English Paper 3 Questions and Answers - Form 3 End Term 2 Exams 2023

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Instructions to the candidates
  • Questions one and two are compulsory.
  • Choose any one question in question three.
  1. Imaginative Composition (Compulsory)                                                    20 Marks
    1. Write a composition beginning with. One look at his face and I knew I would regret my actions for the rest of my life…
    2. Write a composition to illustrate the saying: ‘ A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.
  2. Compulsory Set Text
    John Lara's The Samaritan
    1. Sticking to your principles and doing the right thing pays off. Write an essay to validate this statement using Nicole from John Lara's The Samaritan.
    2. Write an essay to show how revenge only makes things worse using examples from Fathers of Nations by Paul B. Vitta
  3. The Optional Set Texts                                                                                20 Marks
    Godwin Siundu, A Silent Song and Other Stories
    1. Some cultural practices do not add value and hence should be done away with. Show the truthfulness of this assertion based on Eric Ng’maryo’s story Ivory Bangles (20 marks)
    2. Kazuo Ishuguro’s  An Artist of the Floating World.
      ‘War is a social evil that should be avoided at all costs owing to its adverse consequences.’ Validate the statement referring to Kazuo Ishuguro’s novel An Artist of the Floating World.


    Points of Interpretation
      • Must be a story if not deduct 4mks AD.
      • Must begin with ‘ One look at his face…life.’ If it does not deduct 2 AD for the rubric
      • The story can vividly narrate extremely disappointing and regrettable encounters.
      • Penalize for gross errors such as agreement, tense, spelling, contractions, misuse of CAPS, sentence construction and ridiculous use of vocabulary.
      • Check the candidates’ communicative competency (correctness, accuracy, fluency, pleasantness, intelligibility and accuracy)
    2. The student should write a story that indicates they understand the meaning of the saying without defining it.
      Some of the interpretations are:
      • A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.
      • It is better to have a small secured advantage than the possibility of a bigger one.
      • It is better to stick with what you already have than risk it for something greater.
      • What you already own is far more valuable than things you hope to get.

Paper 101/3 is intended to test the candidate's ability to communicate in writing. Communication is established at different levels of intelligibility, correctness, fluency, pleasantness and originality. Linguistic competence shown by the candidate should carry most of the marks. Examiners should not hesitate to use the full range of marks for each essay. It is important to determine FIRST how the essay communicates and in which category A, B, C or D it fits.

D CLASS: The candidate either does not communicate at all.  Their language ability is  too minimal that the examiner practically has to guess what the candidate wants to say.  The candidate fails to fit the English words she knows into meaningful sentences.  The subject is glanced at as distorted.  Practically no valid punctuation. All kinds of errors. “Broken English”.

D- (01 – 02): Chaotic. Little meaning whatsoever. Question paper or some words from it simply copied.

D (03): Flow of thought almost impossible to follow. The errors are continuous.

D+ (04-05): Although English is often broken and the essay is full of errors of all types, we can at least guess what the candidate wants to say.

C CLASS (06 – 10) : The candidate communicates understandably but only more or less clearly. They are not confident with their language.  The subject is often undeveloped There may be some digressions. Unnecessary repetitions are frequent

C (06 – 07): The candidate finds it difficult to communicate his ideas. He is seriously hampered by very limited knowledge of structure and vocabulary.  This results in many gross errors of agreement, spelling, misuse of propositions, tenses, verb agreement and sentence construction.

C 08: The candidate communicates clearly but not with consistent clarity.  Their linguistic abilities are very limited, they cannot avoid frequent errors in sentence structure.  There is little variety or originality. 

C+(09 – 10): The candidate communicates clearly but in a flat and uncertain manner. Simple concepts and sentence forms are often strained. There may be an overuse of clichés and unsuitable idioms.  Proverbs are misquoted or misinterpreted. The flow is still jerky.  There are some errors or agreement, tenses, and spelling.

B CLASS: This class is characterized by greater fluency and ease of expression.  The candidate demonstrates that they can use English as a normal way of expressing himself/herself. Sentences are varied and usually well-constructed. Some candidates become ambitious and even over-ambitious.  There may be items of merit of the one word or one expression type. Many essays in this category may be just clean and unassuming, but they still show that the candidate is at ease with the language.  There may be a tendency to undermark such essays.  

B- (11 – 12): The candidate communicates fairly and with some fluency.  There may be little variety in sentence structure.  Gross errors are still found occasionally. This must not be over-punished by the examiner.

B (13): The sentences are varied but rather simple and straightforward. The candidate does not strain himself or herself in an effort to impress. There is a fair range of vocabulary and idioms. Natural and effortless. Some items of merit. The economy of language.

B+ (14 – 15): The candidate communicates his ideas pleasantly and without strain.  There are errors and slips.  Tenses, spelling and punctuation era quite good. A number of items of merit of the ‘whole sentence’ or the “whole expression” type.

A CLASS (16 – 20) : The candidate communicates not only fluently, but attractively with originality and efficiency. He/she has the ability to make us share his/her deep feelings, emotions and enthusiasm. He/she expresses himself/herself freely without visible constraint. The script gives evidence of maturity, good planning and often humour.  Many items of merit indicate that the candidate has complete command of the language. There is no strain, just pleasantness, clever arrangement, and felicity of expression.

A- (16 – 17): The candidate shows competence and fluency in using the language.  He/she may lack imagination and originality which usually provide the ‘spark’ in such essays.  Vocabulary, idiom, sentence structure, links and variety are impressive. Gross errors are very rare.  

A (18): Positive ability. A few errors are felt to be slips. The story or argument has a definite impact. No grammar problems.  Variety of structure. A definite spark. Many margin ticks.

A+ (19 – 20): The candidate communicates not only information and meaning but also and  especially the candidate’s whole self, his/her feelings, tastes, points of view, youth and culture. This ability to communicate his deep self may express itself in many ways; a wide range of effective vocabulary, original approach, vivid and sustained account in case of narrative, and well-developed and ordered argument in the case of a debate or discussion. Errors and slips should not deprive the candidate of the full marks he/she deserves. 

    1. Sticking to your principles and doing the right thing pays off. Write an essay to validate this statement using Nicole from John Lara's The Samaritan.

      In The Samaritan by John Lara, Nicole, a teacher of ethics and innovation at Sagrada Secondary School in Maracas Municipality, exemplifies the ideal of a principled individual committed to making a difference in the community. Her efforts pay off when the corrupt leaders are arrested, despite the fact that she encountered significant opposition from them. Consistency in doing the right things pays out in the end.

      Nicole is steadfast when the Mayor of Maracas Municipality demands a halt to all Samaritan App-related activity, and her firmness pays off. The goal of the Samaritan App is to reveal wrongdoing and push for the people responsible to be brought to justice. Mossi-oa-Tunya, upon learning that the App could reveal his shortcomings, ineptitude, and corrupt activities, and lead to his punishment, decides against releasing it and awarding its creators, Alvita and Montano. He claims the App has the potential to serve as a venue for spreading false information and engaging in witch hunts. Even though he agrees that the school is doing a good job of fostering visionaries and creators, he is nervous about giving the Samaritan App the go-ahead. Nicole, Alvita, and Montano's skit shows clearly that the App can be used to share private information like the Municipal Procurement Process. The Mayor is hesitant to authorise its use. In an effort to halt the operation of the application, he claims he needs time to consider and will launch the application at a time of his choosing. He directs Nicole and Principal Narine to suspend all App-related operations until his office issues clearance. He asks that they write to the Ministry of Education, highlighting serious flaws. Nicole insists that the App passed all testing conducted by senior Ministry of Education officials and skilled software experts. The Mayor attempts to scare Nicole by claiming to be Mossi-oa-Tunya: the smoke that thunders and a Mayor with an express mandate from the people of Maracas. He yells and points his walking stick at Nicole. He demands that she write the letter and send him a copy within an hour. Nicole is adamant that the problem is beyond her control now that the App has been taken over by the National Information and Communication Technology Corporation, and she vows to do only what is right. Madam Principal verifies Nicole's tenacity when she declares she is obligated to disregard the Mayor's commands because she rarely compromises on what she believes is right. In the end, Mayor Mossi fails to intimidate Nicole, and the App continues to operate. Mossi is eventually jailed after being revealed as a corrupt leader. Nicole's perseverance pays rewarded.

      Furthermore, Narine, the principal, chastises Nicole in the hope that she will stop her search for a better Maracas, but Nicole remains strong until the end, when her efforts bear fruit. The principal admits that the Samaritan App has sent shockwaves throughout the municipality, causing leaders to fear. Nicole is advised to think long and hard about the Samaritan App. Narine claims she is solely focused on giving great education to the youngsters in her care. She promises that no teacher will be allowed to veer from this route. She appears to be encouraging Nicole to halt the Samaritan App's operations. As a senior administrator and her mother's age mate, she advises her on which conflicts to fight, which to avoid, and which to defer. She claims that a small lady like Nicole can't compete with an elephant like Mossi. Nicole informs her boss that an elephant who kills a rat is not a hero. She also wonders if the principal would prefer that they abandon the Samaritan, a brilliant concept with huge potential to improve the Municipality, in order to placate a selfish political class. Nicole receives no help from the principal. She instead takes a step back. Nicole's spirit is not dampened by this. Nicole, according to the principle, is a stubborn young lady. She's had enough. She claims she is not a housekeeper or a secretary in order to continue getting calls on Nicole's behalf. She also feels threatened when the leaders call to say they are going to visit Nicole at school. The principal believes that the App will have little effect and advises Nicole that "the bamboo that bends is stronger than the oak that resists." Nicole pays no attention even when Narine adds, "If you can't turn the wind, turn the sails." Nicole maintains her composure. She cannot give in and tolerate the misappropriation of public funds. Her determination pays off when Tajo, the chief of the Anti-Corruption Investigations Bureau, arrests the leaders, including Bembe and Mossi. Certainly, tenacity leads to triumph.

      Third, Nicole chooses to remain firm when the Inspector General of Police, Bembe, attempts to frighten her by arresting her on false accusations. Mossi and Bembe intend to pay Nicole a visit after discovering that the Samaritan App was being used to air their dirty laundry in public. Mossi rightly observes that Nicole could be a difficult person. Nicole is adamant about doing the right thing. Bembe is adamant that he can persuade individuals to change sides. Bembe has devised a scheme to accuse Nicole of stealing school furniture, a computer, or a generator. He intends to hire individuals to steal the school generator, accuse Nicole of the crime, and then urge the judge to imprison her. Bembe follows through on his promise and goes to Sagrada Secondary School to arrest Nicole, citing a variety of charges including ignoring authorities, being found at the site of a murder, and stealing the school generator. Nicole is not afraid. She understands that her responsibility is to do what is right, not to mindlessly follow leaders. A leader cannot force her to do something she does not want to do. Her decision to do the right thing is unassailable. Even in the face of an approaching jail term, she is unafraid of Bembe's manufactured charges. She informs him that it will lead him nowhere and that it will be the most difficult day of his career. Bembe orders the police to handcuff Nicole, who fights back until she is overwhelmed. Bembe is merely attempting to frighten Nicole into abandoning the Samaritan App's operations, alleging that they pose a great danger to society. Nicole responds that she is just a simple teacher trying to do the right thing. While Bembe believes Nicole has a sinister plot, Nicole maintains that The Samaritan App has no personal agenda and is a people's platform dedicated to defending and promoting the public good. When Nicole is charged in court, thousands of demonstrators from all walks of life flood the courtrooms in sympathy with her, leaving Bembe with egg on his face. Furthermore, his superiors summon him due to the irregularity. Bembe is eventually arrested for his involvement in a variety of crimes and abuse of position. Nicole's determination to do good pays off.

      Apart from that, Alvita and Montano try but fail to persuade Miss Nicole to drop the Samaritan App, and she advises them to stick with it because it would pay off when the corrupt leaders are apprehended. When the corrupt leaders are apprehended by the police, Alvita triumphantly declares, "You can never escape the consequences of your actions." These are the precise words of Nicole, the steadfast miss. The fearful kids are the minds behind the Samaritan App. They are now concerned that, as a result of the Mayor's ultimatum, the App will land their beloved teacher in hot water. Nicole believes that the Samaritan App provides a fantastic forum for them to speak up against wrongdoing and exchange ideas that would improve their lives. Maracas' leaders are like the priests and Levites who disregard the injured Samaritan. They are unconcerned about the people. They also do not come to their rescue. They are solely interested in themselves. The students continue to believe that Miss Nicole is in dire danger. The teacher is resolved to fight for a cause that will result in a better tomorrow for all. The Samaritan has been all over the media, and Alvita believes it has become so large that it is no longer good for them. The two classmates advise her to transfer to another school. Nicole advises them not to back down from any challenge or threat. They must maintain their resolve and demand that their leaders do the right thing. She insists that they not be discouraged and that they remain courageous. This is not a futile attempt. Mayor Mossi and other corrupt politicians are eventually imprisoned.

      Nicole also stands firm when the Mayor approaches her and begs for compassion, seemingly repentant of his bad deeds and seeking to get Nicole to remove some unfavourable information about him off the Samaritan App. The Mayor begins by apologising to Nicole for being so harsh before. He wants to have an open conversation with her. He admits that he made mistakes and is apparently there to make amends and seek Nicole's understanding and assistance. Nicole is caught aback by Mossi-oa-Tunya's, the untouchable smoke that thunders, sudden change of heart. He even offers a bribe to Nicole. He requests that she quote her figure. Nicole, looking him in the eyes, states unequivocally that she will never be a part of such a scam. She is dismayed that a man charged with combating corruption is actually the main culprit. The penitent leader, stuttering, claimed he was willing to invest in the Samaritan App. Mossi believes he is being falsely accused of being a Samaritan. Nicole tells him that as the general leader, he is ultimately responsible. Mossi attempts to clear his name by smearing his colleagues, including Ramdaye, the deputy mayor, for embezzlement of funds; Ted King, the secretary of Health and Environment; Seymour, the secretary in charge of Planning and Development; and Judge Ian Jaden. The Mayor asserts that he is powerless to address the rot in the town, accidentally acknowledging his incompetence. Nicole observes that the entire Municipal Council is a criminal organisation. Mossi admits to stealing no more than three slices of bread meant for the people. He accuses everyone else of devouring the entire loaf, including the packaging and, when relevant, the vendor. Nicole insists that everyone he blames is accountable to him. When he realises that his emotional pleadings will not influence Nicole, he resorts to threats. He orders that she delete every post that disparages him, or else she will discover why he is known as Mossi-oa-Tunya: the smoke that thunders. Nicole is determined to do the right thing. Mossi-oa-Tunya, the thunderous smoke, is eventually apprehended by anti-corruption police. Indeed, doing the right thing consistently yields positive benefits.

      Finally, the leaders of Maracas Municipality try to pacify Nicole by playing power games and offering her a prestigious office in the Municipality, but she resists, holding firm until the criminal leaders are imprisoned. The eight leaders gather in the Principal Judge's Chamber to save their skins from The Samaritan. They have gathered to devise a plan to avoid being imprisoned at Baneta Express Prison. Basdeo suggests they speak with Nicole. Mossi cautions him that she is stern. He tried to beg her forgiveness, but she refused. He tried intimidation, but she refused to surrender. Basdeo suggests that she be given a prominent position on the local council. They intend to let her tell them what position she desires, and presto! she becomes a member of the municipal leadership. Jaden recommends bringing her a box of chocolate as an enticement, but Mossi warns him that she will not accept it. They all grovel when they meet Nicole. Jaden begs Nicole's pardon for invading her hectic schedule. Bembe passionately apologises for arresting Nicole. Mossi also expresses regret for stepping on her toes. Despite her confusion, Nicole accepts the apologies and expresses sorry if she upset any of them. Ted's offer of a golden ring is respectfully declined. The leaders concede to severe leadership mistakes that have driven the municipality to its knees. They claim the ship is sinking. They ask Nicole to help improve service delivery to the people, and she agrees. They ask her to identify the senior job she wishes to have. Jaden suggests that she take up the post of Director General. Nicole declines the offer, informing the gentleman that what is needed is a change of spirit among the people, particularly among the leaders, rather than new laws, contracts, or positions. Nicole advises them to do the right thing and stop putting their fingers in the public till and pursue personal gain in order to salvage the grim situation. Her efforts bear fruit at this point, as the corrupt officials are apprehended and escorted to the Anti-Corruption Investigation Bureau.

      To summarise, victory is the outcome of an unyielding attitude, especially when we champion for good. Nicole's desire to root out corruption in Maracas Municipality and bring the corrupt officials to justice pays off when they are all arrested, signalling a fresh beginning.
    2. Write an essay to show how revenge only makes things worse using examples from Fathers of Nations by Paul B. Vitta

      We occasionally suffer at the hands of others. We usually feel compelled to avenge or retaliate. Seeking vengeance, on the other hand, causes additional suffering or anguish, as in the example of Professor Kimani and Engineer Tahir in Paul B. Vitta's Fathers of Nations.

      To begin with, when Professor Kimani's wife abandons him for a rogue member of parliament, he pursues vengeance but ends up in even more anguish. Professor Kimani's career as a revolutionary educator begins when he accepts a position as a high-flying senior lecturer at the Institute of Development Studies at the University of Nairobi. In addition, he marries Asiya Omondi, a campus beauty. This was before he became a professor. When Walomu steals his wife, his problems begin. When Asiya informs him that she is leaving him for Walomu, he wonders if it is for financial reasons. Professors used to earn more than MPs. MPs now earn hundreds of times more and are not required to pay taxes, a legal coup. As a result of the recession, Professor Kimani is cash-strapped. He eats at a low-end restaurant, and his car breaks down once again and he plans fix it when he earns his next paycheck an indication of hard financial times he is facing. Asiya humiliates him by urging him to leave teaching to pursue politics like Newton Walomu, who now owns four cars in comparison to Kimani, who only has a dying old Toyota. It breaks the professor's heart that he lost his wife to a loud fellow and former junior colleague. After his daughter Tuni's death, Asiya despises Professor Kimani, and her resentment and depression lead to her choice to break their thirty-year marriage. She mocks him by suggesting that Tuni would still be alive if Professor Kimani possessed a real car.  He merely defends himself, stating Tuni did not perish in their car. Asiya Omondi is sixty years old when she decides to leave him after thirty years in marriage with professor Kimani. Pushed by a desire to revenge Kimani visits Walomu's office. He insults the MP and even attempts to physically assault him. Kimani is in even more pain as a result of the lack of closure. Walomu humiliates him by providing "wife-stealing" figures from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Greece. He also boasts about his three beautiful wives, making Kimani appear to be a green-eyed sore loser.Professor Kimani desire to seek revenge leads to beening imprisoned for six months for assaulting a member of parliament, in addition to this humiliation. For tarnishing the university's image, he is also demoted from professor to senior lecturer which are all as a result of trying to seek revenge. Tuni's death, Asiya's abandonment, and the institution's abuse all put him to the test. These three setbacks harden into resentment. He is exhausted from not getting enough sleep following his prison sentence. He even decides to leave his job as a teacher, which he had planned to do for the rest of his life. Seeking vengeance will almost certainly cause more harm than good and add salt to the wound.

      In addition, in an attempt to revenge his wife Ziliza, Comrade Melusi Ngobile attempts to assassinate Zimbabwe's president but is humiliated and carried away by security personnel. Zimbabwe's ruler conducts numerous atrocities against Melusi and his Ndebele tribesmen, but the loss of his beloved wife is the most painful. First, the incoming ruler refuses to appoint comrade Melusi as minister merely on the basis of ethnicity. He is Shona, but Melusi is Ndebele, and hence a potential adversary. In addition, he fires the leader of Melusi's gang for allegedly crafting a coup. The government responds harshly to anti-government protests that arise in the aftermath of this dismissal. The 5th brigade "Gukurahundi" unleashes unimaginable terror on the Ndebele insurgents, killing a large number of civilians, including Ziliza, Melusi's wife. They strangled her and sprawled her on the kitchen floor as if in mockery, her eyes staring deathly. The new ruler's hatred towards the Ndebele is a story of treachery, as both tribes fought as partners against Smith, the colonial master. On top of that, the ruler employs "Murambatsvina" to force the urban poor to leave the slums without warning or alternate accommodation. They spit Comrade Melusi out after chewing him up. He fantasises about his wife, who has been dead for 20 years, yet his hatred remains. In a photograph, she beseeches him to revenge her murder. He executes a weak salute while standing at attention and swears that he will avenge her murder. When he tries to carry out his plan of vengeance the next day, the hawk-eyed security officers at the summit seize him by the collar before he can strike the offending president - his arch nemesis. Then he is brazenly whisked away. He does not reappear when the gathering reconvenes. Revenge can be a futile endeavour that aggravates rather than alleviates the victim's grief.

      Thirdly, when Engineer Seif Tahir is rejected by a junior female coworker, he becomes enraged and decides to avenge. This vengeance does not bring him peace rather he becomes much more agitated. It is only causing him misery. Tahir falls in love with Rahma, an Arabic word that means "very kind." She has huge eyes and a beautiful smile. She is stunning. Rahma is a million miles younger than Tahir. Tahir is at a disadvantage because of the rank differential. This is because he cannot bear the humiliation of being rejected by a junior colleague. Tahir regrets obsequiously saying “Sabah Kher” and quickly invites Rahma for tomato soup assertively. Being  a Wednesday he proposes a tomato soup date over the weekend and gives the lady four days notice. She doesn't say anything, yet her large eyes gleam brightly. She also gives him a huge smile that shows off her beautiful white teeth and enormous purple gums. Tahir detects a dimple on her left cheek as well. In accordance with Libyan tradition, she wears a head veil. Tahir recommends they get together on Saturday. She says no. A sweet not to conceal her eagerness to accept the tomato soup offer. A Libyan woman's eagerness to say yes would be inappropriate. Tahir misidentifies the sweet deceitful no as a nasty no. He can't take the rude rejection any longer. In a rage, he storms back to his office, vowing to pay back. And he exacts his retribution. He slaps Rahma during "Heritage Week" when she removes her head cover, which interferes with her laboratory job. He does it ostensibly to punish a female coworker who has violated the culture, but in reality he does it out of anger and humiliation at rejection. Rahma responds without thinking by striking back with a letter opener making Tahir loses his left eye. He spends a month in the hospital and is bitter and resentful when he is released. Pursuant to the "an eye for an eye" Hammurabic ruling, he wins the lawsuit and Rahma loses her eye. Instead of delight, Tahir is filled with persistent sadness and self-hatred as a result of his vengeful win. The agony is made worse by the fake eye that conceals the hole in his face. He descends into profound depression and flees Tripoli for Benghazi in order to escape nagging friends who try to talk him out of his sorrow. Indeed, vengeance only adds to the suffering rather than alleviating it.

      Lastly, Rahma regrets striking back after Tahir hits her. Her immediate vengeance has far-reaching ramifications, as she discovers when the Hammurabic verdict goes against her. Rahma is Engineer Tahir’s junior colleague. When he approaches her and offers to take her out on a date, she hides her eagerness to say yes beneath layers of coyness. She simply smiles at him, her huge eyes shining brightly, but she says nothing. She answers no when he insists. But she really means it. He was required to fill in the blanks. He takes her sweet no for a nasty no and vows vengeance. He slaps Rahma as she takes her head veil off for work. Rahma does not pause to consider her next course of action. Instead of restraint, she strikes back. In her rage, she is unable to reason sensibly. She reacts instinctively after being struck initially. She fails to contemplate the long-term effects. Turning the other cheek would have been a better response, wouldn’t it? Using a letter opener, she splits engineer Tahir's left eye open. He spends a month in the hospital and returns furious and vengeful, taking her to court the following day. He claims he hit her to prevent her from mimicking Americans and dishonouring Libya. In her defence, she claims that she was temporarily insane due to tremendous provocation. When the court issues a Hammurabic verdict of "an eye for an eye," she regrets her rash deed of retribution. She sobs, but the court is unmoved. She had surgery to remove her left eye. Rahma's thirst for vengeance ultimately brings her greater misery.

      In conclusion, getting even with someone else may make a bad situation even worse. Professor Kimani, Engineer Tahir, comrade Melusi, and Rahma go from one extreme to the other as they pursue their quest for vengeance.
    1. Some cultural practices do not add value and hence should be done away with. Show the truthfulness of this assertion based on Eric Ng’maryo’s story Ivory Bangles (20 marks)

      Culture is significant because it governs people's way of life and keeps them together. But certain customs are harmful to those who uphold them, as illustrated in Eric Ng'maryo's story Ivory Bangles. Such customs ought to be abandoned because of this.

      To begin with, polygamy is an example of a cultural practice that has persisted in acceptance despite having no value. We understand this practice’s highly valued in the community in the story. Consequently, a man who rejects it is viewed as a discussion point: This is made very evident when the elderly man, a reputable Chief's counsellor, is mentioned because he only had one wife. According to the story, it was unheard of for a person as powerful as the old man, an aspiring chief, to have just one wife. The old guy is content in his marriage and he loves his wife so much that he gave her a 24-bangle set made of ivory, therefore this cultural custom is considered as having no significance. Additionally, the old man's use of a riddle to defy the Chief's demand that he wed another wife also demonstrates the negative effects of polygamy. The meaning of the riddle suggests that a wife, a co-wife, witchcraft, and death all allude to the negative consequences of this archaic custom. Therefore, polygamy should be outlawed because it is harmful and offers nothing to society.

      Secondly, the trust that people have in the seer and the act of seeking his advice is another cultural tradition that has no value. Because his people regarded him as their tribal priest and seer, the old man in this story goes to consult the seer when he notices some blood specks in the goat's liver that he just killed. We can also see how important he is when the old man's wife dismisses his demands and the old man strongly corrects her, reminding her that the seer is the representative of their deceased dads. However, we can also see that this belief adds no value because some of the advice given is bound to be harmful. The seer's counsel to the old man, "That the pebbles demand that he beats his wife and sends her back to her father's home," verifies this. The seer claims that the spirits are envious of a happy wife who is not subjected to domestic violence from her husband. This demonstrates that having faith in the seer is harmful rather than beneficial.

      Additionally, it is not true—as is commonly believed—that a goat's liver containing blood specks is an indication that something negative is about to occur. This is only a traditional view, not one that has been supported by any proof whatsoever. Since he had seen some blood specks in the goat's liver that he had just slaughtered the old man goes to consult the seer. The man doesn't agree with the wife's rejection of the seer's demands because his convictions in it are so deep. The wife claimed that the seer responded with revenge against her for declining his marriage proposal. The old man tells the wife that the seer did not put blood specks on the goat's liver, therefore the earlier argument no longer seems reasonable. This justifies that some cultural traditions are not beneficial and they should be done away with.

      Last but not least, beating a woman is another cultural custom that is valued by people despite doing more harm than good. The seer's stone appears to suggest that the old man's wife was going to die because the spirits were envious of a happy wife, a lady who was unmolested by her husband until old age. This demonstrates the value placed on the molestation of women. The elderly man is instructed to give his wife the customary beating before sending her back to her parent's house to prevent death. Even though the elderly man offers to provide numerous goats to avert the disasters, the pebbles insist on the ritual beating, triggering the old man and his wife to devise an elaborate plan to mislead the stones. Leveri, the son of the old man, is able to demonstrate the negative effects of wife-beating usual. The old man's wife recalls how her daughter-in-law had been beaten by the son to within a fingernail's distance of her grave. This demonstrates that the ritual beating can almost be fatal, supporting the argument that it should be abandoned.

      In conclusion, even though culture unites people, some archaic customs ought to be abandoned because they do more harm than good.
    2. Kazuo Ishuguro’s  An Artist of the Floating World.
      ‘War is a social evil that should be avoided at all costs owing to its adverse consequences.’ Validate the statement referring to Kazuo Ishuguro’s novel An Artist of the Floating World.

      War has terrible effects, such as property destruction and death, as shown in Kazuo's An Artist of the Floating World. (Accept any other appropriate introduction)

      Expect at least four well-illustrated paragraphs.
      • Mr. Ono's son Kenji is killed in Manchuria while fighting for Japan. Another 23 young men are killed while attempting to cross a minefield. Kenji's ashes are returned, although there is no guarantee that they are his.
      • War causes a scarcity of commodities. There are few scarcities before the combat begins.  Mr. Ono offers to rebuild the damaged areas of the house after noticing Miss Sugimura's anxiety over the bomb blasts. However, the supplies he orders are so limited that it is possible to wait weeks after the surrender for a certain piece of wood or a supply of nails. He takes his time with any repairs.
      • It causes property destruction. The bomblast pushes up the roof planks from underneath, and Ono had to install receptacles on the flooring to catch the dripping water on wet days. Sestuko is distressed by how the veranda was ruined.
      • People become intolerant as a result of war.  Before the conflict, the Hiramaya boy entertains people by performing military songs. People dislike hearing him sing after the battle. At night, he gets beaten.
      • War has an impact on mental health. As an apology, the president of the company where Jiro Miyake works, who is in his sixties, commits suicide. He had backed the emperor's campaign to enlarge his realm.

        Finally, war may be extremely dehumanising.
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