Agriculture Questions and Answers - Form 2 Term 2 Opener Exams 2021

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AGRICULTURE
FORM 2 OPENER EXAM
TERM 2  2021

INSTRUCTIONS

  • Answer all the questions

SECTION A (30MKS)

  1. What is Health (1mk)
  2. State 4 symptoms of potassium deficiency in crops.(2mks)
  3. State the information contained in a composite sample of soil before being taken to the laboratory. (1½mks.)
  4. Give 4 disadvantages of using vegetative propagation materials.(2mks)
  5. Given that maize is planted at a spacing of 75 by 25 cm. calculate the plant population in a plot of land measuring 8 by 6m. (3mks)
  6. Differentiate between monocropping and intercropping (1mk)
  7. Define the following terms as used in agriculture
    1. Rogueing (1mk)
    2. Gapping (1mk)
  8. State any four disadvantages of using non capped multiple stem pruning in coffee.(2mks)
  9. Give 4 characteristics of a good grain store.(2mks)
  10. State the intermediate host of the following livestock parasite.
    1. Taenia solium ½mk
    2. Taenia sagnata ½mk
    3. Liver fluke ½mk
  11. Give 4 control measures of Tse tse flies.(2mks)
  12. State disadvantages of overhead irrigation.(2mks)
  13. State the uses of the following farm tools and equipment
    1. Dibber(1mk)
    2. Garden trowel (1mk)
    3. Stock and die (1mk)
    4. Pipe wrench (1mk)
  14. State the function of the following materials in preparation of compost manure.
    1. Well rotten manure (1mk)
    2. Wood ash (1mk)
    3. Top soil (1mk)
  15. Differentiate between Essex saddleback and Wessex saddleback.(1mk)

SECTION B (30MKS)

  1. The diagram below shows a method of soil sampling
    agrif2t1midq20
    1. Name the method illustrated in the diagram above.(1mk)
    2. State 3 precautions taken when collecting the soil for testing using the above method.(3mks)
    3. Give 4 reasons why soil from the farm is tested.(4mks)
  2. The diagram below shows a practice carried out on various crops on the farm. Study them carefully and answer the questions that follow.

    agrif2t1midq21a

    1. Identify the farm practice represented by B.(1mk)
    2. State the importance of the above practice in the following crops
      1. Maize(1mk)
      2. Irish potatoes (1mk)
    3. At what stage of growth should the above practice be carried out in maize. (1mk)
  3. The diagram below shows Kale seedling attached by a pest.
    agrf2ot221q18
    1. Identify the pest.(1mk)
    2. What damage does that pest causes to the crop.l(1mk)
    3. State two methods of controlling the pest.(2mks)
  4. State any 5 general characteristics of indigenous breed of cattle.(5mks)
  5. State any 5 factors considered when selecting a nursery site.(5mks)
  6. State conditions that necesiate land clearing (4mks)

SECTION C(40mks)

  1.            
    1. State and explain 5 characteristics of a fertile soil (10mks)
    2. State symptoms of attack by a liver flukes in livestock.(5mks)
    3. describe any five factors influencing crop rotation.(5mks)
  2.         
    1. Describe reasons for prunning in crops. 5x 2=10mks.
    2. discuss 5 effects of HIV/AIDS and ill-health on Agriculture.(5mks)
    3. discuss 5 problems associated with the use of organic manure.(5mks)

MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A (30MKS)

  1. Health - a state in which all the body organs or parts and systems are considered normal and are functioning normally. 1mk
  2. Symptoms of potassium deficiency
    • leaf curling
    • leaf surface loses chlorophyll and becomes yellowish that is they become chlorotic
    • premature leaf fall
    • stunted growth
    • the edges of the leaf are scortched while the central parts remain green.
      4x1/2 = 2mks
  3. Information contained in composite samples
    • name and address of the farmer
    • field number
    • date of sampling 3x1/2 =11/2 mks
  4. Disadvantages of using vegetative propagation
    • Vegatitive propagation does not result in new crop varieties
    • Keeping the materials free from diseases is difficult
    • Materials cannot be stored for long
    • The materials are bulky and therefore difficult to transport 4x1/2 =2mks
  5. calculation
    • Plant population – area of land/ Spacing of crops
      Area of land = 800x 600
      75x25
      = 256 plants 3mks
  6. Differences between monocropping and intercropping
    • Monocropping is the practice of growing one type of crop in a farm or one piece of land while intercropping is the practice of growing two or more crops in the same field at the same time 1mk
  7.     
    1. Rogueing – uprooting and destroying of infected plant to prevent disease spread 1mk
    2. Gapping -filling or replacement of the dead seedling in the farm 1mk
  8. Disadvantages of using non. Capped multiple stem pruning.
    • breaking of stems and branches
    • difficulty in gathering the berries from top points
    • difficulty in spraying the tall bushes
    • rotting of stumps with age 4 x1/2= 2mks
  9. Good grain store
    • Rat or vermin proof
    • well ventilated
    • easy to load and offload
    • well secured to minimize theft 4x1/2 =2mks.
  10. Intermediate host for
    1. Taenia Solium ……pork 1/2
    2. Taenia sagnata,,,,,,beef 1/2
    3. Liver fluke…………fresh water snails
  11. control measures of tse tse fly
    • bush clearing in order to destroy the breeding places of the flies
    • spraying their breeding places with suitable insecticides
    • use of fly traps with impregnated nets
    • use of sterising agents eg radio isotopes on male flies and then releasing them. 4x1/2 = 2mks
  12. Disadvantages of overhead irrigation
    • it may require the establishment of wind break.
    • causes soil erosion if it is not properly controlled
    • encourages fungal diseases such as blight,CBD and others due to water accumulation on the leaves
    • expensive to install 4x1/2 =2mks
  13.       
    1. Dibber …… used for making holes for transplanting 1mk
    2. Garden trowel…………for lifting seedlings from the nursery 1mk
    3. stock and die…………..for cutting thead on pipes 1mk
    4. Pipe wrench………….for holding tightening and loosening metallic pipes (1mk)
  14. functions of.
    1. Well rotten manure—provide nutrient to the microorganisms 1mk
    2. Wood ash---improves the level of phosphorus and potassium 1mk
    3. Top soil—introduces micro organisms in the soil 1mk
  15. Essex saddle back has a black body shoulders and all legs white while wessex saddleback has black body with shoulders and only the front legs white 1mk

SECTION B

  1.    
    1. Method illustrated 1mk
      1. diagonal/transverse method
    2. 3 precaution taken (3mks)
      • avoid contamination/use sterilized container
      • avoid sampling soil from unusual sites e.g ant hills
      • avoid mixing top soil with sub soil
    3. 4 reasons why soil from the farm is tested (4mks)
      • To determine the nutrients status of the soil
      • To determine the soil type/ph of fertilizer to add to the soil / lime to add to the soil
      • to determine the type of crop to grow
      • may help in diagnosing using low crop yield / mineral deficiency
  2.      
    1. farm practice reprsented by B (1mk) 
      • earthing up
    2.  importance of the above practice .
      • Maize …..1mk- provide support to prevent lodging.
      • irish potato…..1mk- improves tuber formation
      • During second weeding (1mk)
  3.         
    1. identify the pest
      • cut worm 1mk
    2. Damage crops by cutting the base of the stem of seedling after transplanting 1mk
    3.     
      • Mixing appropriate insecticide powder with soil in each hole during transplanting 1mk
      • Proper weeding 1mk
  4. State any 5 general characteristics of indigenous breed of cattle (5mks)
    • They have humps that stores fat which is broken down to energy and water in times of starvation
    • They are fairly tolerant to high temperatures due to the presence of dewlap and thick hides
    • They have high tolerance to tropical diseases ie trapanosomiasis
    • They have low production of both meat and milk due to inheritance of poor characteristics
    • They have slow growth rate leading to the late maturity
    • They can walk for long distances in search of food and water -
    • They can stay for long periods without food and water without seriously affecting their performance and body condition
    • They have long calving intervals of more than one year
  5. State any 5 factors considered when selecting a nursery site 5mk
    • nearness to water source
    • type of soil
    • Topography
    • previous cropping
    • security
    • well sheltered place
  6. state conditions that nececiate land clearing 4mks
    • when opening up virgin land
    • where a stalk growing crop was previously planted
    • where the interval between primary and secondary cultivation is long such that the land has reverted to the original virgin land
    • where land was left fallow for a long time

SECTION C

  1.      
    1. State and explain 5 charasteristics of a fertile soil 10mks
      • good depth-deep soils give plant roots greater volume to obtain plant nutrients and provide strong anchorage
      • proper drainage- a well drained soil is properly aerated promoting healthy root developmen
      • good water holding capacity_ this will ensure that enough water is retained for plant use.
      • adequate nutrients supply- soil should supply the nutrients nedded by the plant in the correct amount and in a form that is available to the crops
      • correct soil pH - different crops have different soil pH requirements
      • free from excessive infestation of soil borne pests and diseases.
    2. State symptoms of attack by a liverfluke in livestock 5mk
      • loss of weight and emaciation
      • pot –bellied condition due to watery swelling on the body of the affected animals
      • the animal will suffer indigestion
      • damage to the liver tissues and haemorrrhage due to the movement of flukes within the liver.
      • Anaemic condition due to sucking of blood
      • dullness and the animal appearing depressed
      • swollen and painful abdomen
      • recumbency preceds death
    3. Describe any 5 factors influencing crop rotation 5mks
      • crop root depth-deep roted crops should be alternated with shallow rooted crops
      • crop nutrients requirements -heavy or gross feeders should come first in a newly opened land which is relatively fertile
      • weed control- crops which are associated with certain weed should be alternated wirh those that are not
      • programme as they are attacked by the same pests and diseases
      • soil fertility-- leguminous crops should be included to improve soil fertility
      • soil structure..when the soil is used continously it should loose and pliable a grass ley should be included to improve soil structure.
  2.          
    1. Describe reasons for pruning in crops (5x2)
      • to train the plant so that it can have the required shapes
      • to remove the diseased and unwanted parts of a plant such as extra suckers,leaves, brances and flowers or even stems
      • to control cropping by removing unproportional ratio of vegetative and productive parts
      • to facilitate picking
      • to ease the penetration of the spray
      • it controls pest and diseases - pruning discourages breeding and spreading of pest and diseases
    2. Effects of hiv/aids and ill health in agriculture
      • shortage of farm labour making farm labour very expensive
      • increasing cost of living of AIDS patients and relatives
      • low living standard lead to hopelessness and lack of motivation to invest in agriculture
      • low food supply and poverty in general has increased criminal activities.
      • A lot of time and resources are used in controlling the pandemic 5mks
    3. Problems associated with the use of organic manure
      • bulkiness-- they are used in large quantities because they have low nutrients value per unit volume
      • labourious in application and transport
      • they spread diseases , pests and weeds
      • if used when not fully decomposed they doesn’t benefit the plant because they release nutrient which scotch crops
      • loss of nutrients if poorly stored 5mks

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