Agriculture Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Form 4 Opener Term 1 Exams 2022

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AGRICULTURE
PAPER 1

Instructions to candidates:

  • This paper contains three sections A, B and C
  • Answer ALL the questions in section A and B
  • Answer any Two questions from section C

Questions

SECTION A (30MKS)
Answer ALL the questions in this section in the spaces provided

  1. State two reasons why farmers should be encouraged to practice organic farming (1mk)
  2. State two ways in which crop rotation controls weeds (1mk)
  3. Name two methods of sowing pasture crops (1mk)
  4. State four qualities considered when selecting seeds for planting (2mks)
  5. State four advantages of crop rotation (2mks)
  6. State three physical agents of weathering in soil formation (1 ½ mks)
  7. Give three properties of a foliar fertilizer which makes it possible to be used as a foliar Feed (1 ½ mks)
  8. Give three reasons why Banana should be pruned (1 ½ mks)
  9. State four factors considered when classifying crop pests (2mks)
  10. Give four reasons for land fragmentation (2mks)
  11. State two mechanical methods used in separating soil in soil analysis (1mk)
  12. State three ways in which inorganic fertilizers are classified (1 ½ mks)
  13. State three effects of raindrops on bare soil ( 1 ½ mks)
  14. Give three reasons why layering would be preferred to the use of cutting as a method of raising planting materials ( 1 ½ mks)
  15. State the forms in which nitrogen is absorbed by plants (1mk)
  16. Outline four factors which effect herbraidal selectivity (2mks)
  17. State four natural factors that may influence soil erosion (2mks)
  18. Name four disadvantages of zero grazing (2mks)
  19. Outline four factors which encourage soil erosion (2mks)

SECTION B (20 MKS)
Answer ALL Questions in this section

  1. Below are illustrations of common weeds. Study them and answer the questions that follow
    AgrF4OpT122P1q20
    1. Identify the weeds (2mks)
    2. State the harmful effects of the weed B above (1mk)
    3. Give four advantages of leasehold tenure systems (2mks)
  2. Describe the procedure which should be followed when spraying a crop of onions using a fungicide in powder form, water and a knapsack sprayer (5mks)
  3.          
    1. What is soil sampling? (1 mark)
    2. Below is a method of soil sampling. Use it to answer the question that follow.
      AgrF4OpT122P1q20bi
      1. What method of soil sampling is represented above? (1 mark )
      2. name the other method of soil sampling (1mark)
      3. Outline three areas which should be avoided during soil sampling. (3 marks )
  4.          
    AgrF4OpT122P1q23     
    1. Identify the rotational grazing system shown below (1mk)
    2. Give the FOUR advantages of the system named above (4mks)

SECTION C (40MKS)
Answer any two Questions in this section

  1.       
    1. Describe harvesting of pyrethrum under the following sub-headings
      1. Procedure (4mks)
      2. Precautions (6mks)
    2. Describe the safety measures observed when handling farm herbicides (10mks)
  2. Describe the production of Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) under the following sub-headings
    1. Land preparation (5mks)
    2. Pasture establishment (8mks)
    3. Maintenance (7mks)
  3.    
    1. Discuss the production of beans under the following sub headings
      1. Land preparation (4mks)
      2. Varieties (2mks)
      3. Selection and preparation of planting materials (5mks)
      4. Field management practices
    2. Explain the method and procedure of harvesting of sugarcane (4mks)

Marking Scheme

  1. Reasons for organic farming
    • Helps to balance features of fertile soul e.g. organic matter and soil micro organisms
    • Use of local materials
    • Lessens skills in preparation e.g. green manure
    • Affordable and cost effective ½ x2 = 1 mark

  2. Ways in which crop rotation controls weeds
    • Cover crop smoothens weeds if alternated with other crops
    • Crops associated with specific weed as are alternated with crops of different families to remove appropriate host and break life cycle of weeds
      ½ x 2 = (1mk)
  3.      
    • undersowing
    • over sowing
    • Direct sowing

  4.      
    • High germination percentage / be viable
    • Be healthy / be free from diseases and pests
    • Have high vigour
    • Have no physical damage
    • Be pure / no impurities / clean
    • Be uniform in size / colour / shape
    • Suitable to ecological conditions ½ x 4 = 2
    • Control sol born pests of diseases

  5.       
    • Consume soil / prevent soil erosion
    • Ensure maximum utilization of soil nutrients
    • Help in weed control
    • Improve soil structure
    • Improve soil fertility
    • Offer security incase of crop failure ½ x 4

  6.       
    • Running water
    • Moving ice
    • Wind
    • Temperature

  7.      
    • Should not have any scotching effects on the plants
    • Be easily absorbed by the leaves
    • Used in spray form / soluble in water 1 ½ mks

  8.        
    • To control banana weevils
    • To spread the production
    • To produce large bunches ½ x 3 = ( 1 ½ mk)

  9.     
    • Where pests are found
    • Feeding habit / type of damage
    • Scientific / biological classification
    • Crop attacked
    • Stage of development of past at which it causes damage
    • Stage of growth at which crop is attacked
    • Part of crop attacked

  10.        
    • Buying or selling / paying debts / compensation
    • Inheritance
    • Settlement and resettlement
    • Gift or donation
    • Shifting cultivation ½ x 4 = 2 mk

  11.  
    • Mixing soil with water then shaking / stirring and allowing particles to settle / sedimentation
    • By use of series of sieves with different meshed size ½ x 2 = 1mk

  12.      
    • According to the nutrients they contain
    • According to soil reaction / effect o soil pH
    • Time of application
      ½ x 3 = 1 ½ m

  13.        
    • Splash erosion/ cause soil erosion
    • Expose seeds
    • Causes hard pans / soil capping / destroy soil structure
      ½ x 3 = 1 ½ m.

  14.     
    • When cutting cannot root if detached from mother plant
    • Where large planting materials are pre-faced / rooting system
    • Faster production of planting materials / quick growth /
    • Higher chances of survival
    • Has well established rooting system
      ½ x 3 = 1 ½ mk

  15.          
    • Nitrate form / nitrate ions /
    • Ammonium form / Ammonium ions / NH4+ ½ x 2 = 1mk

  16.      
    • Age of the weeds
    • Plant morphology
    • Plant physiology
    • Metabolic factors
    • Chemical concentration
    • Stage of crop growth
    • Rooting system
      ½ x 4 = (2mks)

  17.       
    • Amount of rainfall/ rainfall intensity
    • Slope / topography
    • Type of soil
    • Size of intershade / catchment
    • Length of slope
    • Wind velocity / strength of wind
    • Vegetative cover
      ½ x 4 = 2 mks

  18.      
    • high initial capital
    • high management
    • high labour
    • diseases can easily spread
      (½ x 4 = ( 2mks)

  19.        
    • Lack of ground cover
    • Steep slopes
    • Shallow soils
    • High rainfall intensity
    • Overstocking
    • Pear method of cultivation
    • Deforestation ½ x 4 = 2mrks

  20.   
    1.            
      • A - Devil’s horse whip (Achyranthes apora) ( 1mk)
      • B - Datura stramomium (Thorn apple) (1mk)

    2.     
      • Poisonous to livestock
      • Competes with crops for nutrients / light / water or space
      • Increase cost of production
      • Lower yields / quality 1x1 = 1mk

    3.    
      • Enables land owners / landlord to earn income from land
      • Enable people who have no land to have acres to farmers land
      • Idle land put into productive use
      • Enable tenants to increase / decrease acreage of land leased depending on profitability
        ½ x 4 = ( 2mks)

  21.       
    • Read the label / manufacture instructions and follow them
    • Measure the required amount of fungicide
    • Place the fungicide into a container and mix thoroughly with a little water / pre-mix (pre-cream) until it forms a uniform slurry
    • Pour the mixture into the knapsack sprayer through the sieve
    • Top up / add up to the required level on the knaprack sprayer
    • Spray the mixture onto the cap as required 1 x5 = 5 marks
    • Observe the procedure

  22.      
    1. it is a process of taking small quantities of soil from the field to act as a representative sample of soil in that particular field

    2.        
      1. traverse methode
        1 x3 = 3 mks

      2. zigzag method

      3.      
        • dead furrows
        • Terrace stands
        • Old fences lines
        • Old manure heaps
        • Swampy areas
        • Near trees and boundaries
        • Between slops and bottom lands
          1 x2 = 2 mks

  23.     
    1. tethering

    2.      
      • Maximum utilization of pasture
      • Distribution of animal wastes uniformly
      • Pastures are is given time to regrow before it is grazed again
      • Reduce the build of pests and diseases
      • Allow excess pasture to be harvested for conservation (1 ×3 =3mk)

  24.            
    1.      
      • Pick flowers selectively
      • Pick flower with horizontal petals / three to two roses of disk florets
      • Use fore finger and thumb
      • Pick by twisting the lead so that no stem is left attached
      • Put the pricked flowers in woven baskets 1x 4 = ( 4mks)
      • Picking starts 3 -4 months after planting

    2.    
      • Picked flowers are put in woven baskets to allow ventilation and avoid fermentation
      • Wet flowers should not be picked since they heat up and ferment
      • Should not be comp[acted to avoid heating up and fermentation
      • Suitable picking intervals 14 – 21 days to avoid overgrown or young flowers
      • Break flower stalks to maintain quality 1 x6 = 6 mks
  25.             
    1. Land preparation
      • Clear the land to remove all stumps
      • Dig, plough the land to remove perennial weeds / roots
      • Harrow the land ; to a fine filth
      • Prepare the land during the dry season / before the rains 1 x5 = 5 mks

    2. Pasture establishment
      • Select a desirable variety of grass for the ecological condition / select the correct
      • variety for the same zone
      • Plant or the onset of rains / plant early
      • Use certified seeds
      • Drill / broad cast the seeds evenly
      • Apply phosphatic fertilizers or appropriate rate
      • Use ssp rate of 200- 300 kg/ ha
      • Use recommended seed rate for the variety
      • Use 1.5-2 kg /ha PGS / 5-10 /ha for any available seed
      • Drag a twig / gunny bag to cover the seeds lightly
      • Cover seeds 3-5 times the diameter of seeds / depth 1x8 = 8 mks)

    3. Maintenance
      • Control weeds by uprooting /use herbicides
      • Top dress with nitrogenous fertilizers
      • Top dress with nitrogenous fertilizers
      • Top dress in split application
      • Cut / graze in the initial stage when 4- 6 months
      • Control pests and diseases when they appear
      • Avoid grazing when too young / Early defoliation
      • Topping posture using appropriate method when to stemmy
      • Carry out controlled grazing
      • Irrigate when desirable
      • Re – seeding when need be 1x7 = 7mk
  26.          
    1.      
      1. Land preparation (4mks)
        • Prepare land during dry season/before onset of rains
        • Clear land using pangas/slasher/mower/an axe
        • Carryout primary cultivation
        • Dig deep to eradicate perennial weeds
        • Carry out secondary cultivation to obtain a medium tilth
          (Any 4)

      2. BEAN VARIETIES (2MKS)
        • Dry bean varieties:
          • Rose coco (GPLZ)
          • Mwezimoja (GPLZ 1004)
          • Canadian wonder (GPLZ24)
          • K74
          • Wairimu
          • Mexican 142
            (any 2)
        • French bean varieties
          • Monel
          • Saxa
          • Masterpiece
          • Longtom

      3. SELECTION AND PREPARETION OF PLANTING MATERIALS (5MKS)
        • Select fully dried beans
        • Avoid wrinkled or damaged seeds
        • Select certified seeds/high purity seeds/seeds with high germination percentage
        • Dress seeds with appropriate chemicals to control soil borne pests
        • Inoculate seeds with the right strain of rhizobium
        • To facilitate Nitrogen Fixation leading to high yields
        • select seeds suitable to prevailing ecological conditions
          (ANY5MKS)

      4. FIELD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (5MKS)
        • Weeding should done before flowering to avoid knocking down flowers
        • Weed using hand tools and earth up the plants
        • Irrigate the plants if rainfall is unreliable
        • Use overhead irrigation before flowering
        • Control pests such as aphids using appropriate chemicals
        • Control American bollworm and bean fly using appropriate pesticides
        • Control bean anthracnose and bacterial halo blight diseases using appropriate chemical
        • Top dressing should be done after weeding using CAN or foliar feeds

    2. METHODS AND PROCEDURE OF HARVESTING SUGARCANE (4MKS)
      • Harvest when mature for plant crop 18-20months and at the coast 14months
      • Ratoon crop 16months and at the coast 12 months
      • Harvest at the right stage when sugar content is highest/harvest after taking cane to the factory for quality testing
      • Cane is cut at ground level to ensure high yield and props establishment of the ratoon crop
      • strip the leaves using a cane matchet
      • Cut off green tops to avoid growth auxins flowing backwards this lowers the quality of sugar
      • Use sterilized equipment/cane harvesting matchet
      • Deliver the to the factory within 24hours

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