.
      • Weigh piglets on day one to get birth weight
      • Dispose the after - birth
      • Dispose-off born still piglets on day 1 to attain birth weight.

    2. Explain reasons why a breeding boar may be culled (8mks)
      • Old age Health of a boar Serious injury of the boar
      • When daughters are used as replacement stock /to a oid inbreeding.
      • When boar is too fat and lazy.
      • Poor performance of offsprings
      • Lack of libido / infertile boar.
      • Bad temperament
    1. Describe maintenance practices which are carried out on farm buildings (10mks)

      • Painting walls, wooden surfaces.
      • Greasing hinges of doors.
      • Oiling exposed metal part to avoid rusting e.g. steel posts.
      • Regular cleaning.
      • Repair of broken doors, windows, handles ecc.
      • Using buildings for correct purpose.
      • Avoiding banging objects into the building.
      • Sealing of leaking roofs.
      • Plastering, cementing walls to avoid vermins.
      • Re-sealing / walling of cracked walls.
      • Painting wooden parts of the roof with old engine oil to control insect attacks.

    2. Outline the factor considered when siting a bee hive. (5mks)
      • Availability of water.
      • Availability of flowers (food nector).
      • Shelter / no overheating.
      • Direction of wind.
      • Noise sounds e.g. nearby posho mill.
      • Smells e.g. damping site.
      • Security away from living homes / livestock.

    3. Outline the management practices carried out in an incubator (5mks)
      • Egg turning every 6 - 8 hours.
      • Egg should be turned around 180°.
      • Any egg found to be infertile should be removed on the 5th day.
      • Broken eggs should be removed.
      • Add water to maintain humidity.
      • Maintain temperature within the set range.
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