History Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Bunamfan Cluster Pre Mock Exam 2022

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INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  • This paper consists of three sections; A, B and C
  • Answer All the questions in section A, three questions from section B and two questions from section C


Questions 

SECTION A (25 MARKS)
ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS IN THIS SECTION

  1. Give one contribution of archeology to the study of History. 1mark
  2. Give two reasons why human beings lived in groups during the Stone Age period. 2marks
  3. Identify two ways through which early agriculture spread during the Stone Age period. 2marks
  4. State two characteristics of Roman roads 2marks
  5. Identify two early forms of written communication 2marks
  6. Name the earliest metal to be smelted by man. 1mark
  7. State the contribution of Alexander Fleming in the field of medicine. 1mark
  8. Identify two social functions of the ancient city of Athens in Greece. 2marks
  9.  State the main factor that unified the communities of Shona kingdom during the pre-colonial period. 1mark
  10. State the capital of Samori Touré’s second empire 1mark
  11. Identify two ways in which Africans reacted to European rule. 2marks
  12. Name the political party that led Mozambique to independence 1mark
  13. State two functions of the Lukiiko among the Baganda. 2 marks
  14. Name two classifications of human rights. 2marks
  15. Identify the religion that is closely related with the growth of Kilwa. 1mark
  16. Other than assimilation which other method of colonial administration did the French adopt 1 mark
  17. Identify one French colony in central Africa 1 mark

SECTION B (45 MARKS)
ANSWER ANY THREE QUESTIONS FROM THIS SECTION

  1.        
    1. State five factors that favored the beginning of agriculture during the New Stone Age (5mks)
    2. Explain the five effects of Agrarian revolution in Europe. (10mks)
    1. State three disadvantages of coal as a source of energy (3mks)
    2. Explain six effects of scientific revolution on industry. (12mks)
  2.     
    1. State three factors that enabled European powers to colonize Africa in the late 19th century. (3mks)
    2. Explain six effects of the partition of Africa on African communities. (12mks)
  3.   
    1. Identify five causes of the Maji Maji rebellion in central Tanganyika between 1905-1907.(5 mks)
    2. Why were the African communities defeated by the Germans during the Maji Maji rebellion? (10 marks)

SECTION C (30 MARKS)ANSWER ANY TWO QUESTIONS FROM THIS SECTION

  1.            
    1. State five factors for the growth of the Buganda Empire. (5marks)
    2. Describe the political organization of the Asante kingdom during the pre-colonial period. (10marks)
  2.    
    1. Give five reasons why the British employed the policy of indirect rule in Northern Nigeria. (5mks)
    2. Explain five differences between the of British Indirect rule and French policy of Assimilation.(10mks)
  3.       
    1. Give three reasons why it took too long for Mozambique to achieve independence from Portugal. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six factors that favored the success of FRELIMO Nationalists during their struggle for independence in Mozambique. (12 marks)


Marking Scheme

  1. Give one contribution of archeology to the study of History. 1mark
    • Provides information on the origin of humans cradle/earliest human beings
    • provides information on peoples ways of life
    • helps people to locate historical sites.
    • provides information on the chronological order of historical events/dating.
  2. Give two reasons why human beings lived in groups during the Stone Age period. 2marks
    • for companionship
    • for security
    • to share resources
    • to help one another
  3. Identify two ways through which early agriculture spread during the Stone Age period. 2marks
    • through migration
    • through trade
    • through intermarriages
    • through wars
  4. State two characteristics of Roman roads 2marks
    • roads were straight
    • raised above the ground to prevent flooding
    • had deep trenches on sides to prevent flooding
    • Had bridges funnel.
  5. Identify two early forms of written communication 2marks
    • pictures
    • scrolls
    • parchment
    • stone tablet
  6. Name the earliest metal to be smelted by man. 1mark
    • gold
  7. State the contribution of Alexander Fleming in the field of medicine. 1mark
    • he discovered penicillin antibiotic that could cure many diseases and pheumonia.
  8. Identify two social functions of the ancient city of Athens in Greece. 2marks
    • cultural centre/ music/art theatre
    • educational centre
    • sport centre
    • religious centre
  9. State the main factor that unified the communities of Shona kingdom during the pre-colonial period. 1mark
    • mwari religious cult (mulimo religion
  10. State the capital of Samori Touré’s second empire
    • Dabakala
  11. Identify two ways in which Africans reacted to European rule. 2marks
    • armed resistance
    • collaboration
    • Mixed reaction
  12. Name the political party that led Mozambique to independence 1mark
    • liberation front of Mozambique (FRELIMO)
  13. State two functions of the Lukiko among the Baganda. (2mks)
    • Advise the Kabaka
    • Made the laws.
    • It also directed tax collectionand planned expenditure,
    • it acted as the final court of appeal
    • it represented the needs of the people to the kabaka.
    • It helped the kabaka in general administration. 2 @ 1 = 2mks
  14. Name two classifications of human rights. (2mks)
    • Civil and political rightsSocial economic and cultural rights
    • Solidarity rights ( rights, pertaining to the whole community 2 @ 1 = 2mks
  15. Identify the religion that is closely related with the growth of Kilwa.
    • Islam 1×1= 1 mk
  16. Other than assimilation which other method of colonial administration did the French adopt.
    • Association 1×1= 1
  17. Identify the French colonies in central Africa
    • French Congo
    • Chad
      1×1= 1 mk
  18.   
    1. State five factors that favored the beginning of agriculture during the New Stone Age (5mks)
      • inventing of tools which made digging possible
      • permanent settlements enabled man to practice farming.
      • increased population led to high demand for food
      • climatic changes led scarcity of wild food
      • hunting and gathering become tedious
      • Availability of indigenous crops; wheat, barley
      • competition of wild food between man and animals
    2. Explain the five effects of Agrarian revolution in Europe. (10mks)
      • increased food production due to improved methods of farming
      • population increase due to abundant food supply
      • development of plantation farming
      • expansion of industries due to availability of raw materials.
      • diversification of agriculture eg new crops and animals were introduced
      • development of trade both local and international
      • improved standard of living due to availability of food
      • migration of people to other regions eg U.S.A., Canada, South Africa as a result of loss of land due to large scale farming
      • landlessness – poor sold of their land to rich landlords
      • unemployment – farm machinery lanceted manual workers jobless
  19.         
    1. State three disadvantages of coal as a source of energy (3mks)
      • Coal was expensive to mine and to transport to the required destination.
      • Coal mining was risky to miners who often lost their lives when mines collapsed and buried
      • It is buky and transporting it is difficult.
      • burning of coal e.g sulphur dioxide polluted the air and caused acid rain.
      • It produced too much smoke when used in locomotives.
    2. Explain six effects of scientific revolution on industry. (12mks)
      • introduction of machines which have improved leading to large scale manufacture of goods
      • Introduction of alternate source of energy for use in industries
      • development of printing press has enabled people to read and acquire knowledge on industries.
      • improved storage of information eg computers
      • development of telecommunication which has enabled buying selling goods on internet
      • research has enabled industries to recycle waste products and manufacture usable goods.
      • development of robots has reduced a human labour therefore reducing costs.
      • loss of lives due to industrial accidents
      • invention of steam engine – has improved transportation of raw materials to the industries and finished goods to the markets.
  20.  
    1. State three factors that enabled European powers to colonize Africa in the late 19th century. (3mks)
      • disunity among African community
      • superior weapons used by European countries
      • weak African communities due to wars and natural calamities
      • some Africa communities collaborated with Europeans
    2. Explain six effects of the partition of Africa on African communities. (12mks)
      • Africa lost independence to colonialists
      • Africa economies were weakened by European exploitations resources
      • Africa system of government was replaced by European systemems of admistration
      • African languages were replaced by European languages eg French, English
      • creation of modern Africans states by boundaries drawn during partition of Africa separated related communities e.g Maasa In Kenya/Tanzania, Somali – Kenya/Somali
      • Africans lost land to European colonialist
      • Loss of and property
      • African culture was undermined through introduction of western education medicine and religion (Christianity)
      • development of infrastructure
  21.     
    1. Five causes of the Maji Maji rebellion in central Tanganyika between 1905-1907.
      • Forced labour
      • Compulsory cotton growing on fertile land
      • The Africans disliked the rule by Akidas
      • The Germans mistreated Africans rulers /flogging /whipping.
      • The German officials sexually abused the African women.
      • Africans were against the introduction of tax by the Germans.
      • Africans were inspired by the prophecy of Kinjekitile Ngwale.
      • The Ngoni fought to seek revenge over the Boma massacre of 1897
      • Africans wanted to regain their lost independence.
      • Germans despised/looked down upon the African way of life. 5×1=5 mks
    2. Why African communities were defeated by the Germans during the Maji Maji rebellion
      • Africans had inferior weapons which could not match the German modern weapons.
      • German soldiers were well trained.
      • The Africans were disunited.
      • The Germans used the scorched earth policy which led to famine and hence weakened the Africans.
      • The magic water failed to protect the Africans from German bullets.
      • Capture /execution /imprisonment of African leaders demoralized the fighters.
      • Africans were not well coordinated /organized in their fight against the Germans. Any 5×2=10 mks
  22.   
    1. State five factors for the growth of the Buganda Empire. (5mks)
      • Abundant rainfall and suitable soil, thus sound economy based on Agriculture.
      • Their conquests earned them territory, human, animal and natural resources.
      • Able leaders who were able to unite the people.
      • Centralized government which reduced chances of conflict of interest.Standing army and navy which was strong and loyal
      • for defense and territorial expansion.
      • Decline of Bunyoro-Kitara kingdom created a political vacuum to be filled by Buganda.
      • The Kingdom was small and united, thus easy to hold together for easy administration & stability.
      • Contact with the coastal trading communities e.g. Arabs and Swahili in long distance trade which enabled them to gain guns for defense.
      • Ganda tradition which divided labour made everyone to be responsible.
      • High population provided enough labour and soldiers.
      • Annexation of Biddu, Kyagwe and Busoga by Buganda increased her sources of slaves, iron, Ivory and livestock, thus strengthening the economy.
      • The neighboring Kingdoms eg. Toro, Ankole & Busoga were weak, and hence offered no challenge.
      • They welcome the British in the 19th Century, who helped them to expand.
    2. Describe the political organization of the Asante kingdom during the pre-colonial period. (10mks)
      • Political Organization
      • They were a centralized state led by Asantehene; and were grouped into three divisions: nuclear (Kumasi), Amatoo (outside states) and the conquered states.
      • Asantehene was the commander in- chief of the armed forces.
      • The conquered states were ruled by Omanhenes but treated as provinces of Asante. Asantehene appointed representative in each conquered state.
      • The Asantehene ruled with the help of a confederacy of kings (Omanhene), Confederacy council.
      • They took an oath of allegiance to ensure loyalty to the Asantehene.
      • The Omanhene represented the Asantehene in the conquered states / Omanhene were autonomous but were expected to pay tribute to the Asantehene and contribute soldiers in times of war.
      • They had a standing army for external defense.
      • They had a Golden Stool introduced by Asantehene Osei Tutu in the 18th Century, and it symbolized unity.
      • They had a well-established judicial / court system based at Kumasi, headed by Asantehene.
      • The Omanhenes were given power to try minor cases in the provinces.
      • The annual Odwira festival strengthened solidarity and nationalism in the kingdom.
      • The conquered states had black stools which signified unity
  23.         
    1.     
      • lack of enough manpower to administer the vast region
      • system had succeeded in other areas eg India
      • inadequate funds to support the system
      • Northern Nigeria had a well established system administration whose structure the British and utilize easily
      • would minimize Africa resistance
      • poor transport and communication would hinder increment of administrators.
    2.  
      • british used traditional rulers as chiefs while the French appointed assimilate persons as chiefs.
      • British appointed Africa chiefs to retain most of their powers while chiefs under French policy had limited powers
      • British administrators were both professional and non professionals while French administrator were military officers.
      • British did not allow Africa representative in House of Commons while French allowed African representative in French chamber of Deputies
      • laws used to British colonies were made by colonial legislative assembly while laws to govern French colonies were made in Franch chamber of Deputies
      • French allowed assimilated Africans to become French citizens but British did not give citizenship to Africans in their colonies
      • French system destroyed African cultures while British preserved African cultures in their colonies.
  24.           
    1.       
      • Reasons why it took too long for Mozambique to achieve independence from Portugal
      • Portugal was reluctant to part with the economic wealth of Mozambique.
      • Portugal was ruled by kings who had no regard for human rights.
      • Portugal regarded Mozambique as one of its provinces and not a colony.
      • Portugal had succeeded in suppressing revolts by Africans before nationalism took root in Mozambique.
      • Lack of unity among Europeans up to 1960.
      • Illiteracy among Africans in Mozambique 3×1=3 mks
    2. Factors that favored the success of FRELIMO Nationalists during their struggle for independence in Mozambique
      • Use of guerilla tactics to attack the Portuguese from different parts of the country.
      • The local population was recruited into the army which outnumbered the Portuguese forces.
      • Mozambique was highly forested thus provided good cover for the guerilla fighters from Portuguese war planes.
      • FRELIMO fighters were working on familiar ground /terrain.
      • The FRELIMO nationalists cultivated their own food thus being self-sufficient in food supplies.
      • The nationalists were assisted by communists’ countries financially, materially and morally
      • Support from OAU inspired the nationalists to keep on the struggle.
      • The FRELIMO leaders were well-organized.
      • The recognition of the role of women.
      • Elimination of ethnic differences by FRELIMO appealed to all the Mozambicans.
      • Setting up of administrative structures in liberated areas encouraged the Africans in Mozambique to support the struggle. Any 6×2=12 mks

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