HOME SCIENCE Marking Scheme - Form 2 End of Term 1 2019 Examinations

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  1. Give the two major types of household refuse. (2 marks)
    • Organic matter – this is decomposable waste matter derived from living things e.g. food remains, grass etc.
    • Inorganic waste – this is non-decomposable waste matter derived from non-living things e.g. plastics, glass etc.
  2. Give reasons why refuse should be disposed off appropriately. (2 marks)
    • To avoid bad odor
    • To keep away flies
    • To make the environment clean
    • To discourage breeding of rodents which cause disease
    • To prevent accidents caused by broken glass, thorns, slippery areas, pools of stagnant water etc.
  3. Define the term drainage. (2 marks)
    • Drainage is a system of getting rid of waste water away from a house or a building
    1. Discuss four disadvantages of free drainage system. (4 marks)
      • It makes the surrounding swampy
      • It makes the environment have a bad smell
      • Dirty water attracts flies
      • It causes soil erosion
      • It makes the environment unsightly
      • It causes slippery environment which may cause accidents such as falls
    2. State four causes of poor sanitation.    (4 marks)
      • Poor personal hygiene
      • Water pollution due to domestic and industrial sewage leaking into the water supply
      • Improper refuse disposal that litters the environment
      • Congestion – that is overpopulation that causes pressure on public facilities such as the sewage system
      • Air pollution from industries, dust and aero-sprays
  2. Name four classes of laundry equipment. (2 marks)
    • Washing equipment
    • Drying equipment
    • Finishing equipment
    • Storage equipment
  3. State the points to consider when choosing shoes. (4 marks)
    • The shoe should be well made
    • They should be attractive
    • They should be comfortable to wear
    • They should be affordable
    • They should be easy to maintain
    • They should be appropriate for the occasion
  4. What is a house? (1 mark)
    • A house is a physical structure that provides shelter for the family and their possession
  5. Describe the following methods of dirt removal.
    1. scrubbing     (2 marks) 
      • it is done on a hard surface by use of a scrubbing brush and warm soapy water. The surface is then rinsed and dried using a cloth. Finally, the surface is buffed with a dry cloth
    2. wiping         (2 marks)
      • done on a delicate surface by use of a mop or sponge wrung from warm soapy water. The surface is rinsed with a cloth wrung out of warm clean water. It is then buffed to shine with a dry mop
  6. State three desirable qualities of a good clothes line. (3 marks)
    • It should not rust to avoid staining clothes
    • It should be strong to hold the weight of damp/wet clothes
    • It should be made of durable material such as nylon or metal wire
    • It should be smooth to avoid tearing clothes
    • It should be firm to avoid stretching
    • It should resist weather conditions
  7. Name four types of soap found in the Kenyan market. (2 marks)
    • Bar soap
    • Soap jelly/liquid soap
    • Soap powder
    • Soap flakes
    • Antiseptic soaps
    • Toilet soaps/bathing soaps
  8. Differentiate between regenerated fibres and synthetic fibres. (2 marks)
    • Regenerated fibers are made from natural material which are chemically beaded while synthetic fibers are made from petroleum products and natural gas
  9. Highlight two laundry processes that are harmful be wollen fibres. (2 marks)
    • Soaking causes wool to shrink
    • Rubbing method cause felting and stretching of wool
    • Wringing causes stretching and felting of wool
  10. State three ways of minimizing wastage of detergents when washing. (3marks)
    • Use just enough detergent
    • Avoid leaving bar soap in water
    • Use sufficient amount of water/ do not use to much water
    • Plan to wash many articles using the same water starting with les dirty articles
    • Use soft water which lathers easily
    • Use warm/hot water


  1. You are intending to host a birthday party for your younger brother.
    1. Give the procedure on how you would thoroughly clean a cemented floor of the room you will use. (8 marks)
      • Collect all cleaning materials and equipment
      • Move the movable furniture to one side
      • Sweep the room from the farthest corner towards the door
      • Collect rubbish and dispose appropriately
      • Using warm soapy water and a scrubbing brush scrub small portions t a time in circular motion
      • Rinse thoroughly with a floor cloth wrung out of clean water
      • Repeat scrubbing, rinsing and overdamping sections till the whole floor is clean
      • Dry using an absorbent cloth/mop
      • Clean the equipment used and store
    2. Describe the procedure you would follow to launder silk blouse/short you intend to wear. (11½ marks)
      • Collect all the equipment and materials needed
      • Shake to remove loose dirt
      • Wash by kneading and squeezing in warm soapy water
      • Rinse thoroughly in warm water
      • Finally rinse in cold water where vinegar has been added to give lustrous finish
      • Squeeze out excess water/roll on a dry towel
      • Dry under shade on a clothes line
      • Press using warm iron on the ins
      • Air to freshen
      • Fold and store
      • Clean equipment used


    1. Why do we use bleaches in laundry. (3 marks)
      • To whiten white cotton and linen fabrics
      • To kill germs
      • To remove strong stains
    2. State other ways of bleaching clothes a part from using chemical bleaches. (2 marks)
      • Drying/spreading wet clothes outdoors oxygen in the air bleaches the clothes in sunlight
      • Boiling clothes remove stains and whiten them
    3. State the differences between wear and tear. (6 marks)
      • Wear – this refers to the weathering of fabric due to rubbing or friction caused during use that result to thinning and eventual tear
      • Tear – this is a hole or a cut found on a garment which occurs due to presence exerted on it or from a sharp object

    4. Name four common methods of repairing clothes and household articles. (4 marks)
      • Donning
      • Patching
      • Reducing gaping seams
      • Repairing belt loops and carriers
      • Replacing zips and buttons
      • Repairing hanging items
    1. Briefly describe the two major classes of stitches. (4 marks)
      • Temporary stitches
        • Done to hold work temporary before making permanent stitches. They are also used for transferring pattern markings
      • Permanent stitches
        • They are used to hold work permanently and are not removed
    2. By use of well labeled diagrams describe the working of the following stitches.
      1. Even tacking.  (4 marks)
        • Work from right to left using a single thread and a long needle
        • Start with a knot and tack evenly along one stitching line
        • Leave a thread hanging at the end
          even tacking
      2. Basting stitches/diagonal tacking.   (4 marks)
        • they are worked from left to right
        • Used to hold collars pleats items etc.
        • Fasten the beginning with a knot
        • Make diagonal stitches to hold layers of fabric before permanent stitches are washed
          diagonal tacking
    3.  Identify four limitations of using cotton fabrics.    (4 marks)     
      • They have low resilience hence creases badly
      • They shrink readily if not pre shrunk
      • They lack lusture hence have a dull appearance
      • Burn readily when exposed to flames
      • They are not dirt resistant
      • Strong acids weaken cotton
      • White cottons yellow with age
      • Develop mild stains when kept damp
      • Weakened by long exposure to sunlight
    4. Give two reasons why nylon fibre is not a popular material for making lingeries. (2 marks)
      • It is not absorbent hence make the wearer uncomfortable
      • It is poor conductor of heat
      • It generate and held static electricity
      • It piles on the surface due to abrasion hence making it unpresentable
    5. State two qualities of a good tape measure.   (2 marks) 
      • It should be firmly woven
      • It should have a plastic coating
      • It should be clearly marked on both sides in inches and centimeters
      • It should have metal caps at the ends to prevent fraying.


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