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    Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

    Substance Abuse has emerged in recent decades as a major concern both on and off the job. Although reasons vary, substance abuse can be a way that some people try to manage or reduce distress.

    But it is important to be clear on what is generally meant by a drinking problem. In all cases related to alcohol abuse, a common factor is the unfavorable effect alcohol has on the health or well-being of the drinker and his or her associates.   Common signs and symptoms that frequently indicate a drinking problem include being constantly absent from work, causing on-the-job accidents and expressing grievances most of the time.

    Alcoholic employees can sometimes go undetected for years. Coworkers cover up for those unable to perform their jobs because of drunkenness. Even managers may be adept at concealing their alcohol abuse problems. Their secretaries or loyal associates may cover up for them. Alcoholics can be clever at inventing “credible” excuses when detected: “I must have a drink or two when I’m entertaining customers, of course.”

    Drug abuse, or drug addiction, exists when the taking of drugs, whether prescribed or non-prescribed, legal or illegal, causes difficulties in any area of an individual’s life.   Years ago, the stereotype of the drug user was either of a glazed-eyed musician frantically beating his sticks on a tight skin or a person who dwelt in a slum. Mass publicity on drug abuse has long since caused that stereotype to fade from view.

    Complicating the ongoing war on drugs are changes in public attitudes and drug-use patterns. It sometimes seems that no sooner is progress made in combating one illegal drug than a different kind of substance abuse comes into vogue. Ethyl alcohol was the social drug during prohibition (1920 – 1933), marijuana became the social drug of the 1960s and 1970s, and some observers believe that crack cocaine and possibly ectasy – another so-called upper – became the social drugs of the 1980s and 1990s. the drugs of choice and people’s attitude toward them may change, but the problem of drug abuse appears to be continuing unabated.

    Pinpointing the specific symptoms of alcohol and drug abuse problems is not a simple task. A supervisor’s main responsibility, therefore should not necessarily be uncovering evidence of dependency on alcohol and drugs but instead being observant for declining job performance. Yet there are certain behavioural patterns that some excessive users of alcohol and drugs display. These patterns can sometimes be spotted through simple observation. Increasingly though, employers are taking more aggressive steps to ferret out substance abuse among their workforces. A growing number of companies, especially large ones with many employees and those in business with potential to effect public health or safety, are adopting drug-testing programmes.

    The signs of alcohol dependency, unfortunately, do not always become manifest until the middle of the late stages of the problem. No wonder some managers have mistaken an employee’s euphoric appearance for the “look of love”. The earlier treatment begins, naturally, the earlier treatment begins, naturally, the easier it will be. A person could experience some isolated incidents of such drinking problems without necessarily being a alcoholic. However, alcohol abuse usually results in declining job performance.

    Because there are many symptoms of drug abuse, no one person would exhibit all of them and a supervisor should guard against assuming that the presence of one or more symptoms is conclusive of alcohol or drug abuse.

    1. What is the main reason given for substance abuse?     (2 mks)
    2. From paragraph two, state three ways in which alcohol abuse can unfavourably affect the workmates of a drunker?             (3mks)
    3. According to the passage, what is drug abuse?                                                 (2mks)
    4. What was the common misconception about who a drug user was? (2mks)
    5. Rewrite the following sentences using “as soon as”
      It sometimes seems that no sooner is progress made in combating one illegal drug than a different kind of substance abuse comes into vogue.                                              (1mk
    6. What can we infer about “prohibition”?                                                             (2mks)
    7. In not more than 55 words, summarize the reasons that make it difficult to effectively deal with substance abuse. (4mks)
    8. Why do you think the author of the passage cautions supervisors against hastily concluding that one is a drug abuser? (2mks)
    9. Explain the meaning of the following words as used in the passage. (2mks)
      1. Credible
      2. Stereotype –
    Krogstad :      Are you sure of that?
    Mrs Linde :     Quite sure, but –
    Krogstad:        (with a searching look at her) Is that what it all mean? That you want to   save your friend at any cost? Tell me frankly. Is that it?
    Mrs Linde:      Nils, a woman who has once sold herself for another’s sake doesn’t do it a second time.
    Krogstad:        I will ask for my letter back.
    Mrs Linde:      No, no.
    Krogstad:        Yes, of course I will. I will wait here until Helmer comes; I will tell him he must give me my letter back-that it only concerns my dismissal-that he is not to read it.
    Mrs Linde:     No Nils, you must not recall your letter.
    Krogstad:       But, tell me wasn’t it for that very purpose that you asked me to meet you here?
    Mrs Linde:     In my first moment of right, it was. But twenty-four hours have elapsed since then, and in that time I have witnessed incredible things in this house. Helmer must know all about it. This unhappy secret must be disclosed; they must have a complete understanding between them which is impossible with all this concealment and falsehood going on.
    Krogstad:        very well, if you take the responsibility. But there is one thing I can do in my case and I shall do it at once.
    Mrs Linde:      (listening) You must be quick and go! The dance is over, we are not safe a moment longer.
    Krogstad:        I will wait for you below
    Mrs Linde:     Yes, do. You must see me back to my door.
    Krogstad:        I have never had such an amazing piece of good fortune in my life!
    1. Explain what happens before this excerpt.            (2mks)
    2. Why does Krogstad say he would ask for his letter back? Explain.             (2mks)
    3. Identify and explain the dominant theme in the excerpt. (2mks)
    4. “Nills, a woman who has once sold herself for another sake doesn’t do it a second time”. Briefly explain what makes Mrs Linde say this?       (3mks
    5. Explain the use of irony in this excerpt.             (2mks)
    6. Identify and illustrate two character traits of Mrs Linde in this excerpt. (4mks)
    7. “ I have never had such amazing piece of good fortune in my life!” Rewrite beginning never…………………             (1mk)
    8. What makes Krogstad say that he has never had such good fortune in his life? (2mks)
    9. “But there is one thing I can do in any case and I shall do it at once.” What is that Krogstad does and how does it affect the rest of the play?   (3mks)
    10. Explain the meaning of the following words and phrases as used in the passage. (4mks)
      1. At any cost –
      2. Recall –
      3. Elapsed –
      4. Incredible things –
  1. Read the following oral poem and answer the questions that follow.
    Oh beautiful bride, don’t cry,
    Your marriage will be happy,
    Console yourself, your husband will be good.
    And like your mother and your aunt,
    You will have many children in your life,
    Two children, three children, four……………..
    Resign yourself do like all other,
    A man is not a leopard,
    A husband is not a thunderstruck,
    Your mother was your father’s wife,
    It will not kill you to work.
    It will not kill you to grind the grain
    Nor will it kill you to wash the pots
    Nobody dies from gathering firewood
    Nor from washing clothes.
    We did not do it for you,
    We did not want to see you go,
    We love you too much for that
    Its your beauty that did it
    Because you are so gorgeous
    Ah, we see you laugh beneath your tears!
    Goodbye, your husband is here
    And already you don’t seem
    To need our consolations.

    1. With evidence, classify the oral poem. (2mks)
    2. Who do you think are the singers of the song? Illustrate. (2mks
    3. How do the singers make the situation bearable for the lady?           (2mks)
    4. What is the attitude of the society from which the song is derived towards women?(2mks)
    5. Illustrate and explain the use of the following stylistic devices in this oral poem.(4mks)
      1. Repetition –
      2. Ellipses –
    6. State in note form the duties of a wife according to the song. (2mks)
    7. Explain any social aspect and one economic activity carried out in the commodity from which the oral poem is taken (4mks
    8. Explain the irony in the 7th                                                              (2mks)
    1. Rewrite the following sentences according to the instructions given.  
      1. If he comes he will not be punished.
        (Begin: Unless…………………………
      2. The snail reached the ark only by perseverance
        (Begin: Only…………….
      3. They had just walked out of the building when the bomb went off.
        (Begin: No sooner …………………
      4. John told the principal that he needed to go and see the nurse because he was feeling unwell.
        (Rewrite as direct speech)………………
      5. These books belong to the daughters of our teacher.
        (Begin: These are ………………..
    2. Replace the underlined words with phrasal verbs that begin with the words given in brackets.       (3mks)
      1. Parents should not yield to their children’s unreasonable demands. (give)
      2. The officials cancelled the match because of the heavy rain (call)
      3. Disagreeing with his parents was his worst mistake. (fall)
    3. Explain the difference in meaning of the following pair of sentence.
      1. I only heard the news in brief.
      2. I only heard the news briefly.
    4. Change the following sentences into passive.
      1. Njoroge wrote the best composition.
      2. Sue bought the beautiful house on the hill
    5. Complete the following sentences using the appropriate form of the word given in brackets.
      1. Sophie’s mother …………………………………….of Sophie wearing very tight clothes to church (approve)
      2. His ………………………………………..cost him his job (efficient)
      3. The ……………………………………………of the traveler’s was hindered by the poor roads (mobile)


  1. comprehension passage
    1. Substance abuse is a way that some people try to manage or reduce distress. (2mks)
      • They may have to do the drivers duties when he is a way
      • They may be adversely affected by the accidents caused by the driver.
      • They will be forced to listen to the constant whining of the driver.
        3 point each 1mk (3x1mks)
    3. Drug abuse is the taking of drugs, whether prescribed or non-prescribed, legal or illegal, which causes difficulties in any area of an individual’s life. (2mks)
    4. The common misconception about who a drug user was that drug user was mostly associated with musicians and slum dwellers. (2mks)
    5. It sometimes seems that as soon as progress is made in combating one illegal drug, a different kind of substance is abused comes vogue. (1mk)
    6. Prohibition was a period in history during which the consumption of a drug was prohibited(2mks)
    7. Substance abuse is difficult to effectively deal with because workers cover for their colleagues who drink. Besides, alcoholics create excuses for drinking on the job. The drugs abused keep changing as do people’s attitude towards them. The symptoms of drug abuse are difficult to detect.
    8. Because symptoms of drug abuse are difficult to detect and one person can exhibit all of the symptoms/ a supervisor might see one or more of those symptoms and wrongly assume that a worker is a drug abuser.
      • Credible-believable/ authentic/ convincing.
      • Stereotype- misconception/ false believe/ illusion.
  2. Question 2: extract
      • Krogstad asks Christine if she still has the courage to accept him back despite his tainted/ bad reputation.
      • Christine tells him she understands that he did it …….and that she is ready to accept him back.
      • Krogstad regrets that he cannot undo the harm he has done to Nora.
      • Christine informs him that his letter is in the letter box.
         Any 2 points (2x1mks)
      • He does not want Nora’s husband to know the secret of forgery that she has kept from him for so many years. (2mks)
      • He has reunited with Christine and he is very happy.
      • He does not want to rein Helmer’s marriage since they are friends to Christine.
        Any 1points (1x2mks)
      • Betrayal-Christine’s refusal to convince Krogstad to withdraw his letter is a betrayal to her friendship with Nora.
      • Deception-the marriage of Helmer and Nora is founded on so much deception that Christine wants to save their marriage by making them face the reality of their situation.
      • Friendship- Christine is here to help Nora face the reality of her marriage to Helmer.
        Any one theme- identification, illustration
      • She had once sacrificed her love for the sake of her bedridden mother and three young brothers. And she is not ready to do it the second time for another person.
      • It is ironical that Mrs. Linde had called Krogstad with the intention of convincing him to withdraw his letter but instead, she actually encourages him not to withdraw it.(2mks)
      • Selfless-she sacrificed her love for the sake of her sick mother and two brothers.
      • Saitorous-her refusal to convince Krogstad to withdraw the letter is an act of betrayal to Nora.
        N/B     - (identification 1mk, illustration 1mk
        Acc 2 well illustrated traits
    6. Never had I such amazing piece of good fortune in my life! (1mk)
    7. Because Mrs. Linde had initially left him for a richer man who would help her /support her sick mother and the young brothers but she has now given him another chance of love.(2mks)  
      • Krogstad writes Helmer another letter that sets free Nora’s forgery.
      • Helmer is very happy now that he is saved and Nora that he has forgiven her.
      • However, his forgiveness is not accepted by Nora since he had already condemned her for her actions.
      • Nora decides to abandon him and their children.        
        N/B what Krogstad does 1mk, How it affects the rest of the plot 2mks
      • At any cost-no matter what/despite the danger involved(1mk)
      • Recall-ask/ call back/ retrieve(1mk)
      • Elapsed-passed(1mk)
      • Incredible-unavailable things(1mk)
  3. Oral poem
    1. Wedding song (1mk)-“don’t worry; your marriage will be happy.”(1mk)
    2. Friends /relatives of the bride or the beautiful woman.(1mk)
    3. “…We did not want to see you go” (1mk)
    4. -Praising her by telling her that she is gorgeous
      -Encouragements (by giving examples of those who have done it before like her mother and aunt.
    5. -Reception-for emphasis
      “It will not kill you…….”
      ‘We did not do it
      -Ellipses-creates suspense
      -makes the story interesting
      • Mothering
      • Grinding
      • Washing
      • Social- marriage
      • Economic-farming e.g. grinding
    8. Beauty is supposed to make her happy but instead the girl cry.
    1. Unless he comes, he will be punished.
      (Comma missing=0mk)
    2. No sooner had they walked out of the building than the bomb went off.
    3. Only by perseverance did the snail reach the ark.
    4. ‘I need to go and see the nurse because I am feeling unwell,” John told the principal.
      1. These are our teacher’s daughters’ books.
      2. Give in.
        Called off.
        Falling out.
      3. I listened to the news summery without many details.
        I listened to the news for a short while.
      • The best competition was written by Njoroge.
      • The beautiful house on the hill was bought by sue.
      • Disapproves
      • Inefficiency
      • mobility


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