Agriculture Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Form 4 Opener Term 1 Exams 2022

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Paper 2

Instructions to candidates.

  • This paper consists of THREE sections A,B and C.
  • Answer ALL questions in section A and B.
  • Answer any TWO questions in Section C.


Answer all questions in this section

  1. State four characteristics of exotic dairy breeds. 2mks
  2. Differentiate between the following terms:- 2mks
    1. A steer and a bullock
    2. Boar and sow
  3. Name two tools used for dehorning 1mk
  4. Name two hormones that control milk let-down. 1mk
  5. State four signs of farrowing in pigs. 2mks
  6. Outline four management practices carried out while rearing a heifer. 2mks
  7. State two effects caused by keds in sheep. 1mk
  8. Outline four characteristics of an African wild bee. 2mks
  9. Name the breeding terms used to describe parturition in the following farm animals:- 2mks
    1. Cattle
    2. Goat
    3. Sheep
    4. Rabbi
  10. Name four routes through which the vaccines can be administered. 2mks
  11. State two abnormalities observed during egg candling. 1mk
  12. State four advantages of natural incubation. 2mks
  13. Outline four disease causing micro-organism 2mk
  14. State two factors that determine amount of water required by a dairy cow. 1mk
  15. Name two dual purpose sheep breeds. 1mk
  16. Name four parts found in a piggery unit. 2mks
  17. State four advantages of embryo transplant. 2mks
  18. Name four disorders caused by mineral imbalances in cattle. 2mks
  19. Outline two physiological body functions that indicate illness in livestock. 1mk

Answer ALL questions in this sectionSECTION B (30 MARKS)

    1. Study the following diagrams and answer the questions that follows.
      1. Name the workshop tools marked A and B. (2 marks)
      2. Name the part of tool B marked C. (1 mark)
      3. Give one functional difference between tool A and B. (1mk)
    2. List down four maintenance of a wheel barrow. (2 marks)
      1. Name the tool marked P & Q.
        P _______________________ Q _________________
      2. Give two advantage of using the tool marked P. (2 marks)
  2. Study the diagram of pigs shown below:
    1. Name the breeds of pigs marked a and b. (2 marks)
    2. Give two distinguishing features between (a) and (b) (2 marks)
    3. List down two routine management that should be carried on the young ones of a and b in the first one week (2 marks)
    1. The following diagram represents part of the roof for construction of a farm study and answer the following questions.
      1. Name the part of roof marked Q R S T U (5 marks)
      2. Name the four tools that are used in assembling the structure. (2 marks)
    2. State four routine management practices that are carried out in a crush. (2 marks)
  4. The following diagram represent the behavior of chicks with heat variation.
      1. What does V, R & S represent? (3 marks)
      2. Which is the correct temperature? (1 mark)
    2. State two requirements in an artificial brooder. (3 marks)
      1. Name two systems of rearing poultry. (2 marks)
      2. State two factors that encourage egg eating in layers.

Answer ANY TWO questions in this section

    1. Name two methods of incubation (2mks)
    2. Explain the condition necessary in an artificial incubation (8mks)
    3. Describe the management of layers from the point of lay (10mks)
    1. Outline the procedure for castrating a piglet surgically (5mks)
    2. Explain foot rot under the following subheadings
      1. Predisposing factors (5mks)
      2. Symptoms (5mks)
      3. Control (5mks)
    1. Give five functions of proteins in a cow (5mks)
    2. Name five factors affecting digestibility of roughage in livestock (5mks)
    3. Outline five advantages of a live fence (5mks)
    4. Give four non-chemical methods of controlling ticks (5mks)

Marking Scheme

  1. Physical characteristics of exotic breeds
    • Straight top line   
    • Wedge/triangular shape   
    • Absence of hump
    • Prominent milk veins 
    • Well set hindquarters and large teats

  2. Steer –young castrated male cattle Bullock –mature castrated male cattle

  3. dehorning tools
    • dehorning wire or saw     
    • dehorning iron/ disbudding iron
    • dehorning collodion
    • Caustic potash stick
    • Rubber ring and elastrator
    • Has antibodies that help resist early disease infections
    • Oxytocin    
    • Adrenalin

  5. Signs of farrowing
    • Restlessness   
    • Loss of appetite   
    • Enlarge of the udder and teats
    • Sow collects bedding and build a nest
    • Enlargement of vulva

  6. Management practices of a heifer
    • Disease and parasite control   
    • Vaccination
    • feeding
    • Deworming
    • identification
    • Dehorning

  7. Effects of keds
    • Cause irritation
    • damage of wool   
    • Retarded growth 
    • Anaemic conditions

  8. Characteristics of African wild bee
    • Adapted to local weather conditions
    • Highflying power hence fly for longer distances
    • Active in search of food and water -Vicious if manhandled
    • Resistant to diseases like Acarive and American foul brood disease
    • Cattle-calving        
    • Goats-kidding        
    • Sheep- lambing
    • Rabbits- kindling

  10. Routes for vaccination
    • Nose                         
    • Mouth 
    • Cloaca                         
    • Skin

  11. Candling abnormalities
    • Double yolk                       
    • Broken egg shell   
    • Hair cracks                          
    • Blood/ meat spots

  12. Advantages of natural incubation
    • Low marginal cost   
    • Requires less skills
    • Suitable for small scale farmers
    • Les laborious since it does not involve egg turning

  13. disease causing micro-organism
    • bacteria
    • virus
    • protozoan   
    • fungi   

  14. Factors that determine amount of water taken by a dairy cow
    • Animal requires more water during hot season due to sweating
    • Type of feed eaten by the animal
    • Level of production
    • Weight of the animal or the body size

  15. Dual purpose breeds I sheep
    • Corriedale                           
    • Hampshire Down               
    • Romney Marsh

  16. Parts of a piggery
    • Feed store                   
    • record room
    • Water trough /drinking nipples
    • Running yard                         
    • pig pens: gilt, boar, in
    • pig, weaner, fattener pig pen

    • increase in the number of offspring per female
    • easier and more rapid exchange of genetic material between countries
    • less transport of live animals, thereby reducing risks of disease transmission
    • storage and expansion of rare genetic stock.

  18. Mineral disorders
    • Milk fever                     
    • Anaemia               
    • Paraketosis
    • Oestomalacia             
    • Grass tetany/stagger/hypomagnecia

  19. Physiological body functions that indicate illness
    • Abnormal appetite         
    • high /low body temperature 
    • Abnormal defecation
    • High/low respiratory rate
    • Abnormal colour of the urine/frequent urination
        • A. marking gauge
        • B. mortise gauge

      2. Marking gauge has one spur and hence inscribe one line
        Mortise gauge has two spurs which give two marking line at the same time

    2. Maintenance of a wheelbarrow
      1. Greasing the wheel
      2. Changing the tyre when worn out
      3. Repairing the board when worn out
      4. Washing after use

      1. P – watering can Q – Milk churn

      2. Advantages of using P
        • It spread water over a wide area
        • It does to erode the soil     
        • It does not uproot the seeds
      • A - landrace
        B -. large white
      • a has a straight snout while b has broad and slightly designed snout
      • a has bong dropping ears over the face  while b has upright ears
      • a is white in color while b is white with blue spots

    3. management practices
      • Clipping the teeth
      • Blood / surgical castration
      • Allowing the young ones to suckle the colostrums
      • Weighing them
        • Q – apex / ridge
        • R – purlin
        • S – Tie
        • T – Strut
        • U – Cross tie

        • Cross cut saw
        • Craw hammer
        • Tenor saw
        • Try square
        • Wood chisel

      • Spraying livestock against parasites
      • When carrying out identification
      • Vaccination
      • Administering prophylactic drugs
      • Treating sick animal
      • Dehorning
      • Pregnancy test       
      • Artificial insemination     
      • Taking body temperature
        • V – cold condition
        • R - Very hot condition      
        • S – Draught condition

      2. T

      • There should be a litter inform of wood shaving
      • There should be fresh air to allow gaseous exchange
      • There should be a heat source and thermometer to moniter heat
        • Free range
        • Fold system
        • Deep litter system
        • Cage system
        • Presence of broken or soft shelled eggs
        • Bright light in the nest
        • Idleness
        • In adequate nest
      • Lack of minerals such as calcium
      • Natural incubation ,    
      • Artificial incubation
      • Temperature 37.5c-39.4c
      • Relative humidity
      • Egg turning
      • Ventilation (fresh air)
      • feed them with layer mash
      • provide adequate clean water
      • ensure enough floor space
      • carry out routine vaccination
      • provide adequate litter
      • hang green leaves in the house for exercise
      • provide soluble sand or grit
      • deworm regularly
      • dust regularly to control external parasites
      • isolate and treat sick bird
      • clean waterers and feeders regularly
      • provide adequate laying nests
      • collect eggs regularly
      • debeak perpetual cannibal
      • cull poor layers
      • remove broken eggs from the house
      • dispose off dead birds
      • Assemble all the required equipmentsi.e scalpel, forceps and iodine
      • Wash your hands thoroughly before castration.
      • Wear protective gloves
      • Palpate the scrotal sac to locate the testicles
      • Using the scalpel cut the scrotal sac
      • Squeeze out the two testis and cut the epididymis
      • Disinfect the cut using iodine solution
      • Release the piglet after the castration

    2. Predisposing factors
      • Injury on the hooves
      • Long overgrown hooves
      • Muddy surrounding
      • Unhygienic condition in cows shed
      • Age of the animal

    3. Symptoms
      • Lameness
      • Fever
      • Lack of appetite
      • Emaciations
      • Swelling of foot
      • Rotten smell from hooves
      • Grazing while kneeling for the sheep.

    4. Control
      • Isolate the infected animals
      • Provide clean and dry surrounding
      • Regular hoof trimming
      • Treat the animals using the antibiotics
      • Use of the foot baths in dipping the animals
      • Growth ,repair and replacement of worn out body tissues
      • Production of antibodies which protect the animal against diseases
      • Production of products egmeat,milk and wool
      • Production of certain hormones in the body
      • Production of digestive enzymes to break food particles

      • The quantity of feed already present in the digestive system of an animal
      • Chemical composition of feed eg percentage of lignin or cellulose
      • The form in which the feed is offered to the animal e.g crashed maize is more digestible than whole maize
      • Species of the animal e.g digestibility of grass is higher in sheep than in pig
      • Ration of energy to proteins. The higher the ratio the lower the digestibility

      • The roots hold the soil firmly on the ground ,
      • They are cheap and easy to establish
      • Tall varieties act as windbreakers,
      • They have an aesthetic value
      • Some species have medicinal value 
      • Some species e.gLantana camaraare used as animal feed,
      • They provide shade to livestock

      • Handpicking the ticks from the livestock
      • Burning the infested pasture
      • Interfering with the tick environment
      • Fencing off the pasture land as farm
      • Starving the ticks to death
      • Use of their natural enemies birds e.g (Egrets)
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