Agriculture Questions and Answers - Form 4 Mid-term Exams Term 1 2022

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QUESTIONS

  1. Give three methods of controlling cannibalism in a flock of layers in deep litter system. (3mks)
  2. Describe four characteristics of a poor layer which should be considered during culling (4mks)
  3. The diagram below is a cross section of part of a cow’s udder
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    1. Label on the diagram the parts marked k, I, m and n. (2mks)
    2.                    
      1. What is milk let down? (1mk)
      2. Which hormone stimulates milk let down. (1mk)
    3. State three practices which are carried out to control mastitis in lactating cows. (3mks)
  4. Explain three qualities that make colostrum suitable for newly born calves. (3mks)
  5. State any five practices that would ensure clean milk production (5mks)
  6. State six reasons why agriculture is important in Kenya economy. (3mks)
  7. State two methods of increasing ploughing depth when using a disc plough. (2 mks)
  8. State four ways of improving the labour productivity of farm labour. (4mks)
  9.                  
    1. Define opportunity cost as used in Agricultural economics (1mk)
    2. State two situations under which the opportunity cost is nil (2mks)
  10. State four variable costs in bean production (2mks)
  11. Below is a graphical representation of the law of diminishing returns.
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    1. Explain what happens in each of the Zones marked by lines in relation to output. (3mks)
    2. Which of the three is a rational zone of production? (1mks)
    3. State any three precautions a potatoes farmer would take to minimize risks in the production of potatoes. (2mks)
  12. Compare the use of an ox-drawn mould board plough with that of a tractor-drawn mould board plough (8 mks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1. Give three methods of controlling cannibalism in a flock of layers in deep litter system. (3mks)
    • Feeding on balanced diet
    • Hanging green vegetation to keep birds busy scatter grains on the floor
    • Isolating and treating cannibalized birds
    • Control external parasites
    • Keeping birds according to age/ avoid introducing new birds
    • Provide adequate space
  2. Describe four characteristics of a poor layer which should be considered during culling (4mks)
    • Combs and wattles are small, dry and cold/ combs have white scales
    • The space between the pelvic bones is narrow 2-3 fingers cannot fit in the space between the pelvic bones
    • Plumage is shiny, well preened/ sometimes moulting
    • Yellowish pigmentation in the vent, shanks and beak
    • Space between the keel bone and pelvic bone is small / 3-4 fingers cannot fit in the space
    • Eyes are dull and yellow
    • Abdomen is hard
    • The layer is lazy and dull
    • The hen becomes broody
  3. The diagram below is a cross section of part of a cow’s udder
    1. Label on the diagram the parts marked k, I, m and n. (2mks)
      • K- Alveolus
      • L- Gland cistern
      • M – Teat cistern
      • N – Teat
    2.                    
      1. what is milk let down? (1mk)
        • Milk let down is the flow of milk from the upper/ alveolar region of the udder to the gland and teat cisterns
        • Which hormone stimulates milk let down. (1mk)
        • Oxytocin
    3. State three practices which are carried out to control mastitis in lactating cows. (3mks)
      • Practice farm hygiene/ milk infested cows last/ use a separate udder towel for each cow/ use disposable udder towel
      • Immediate treatment of infected cows to avoid spread of the diseases/ treat any wounds on the teat/ udder
      • Practice teat dips after milking
      • Applying milk salve/ jelly to prevent drying and cracking of teats
      • Practice good milking techniques
  4. Explain three qualities that make colostrum suitable for newly born calves. (3mks)
    • Has a laxative and helps to remove the faecal meconium/ first faecal matter/ opens up the alimentary canal/ cleanse the digestive system/ prevent constipation
    • It is rich in antibiotics that offers temporary immunity against diseases
    • It is rich digestible proteins/ fats/ minerals/ vitamin/ highly nutritious
    • It is highly digestible
  5. State any five practices that would ensure clean milk production (5mks)
    • The milk person should be clean
    • Test for mastitis before milking
    • Milk person should be healthy
    • Ensure utensils/ equipment are clean
    • Ensure milking parlor is clean
    • Ensure milking heard is free from zoonotic disease e.g. TB
    • Cows with mastitis should be milked last
    • Clean the udder
    • Sieve the milk
    • Cover the milk
    • Avoid feeds/ weeds that would taint the milk just before milking
    • Proper storage of milk/ cool, dry place.
  6. State six reasons why agriculture is important in Kenya economy. (3mks)
    • Provides employment
    • Source of food
    • Earns the country foreign exchange
    • Source-of raw materials for industries
    • Provide market for industrial goods
    • Source of income for farmers
  7. State two methods of increasing ploughing depth when using a disc plough. (2 mks)
    • Decrease the angle of cut
    • Use of hydraulic/ draught control lever
    • Adding weights on the plough beam
    • Raising the land wheel
  8. State four ways of improving the labour productivity of farm labour. (4mks)
    • Training the labour force
    • Giving incentives to employees
    • Efficient supervision of labour
    • Assigning specific tasks to workers
    • Proper remuneration of a worker
    • Provide efficient tools
    • Mechanization of some operations
    • Provide transport within the farm
  9.                
    1. Define opportunity cost as used in Agricultural economics (1mk)
      • It is the value of the best alternative foregone
    2. State two situations under which the opportunity cost is nil (2mks)
      • Where there is no alternative
      • where the resources are free/gift
      • Where the resources are in excess/ unlimited
  10. State four variable costs in bean production (2mks)
    • Casual labour costs
    • Fertilizer/ manure costs
    • Costs of agro chemicals
    • Costs of repair of farm tools used
    • Cost of hiring machinery
    • Costs of seeds
  11. Below is a graphical representation of the law of diminishing returns
    1. Explain what happens in each of the Zones marked by lines in relation to output. (3mks)
      • Zone I. For each addition unit of fertilizer applied, the output of potatoes increases at an increasing rate because resources are under utilized
      • Zone II. For each additional unit of fertilizer applied, the output of potatoes increases at a decreasing rate as the resources are utilized to the maximum
      • Zone III. For each additional unit of fertilizer applied the output of potatoes decreases since the resource is excessively applied.
    2. Which of the three is a rational zone of production? (1mks)
      • Zone II
    3. State any three precautions a potatoes farmer would take to minimize risks in the production of potatoes. (2mks)
      • Flexibility in production.
      • Produce under contract
      • Input rationing/appropriate allocation of resource input.
      • Insurance of the crop.
      • Use of modern technology e.g. disease resistant varieties,
      • Use of pesticides and fungicides, use of fertilizers.
    4. Compare the use of an ox-drawn mould board plough with that of a tractor-drawn mould board plough (8 mks)
      • Ox- drawn mould board is lighter hence does not compact the soil as much as the tractor – drawn mould board plough
      • Ox – plough can be use for more farm operations e.g. weeding, ploughing harvesting roots crops than tractor mould board.
      • Ox- plough requires less skills to operate compared to the tractor plough
      • Tractor plough is faster than ox- plough hence can plough a large area with a short time
      • Source of power for ox- plough is not as reliable as the source of power for tractor plough
      • Ox- plough relatively shallow compared to tractor plough that plough deeper
      • Ox- plough can be used in steeper lands where tractor plough cannot plough
      • Ox- plough requires more people to operate than tractor plough
      • Ox - plough is cheaper to buy than tractor plough
      • Ox - plough is cheaper to maintain than tractor plough

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