HISTORY PAPER 2 - KCSE 2019 NYANDARUA PRE MOCK EXAMINATION

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SECTION A (25MARKS)
Answer All questions from this section.

  1. What is political history as an area of study in History and Government? (1mark)
  2. Give two chemical dating methods used by Archaeologists to reconstruct History. (2marks)
  3. Give the main reason why early agriculture developed in Egypt. (1mark)
  4. Identify two scientific discoveries during the nineteenth century which contributed to food preservation. (2marks)
  5. State two ways in which Africans participated in the Trans-Atlantic Trade. (2marks)
  6. Give two results of the development of the steamship in Europe. (2marks)
  7. Give one reason why coal was used as the main source of industrial power in Britain during the Industrial Revolution. (1mark)
  8. Identify two social functions of the Ancient city of Athens in Greece. (2marks)
  9. State the main function of the Golden stool in the Asante Empire during the pre-colonial period. (1mark)
  10. Give one contribution of religion in the Maji Maji rebellion. (1mark)
  11. Why was Ethiopia not colonized by the Europeans in the nineteenth century? (1mark)
  12. Identify two ways in which Samori Toure acquired fire arms during the Mandinka Resistance. (2marks)
  13. Identify one political reform introduced by President de Klerk that led to the achievement of black majority rule in South Africa. (1mark)
  14. Give the main reason why the League of Nations was formed in 1919. (1mark)
  15. Name two agencies of the United Nations Organisation which deal with the problem of health. (2marks)
  16. Identify one military alliance formed during the cold war. (1mark)
  17. Give two non-British colonies who are members of the Commonwealth. (2marks)

SECTION B (45 MARKS)
Answer only three questions from this section

  1.  
    1. Give three species of Australopithecus. (3marks)
    2. Explain six ways in which Homo erectus attempted to improve his way of life. (12marks)
  2.  
    1. Identify three major Trans-Continental railways in the modern world. (3marks)
    2. Explain six ways through which the invention of the invention of the railway speeded up industrialization in Europe. (12marks)
  3.  
    1. Give three methods used by European powers to establish colonial rule in Africa. (3marks)
    2. Explain six effects of the partition of Africa on the African communities. (12marks)
  4.  
    1. State three methods used by the nationalists in Ghana to fight for their independence.                       (3marks)
    2. Explain six factors that led to the development of African Nationalism in Ghana. (12marks)

SECTION C (30MARKS)
Answer only two questions from this section.

  1.  
    1. Identify five main organs of the United Nations Organization. (5marks)
    2. Discuss five ways through which the United Nations Organization promotes peace in the world. (10marks)
  2.  
    1. Give five reasons why the First World War was referred to as the greatest war ever fought in the world by 1914. (5marks) 
    2. Explain five effects of the cold war that emerged after the Second World War. (10marks)
  3.  
    1. Give five factors for the growth of Pan-Africanism. (5marks)
    2. Discuss five reasons why the Pan-African Movement had not established itself in the African continent before 1945. (10marks)


MARKING SCHEME

  1. What is political history as an area of study in History and Government?            (1mark)
    This is the study of a people’s way of ruling, people’s leaders and the system of administration. /The study of the way people are ruled/governed and their administrative structure.
    1x1=1mark
  1. Give two chemical dating methods used by Archaeologists to reconstruct History. (2marks)
    1. Radio-carbon dating (carbon 14 dating)
    2. Potassium-Argon
      Any 2x1=2marks
  1. Give the main reason why early agriculture developed in Egypt. (1mark)
    Availability of water for irrigation from River Nile
    1x1=1mark
  1. Identify two scientific discoveries during the nineteenth century which contributed to food preservation.                                     (2marks)
    1. Discovery of canning
    2. Invention of refrigeration
    3. Invention of pasteurization Any 2x1=2
  1. State two ways in which Africans participated in the Trans-Atlantic Trade. (2marks)
    1. They acted as middlemen between European merchants and interior communities.
    2. They acquired/raided slaves
    3. Rulers sold their own subjects/they were sold as slaves
    4. They marched slaves to the coast
    5. They transported trade items to the coast
      Any 2 x 1 = 2
  1. Give two results of the development of the steamship in Europe. (2marks)
    • It led to increased use of coal as a source of energy
    • It facilitated expansion of international trade
    • It led to increased use of water transport
    • It led to improvement in water transport
      Any 2 x 1 = 2
  1. Give one reason why coal was used as the main source of industrial power in Britain during the Industrial Revolution. (1mark)
    • It was cheap
    • It was available in large quantities
    • It was more efficient than other sources of energy at the time Any 1 x 1 = 1
  1. Identify two social functions of the Ancient city of Athens in Greece. (2marks)
    • It was a cultural centre/music/art/theatre
    • It was an educational centre
    • It was a sport centre
    • It was a religious centre
    • It was a recreation centre/ entertainment centre
      Any 2 x 1 = 2
  1. State the main function of the Golden stool in the Asante Empire during the pre-colonial period.      (1mark)
    It was a symbol of unity/bound together all the Asante states
    Any 1 x 1 = 1
  1. Give one contribution of religion in the Maji Maji rebellion. (1mark) 
    • It gave people courage and confidence to fight the Germans
    • It gave spiritual strength to fight a superior force
    • Through religion, suspicions among communities were wiped out/provided unity among the fighters
      Any 1 x 1 = 1
  1. Why was Ethiopia not colonized by the Europeans in the nineteenth century? (1mark)
    Ethopia successfully defeated the Italians at Adowa/Ethopia under Menelik II defeated the Italians.
    Any 1 x 1 = 1
  1. Identify two ways in which Samori Toure acquired fire arms during the Mandinka Resistance.                                                                                     (2marks 
    • By manufacturing locally
    • From organized raids on enemies
    • By trading with the British.
    • Any 2 x 1 = 2
  1. Identify one political reform introduced by President de Klerk that led to the achievement of black majority rule in South Africa. (1mark)
    • He released all the political prisoners
    • He appealed apartheid laws e.g. pass laws
    • He allowed Africans to join political parties/participate in elections.
      Any 1 x 1 = 1
  1. Give the main reason why the League of Nations was formed in 1919. (1mark) 
    To prevent the occurrence of another world war/to maintain world peace and security.
     1 x 1 = 1
  1. Name two agencies of the United Nations Organization which deal with the problem of health.                                                                                                 (2marks)
    World Health Organization (WHO)
    United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
    NB – abbreviations do not score
    Any 2 x 1 = 2
  1. Identify one military alliance formed during the cold war. (1mark 
    • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
    • Warsaw Pact
      Any 1 x 1 = 1
  1. Give two non-British colonies who are members of the Commonwealth. (2marks)
    Mozambique
    Cameroon
    Togo
    Any 2 x 1 = 2

SECTION B (45 MARKS)
Answer only three questions from this section

  1.  
    1. Give three species of Australopithecus. (3marks)
      • Australopithecus anamensis
      • Australopithecus afarensis
      • Australopithecus africanus
      • Australopithecus robustus
      • Australopithecus boisei Any 3 x 1 = 3
    2. Explain six ways in which Homo erectus attempted to improve his way of life. (12marks)
      • He improved stone tools through the use of Levallois method
      • He invented fire which was used for cooking, lighting, protection against wild animals etc
      • He made and lived in cave for more permanent settlement and security.
      • He made clothes out of animal skin by scrapping them clean, using efficient tools.
      • He created leisure activities such as art work.
      • He developed language for effective communication.
      • He migrated to warmer areas or regions Any 6 x 2 = 12
  1.  
    1. Identify three major Trans-Continental railways in the modern world. (3marks)
      • The Trans-Siberian Railway line.
      • The Great American Railway
      • The Canadian Pacific Railway Any 3 x 1 = 3
    2. Explain six ways through which the invention of the railway speeded up industrialization in Europe. (12marks)
      • The invention of the railway facilitated transportation of bulky and heavy raw materials to industries.
      • It speeded up the transportation of bulky manufactured goods to various markets in different parts of Europe.
      • It facilitated the transportation of heavy industrial sources of energy to the industries e.g. coal.
      • It provided reliable and cheaper means of transport for workers to the industries and thus enhancing their performance.
      • It facilitated interactions between towns and business people and thus promoted investment in industries.
      • It facilitated the migration and settlement of people to new lands which became sources of raw materials.
      • It opened up mining and farming in the interior of most countries.
      • It facilitated the transportation of heavy machinery for instillation in industries.
      • Revenue from the railway was used in setting up industries.
        Any 6 x 2 = 12
  2.  
    1. Give three methods used by European powers to establish colonial rule in Africa.                (3marks)
      • Signing of treaties
      • Military conquest/force
      • Company rule
      • Collaboration/Diplomacy
      • Treachery/tricks
      • Divide and rule/playing off communities against each other.
      • Enticing/luring the chiefs with gifts e.g. clothes and weapons
        Any 3 x 1 = 3
    2. Explain six effects of the partition of Africa on the African communities. (12marks)
      • Africans lost their independence as Europeans established colonies.
      • African economies weakened by the Europeans exploitation of the resources.
      • The African system of government were replaced by European system.
      • Africans adopted European language which became official languages in the colonies.
      • Modern African states were created by the boundaries drawn during the partition.
      • Some African communities were split by the boundaries that were drawn during the partition.
      • Africans lost land as Europeans established permanent settlement.
      • Africans lost their lives/property as they resisted European occupation.
      • African cultures were undermined through the introduction of western education/spread of Christianity
      • Closer ties were forged between Africans and Europeans which created overdependence on Europe.
      • Intensification of warfare among African communities,
      • Infrastructure was developed to link major mining and agricultural areas.
      • Introduction of new policies on the Africans e.g. forced labour.
        Any 6 x 2 = 12
  1.  
    1. State three methods used by the nationalists in Ghana to fight for their independence.                       (3marks)
      • They formed political parties
      • They used boycotts/demonstrations/strikes/go-slows
      • They organized political rallies to mobilize mass support.
      • They used newspapers to articulate theirs views.
      • They composed songs/poems to attack colonialism
      • They used trade unions.
      • They used the legislative council
      • They used international forums Any 3 x 1 = 3
    2. Explain six factors that led to the development of African Nationalism in Ghana. (12marks)
      • Inadequate African representation in the legislative council.
      • Loss of power by the traditional African chiefs created discontent against the colonial government.
      • The need to guard against possible land alienation by the British united the Africans.
      • The Africans resented the introduction of high taxation by Europeans.
      • The meagre earnings by Africans from the sale of cocoa to European created discontent among them.
      • The order by the colonial government that farmers uproot their crops due to the ‘swollen shot’ disease upset the Africans.
      • The involvement of the ex-servicemen in the Second World War inspired them to fight for their independence.
      • The attainment of independence by India and Pakistan encouraged the Africans to demand for their right to govern themselves.
      • The existence of young educated Africans who had understood the ideals of democracy.
      • High rate of unemployment among the Africans created resentment/discontent.
      • The United Nations Charter’s declaration on the importance of political independence of all people inspired the Ghanaians and other leaders.
      • The charismatic leadership provided by Kwame Nkrumah united the people in their struggle against colonial domination.
      • The selective granting of trading licenses to European traders while denying the same to the Africans created discontent among the Africans.
        Any 6 x 2 = 12

SECTION C (30MARKS)
Answer only two questions from this section.

  1.  
    1. Identify five main organs of the United Nations Organization. (5marks)
      • The General Assembly
      • The Security Council
      • The Secretariat
      • The International Court of Justice
      • The Economic and Social Council
      • The Trusteeship Council
        Any 5 x 1 = 5
    2. Discuss five ways through which the United Nations Organization promotes peace in the world. (10marks)
      • It sends peace-keeping missions to conflict areas in order to enforce ceasefire or prevent further confrontation.
      • It uses envoys to mediate disputes between warring groups so as to find amicable solutions to problems.
      • It hears cases between states through The International Court of Justice
      • It imposes sanctions against states that defy its resolutions in order to force them to comply.
      • It uses peace messengers to sensitize people on importance of peace or encouraged peaceful co-existence.
      • It encourages disarmament by signing arms control treaties or agreements with a view of reducing tension or suspicion between states.
      • It promotes human rights and freedoms by enforcing international laws which protects people against abuse.
      • It provides humanitarian assistance to the needy by giving them protection or basic needs.
      • It promotes democracy and good governance in the countries by providing electoral assistance or sending observers to monitor elections.
      • It condemns all forms of terrorism by putting in place mechanisms of combating it through international agreement.
        Any 5 x 2 = 10
  1.  
    1. Give five reasons why the First World War was referred to as the greatest war ever fought in the world by 1914.     (5marks)
      • Numerous states were involved in the war.
      • A huge size of armed forces were assemblied and used in the combat.
      • Lethal weapons never used before were used in the war e.g. machine guns, poisonous etc.
      • Immense resources, both financial, economic and human were put in use during the war.
      • There was colossal loss of life
      • The war occasioned massive destruction of properties.
        Any 5 x 1 = 5
    2. Explain five effects of the cold war that emerged after the Second World War. (10marks)
      • The cold war led to space race between USA and USSR which led to the development of space crafts.
      • The war cause insecurity as each power tried to spread its own ideology either by force or peace.
      • The mistrust, accusation and counter accusation of the two powers resulted in international security and disruption of world peace leading to the arms race.
      • In certain situations the cold war led to real war like in Korea and Vietnam.
      • There were coup and counter coup in the 3rd world countries leading to rise of dictators.
      • Europe was divided into two with an ‘iron curtain’, i.e. the Berlin wall restricting movement of people from east to west Germany and vice versa.
      • It led to the formation of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) which was a kind of neutralism to either of the power blocs. Any 5 x 2 = 10
  1.  
    1. Give five factors for the growth of Pan-Africanism. (5marks) 
      • The humiliation and exploitation of Africans through slavery and slave trade and the hard experiences of Africans in the New world.
      • Colonialism and colonial experiences that Africans were subjected to like forced labour, taxation etc.
      • Awareness among Africans in the diaspora as they acquired western education and joined hands with those from the continent who were studying overseas to promote Pan-Africanism.
      • The realization of the Africans that they had close cultural factors e.g. common ancestry.
      • Desire by the Africans to work together for mutual support in order to improve their well-being.
        Any 5 x 1 = 10
    2. Discuss five reasons why the Pan-African Movement had not established itself in the African continent before 1945. (10marks)
      • There were very few African representatives in the movements and the few who existed were either students abroad or in exile.
      • The colonial authorities did not allow Africans to organized movements that were opposed to colonial rule.
      • The divide and rule policy of European powers hindered the unity of Africans.
      • There was lack of contact and communication between Africans in French, British, Spanish, Italians and Portuguese colonies.
      • The Africans in each colony were concerned with issues that were of particular interest to them.
      • There was little attention given to the movement by the two independent countries, namely Ethiopia and Liberia.
      • The French policy of the assimilation blind-folded the African who were given political rights and thus strove to acquire French citizenship, adopt their culture and remain closely related to France.
      • Lack of suitable venue to hold conferences on the African soil until when Ghana gained independence and provided one.
        Any 5 x 2 = 10  

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