Farm Power and Machinery - Agriculture Form 4 Notes

Share via Whatsapp


  • Farm power is any form of energy used in the farm to do work.           .

Sources of Farm Power

Human Power

  • Performs light tasks.
  • Quality of work produced is variable.
  • Takes a long time to complete a task.

Animal Power

  • Done by draught animals such as camels, donkeys, horses and elephants.
  • Used in land preparation and transportation.


  • Slow.
  • Animals are liable to sickness and get tired.
  • Need enough food.

Wind Power

  • To pump water from boreholes.
  • To winnow crops such as beans, finger millet and rice.
  • Generate electricity.


  • Not easy to control and may not be available when needed.

Water Power

  • Irrigation.
  • Grinding mills (to grind maize grains).


  • Difficult to use in the farm because it is not easy to control.


This includes:

  • wood or charcoal
  • biogas power.

Charcoal/Wood Fuel Energy


  • Provides heat for boiling water and cooking.
  • Dehydrating of some crops.
  • Curing of tobacco.


  • Exhaustible.
  • It cannot be used directly in some farm operations.
  • Large quantities are required.
  • They are bulky hence difficult to transport.



  • Provides heat and light for cooking, boiling water and lighting.
  • Produces electricity.


  • Only possible where there are animals under zero grazing unit.
  • It is labour-consuming.
  • Large quantities of dung are required.
  • Cannot be used directly in some farm operations.


Fossil Fuels

These include:

  • coal,
  • petroleum oils
  • natural gas.


  • Petrol or diesel is burned in internal combustion engines to produce power.
  • Kerosene is the main source of power to light rural homes.
  • Natural gas is used for cooking, heating and lighting.

Electrical Power

It includes:

  • hydro-electrical power (HEP),
  • geothermal,
  • nuclear
  • power stored in batteries.
  • Nuclear energy is a potential source of power which has not yet been used in the farms.

Uses of Electrical Power

  • Runs stationary machines such as milling machines, grinding mills, cooling machines and water pumps.
  • Supplies heat and light for operations of brooders.


  • Cannot be used directly in some farm operations.
  • Lack of electricity in the rural areas.
  • Power failures can lead to high losses.
  • It is costly to install and maintain.

Solar Energy

  • Energy obtained from the sun.


  • Provides heat and light.
  • Used by all the plants in photosynthesis.
  • Dehydrating crops such as vegetables, maize grains, beans and hay.
  • Boils water which drives turbines to produce power for minor uses.


  • Low concentration of energy on cloudy d
  • Expensive In collecting and concentrating equipment.
  • Cannot be used directly in some farm operation
  • Requires skilled labour to install and maintain.

Tractor Engine

  • The tractor has an internal combustion engine which burns petrol or diesel to produce power.
  • This power is then passed to the gear box from where it is transmitted in various ways.
  • The common tractor engine is a four stroke cycle engine.

The Four Stroke Cycle Engine.

- The four strokes are:

  • Induction stroke.
  • Compression stroke.
  • Power stroke.
  • Exhaust stroke.

Induction Stroke

  • Piston moves down.
  • Inlet valve opens.   
  • Fuel and air get into the cylinder.

Compression Stroke

  • Inlet valve is closed.
  • Piston moves up the cylinder.
  • Fuel-air mixture is compressed.

Power Stroke

  • A spark is produced at spark plug, igniting the fuel-air mixture.
  • The increased pressure forces the piston down the cylinder.

Exhaust Stroke

  • Exhaust valve opens.
  • Piston moves up the cylinder.
  • Burned fuel-air mixture expelled.

Advantages of the Four Stroke Engines

  • Produce high power which can do heavy farm work.
  • Have efficient fuel and oil utilization.
  • Perform a wide range of farm operations.
  • Are effectively cooled with water thus allowing the production of large engine size.
  • Exhaust gasses are effectively expelled from the cylinders.


  • Are expensive to buy and maintain
  • Their use is limited in some areas;
  • Tractor can only be used on flat or gently sloping areas
  • Require skilled personnel and support services


The Two Stroke Engine

  • Found in small machines such as mowers, motor bikes, and water pumps which do light jobs in the farm.
  • All the cycles are completed in two strokes of the piston.
  • These strokes are;

Induction and compression stroke

  • The piston is at the bottom
  • Piston moves up uncovering the inlet port
  • Fuel-air mixure is drawn in
  • Ignition occurs when the piston reaches the top
  • Piston is forced downward compressing the mixture in the crank.

Power and exhaust stroke

  • The piston is at the top
  • Ignited gases produce pressure which force the piston downwards
  • The piston covers the inlet port and traps fresh fuel-air mixture in the crank case
  • Piston moves further down to uncover the exhaust port
  • Fuel-air mixture transferred from the crankcase to the combustion chamber.

Advantages of two stroke engine

  • Cheap to buy and easy to maintain
  • Economical in fuel consumption
  • Can be used in a wide range of farmland, including hilly areas
  • Can do small tasks in the farm which would be un-economical to do using the four stroke engine.

Disadvantages of two stroke engine

  • They produce less power hence cannot be used for heavy duties.
  • They are inefficient in burning fuel to produce power.
  • They are air cooled thus limiting the size of the engine

Systems of a Tractor

 - The modern tractor has the following systems:

  • The fuel system.
  • Electrical system
  • Ignition system
  • Cooling system
  • Power transmission system.

The Fuel System

  • Supplies fuel to the engine.
  • Categorized into two types depending on the fuel used. 
  • These are:
    • The petrol fuel system.
    • The diesel fuel system

The Petrol Fuel System

Consists of:

  • Fuel tank - storage of fuel.
  • Fuel filter - removes foreign particles from the fuel.
  • Carburettor
    • atomises fuel into spray.
    • introduces fuel-air mixture into the engines.
    • Regulates fuel-air into suitable proportion
  • Fuel pump - forces fuel into the carburettor.
  • Delivery pipe - connects all the devices.


  • Cleaning the carburettor regularly.
  • Cleaning the fuel filter in petrol.
  • Cleaning the hole in the fuel tank cap.

The Diesel Fuel System

- Consists of:

  • Fuel tank - storage of fuel.
  • Fuel injection pump - pumps diesel through injection nozzles and breaks into fine spray.
  • Fuel filters - remove foreign particles from the fuel.
  • Delivery pipes - connect the various devices.


  • Replacing the fuel filter.
  • Bleeding in case air is trapped in the system.
  • Cleaning the sediment bowl regularly.

Structural and Functional Differences Between Petrol and Diesel Engines

Petrol engine

Diesel Engine

 - It has a carburettor

 - It has an injection pump.

 - Fuel and air are mixed in the carburettor before it gets into the engine.

 - The fuel and air are mixed within the cylinder.

 - Fuel is ignited by an electric spark.

 - Fuel is ignited by compression of air and fuel mixture in the cylinder.

 - It produces little smoke because petrol is completely burnt.

 - It produces a lot of smoke since the diesel is not completely burnt.

 - Petrol engine is light in weight and suited for light duties.

 - It is relatively heavy in weight and suited for heavy duties.

Electrical System

Consists of the following:

  • Battery
    • Converts chemical energy into electrical energy.
    • Stores electrical energy produced by the running
  • Ignition circuit - provide the electrical current required by the spark plugs that produces a spark in the engine.
  • Generator circuit - provide the electrical current that starts the engine.
  • Lighting circuit - supply the electrical current required for the lighting system.
  • Starter motor circuit - starts the engine.

Care and Maintenance of a Tractor Battery

  • The level of electrolyte should be kept just above the plate by topping with distilled water.
  • Corroded terminals should be scrapped clean and smeared with grease.
  • The battery should be tightly fixed in a box to avoid spillage and damage.
  • The battery should be fitted correctly on the tractor.
  • The battery should be charged regularly and periodically.
  • In case of long storage the battery contents should be kept upside down.
  • The generator fan belt should always be functional to ensure the battery is always charged.

Ignition System                                                                   

 - Consists of:                                                                        

  • Ignition - change the low voltage from the battery to high voltage current required by the spark plugs.
  • Condenser
    • absorbs the self-induced current in the primary circuit.
    • stores current for a short time.
    • passes electric current to the distribut
  • Distributor - distributes the high voltage current to the spark plugs.
  • Contact breaker - Interrupts the normal flow of current in the primary circuit.

State the Maintenance practices carried on the Ignition System

  • The carbon deposits on the spark plug electrodes should be removed.
  • The spark plugs whose electrodes are worn out should be replaced.
  • The contact breaker points should be cleaned.
  • The breaker points should be adjusted so that they lie between O.30mm and 0.50mm.
  • The condenser should be replaced regularly.
  • The ignition systems should always be kept dry.
  • Ignition wires with poor insulation should be replaced.

Cooling System

  • The cooling system aims at preventing the engine from overheating which would cause piston zeisure in the cylinder.
  • Some tractor engines are cooled by air while others are cooled by water.

State the Characteristics of Air Cooled Engines

  • They are simple in construction.
  • They have fins and a fan blade which assists the circulation.
  • They are light in weight for they have no radiators and water jack


  • They get hot quickly and use heavy lubricating oil.
  • The cooling is not adequate under all conditions especially when carrying heavy load

Water Cooled Systems

  • It consists of the radiator, water jackets, water hoses, water pump, thermostat and a fanning mechanism.
  • Water is used to absorb heat from the engine block at a reasonable rate.

Care and Maintenance of Water Cooling system

  • The water pumps should be lubricated regularly.
  • Clean water should be used in the radiator and trash removed from the fins.
  • All pipes should be fitted tightly to avoid blockage.
  • The radiator should be filled with clean water before starting the day's work.
  • Fan belt tension should be checked regularly and if too tight or too loose should be adjusted accordingly.

Lubrication System

  • This system is aimed at supplying oil to all parts of the engine where friction is likely to occur.

Importance of Lubrication system

  • It helps to increase the efficiency of the machine and reduces the rate of wear and tear of moving parts.
  • It reduces the heat created by the rubbing surfaces and acts as a seal between them.
  • It acts as a cleaning agent because it washes off all the dust, dirt, soot and metal chippings from the oil paths to the sump.

Types of Lubrication Systems;

  • Splash feed type
  • Force feed type
  • Oil mist type

Types of Lubricants

  • SAE 10 - This is thin engine oil which gives little protection when heated.
  • SAE 50 - This is thicker engine oil which is recommended for protecting the bearings.
  • SAE 90 - 100 - These are transmission oils which are recommended for clutch, gear box, wheel lubrication and ball bearings.

 Note: SAE - Society of Automobile Engines.

Care and Maintenance of Lubrication Systems

  • Old or contaminated oil should not be used for lubrication.
  • Oil should be drained when still hot to avoid sticking on the walls of the sump.
  • The oil filters should be replaced when necessary.
  • The correct type of oil should be used as per the manufacturers' instructions.





Power Transmission System

power transmission system of a tractor

  • The function of this system is to transfer power from the tractor engine to the drive shaft, the wheel axle, the power take off shaft and the hydraulic system.
  • The system consists of the clutch, gear box, differential and the final drive.
  • The power transmitted from the engine is made available for use through the following:
    • The propeller shaft - it connects the gear box to the differential.
    • The power take off shaft (PTO shaft)­ -It is located at the rear part of the tractor and rotates at the same speed as the crankshaft of the engine.
    • Hydraulic system - it is operated by the use of a lever near the drivers seat.
      - It is connected to the 3-point linkage and helps to lower or raise implements mounted on the 3-point linkages such as ploughs, mowers, planters and sprayers.
    • Draw bar – It is a one-point linkage at the rear part of the tract
      - It serves for the attachment of trailed implements that can be used during harrowing, transportation or rolling.

Tractor Servicing

  • The aim of tractor servicing is to keep the tractor in good and efficient working conditions.
  • Tractor servicing is either;
    • short
    • long term.

Short Term Tractor Servicing

It includes:

  • Checking the engine oil daily by use of a dip stick.
  • If the oil level is low, it should be added.
  • The fuel level should be checked at the start of every day's work and added if necessary.
  • Water level in the radiator should be checked and if possible topped up.
  • The level of the electrolyte should be checked daily and topped up with distilled water accordingly.
  • Nuts and bolts should be tightened every day.
  • Lost nuts and bolts should be replaced before the day's work.
  • Grease should be applied by use of grease gun through the nipples.
  • Large sediments from the sediments bowl should be removed.
  • The tyre pressure should be checked daily before the day's work.
  • The fan belt tension should be checked to ensure that it deflects between 1.9cm and 2.5cm when pushed.
  • The brake shaft bearing should be greased.
  • The brake fluid level is maintained at the recommended level.

Long Term Services

  • The engine oil should be drained completely from the oil sump and replaced with new oil.
  • The gear box oil should be checked and refilled as recommended.
  • The oil in the differential should be replaced as recommended.
  • The linkage and the pulley attachment should be greased.
  • The pulley oil level should be checked and added if need be.
  • The dirty oil should be removed and replaced with clean one.

Farm Machinery

Tractor Drawn Implements

  • These are implements which are attached to the tractor during operation

State the two categories. Tractor Drawn Implements

  • One-point hitch implements ;
    • Are attached to the tractor at only one point that is, the draw bar.
    • They include all trailed implements such as the trailers, heavy harrows, planters and roller
  • Three point hitch implements;
    • Are implements attached to the tractor at three points that is, the top linkage point and two lower linkage point
    • They are operated by the hydraulic system.
    • They include ploughs, most harrows, sub­soiler, planters, mower, ridgers, sprayers and rotavators.


  • They are one-point hitch implements.
  • They are used for transportation of goods.
  • Small ones have two wheels while big ones have four wheels.


  • All the moving parts should be lubricated.
  • Tyre pressure should be adjusted to the correct pressure.
  • Worn out tyres should be replaced.
  • Loose nuts and bolts should be tightened, worn-out ones should be replaced.
  • The implements should be kept under a shed during long storage.


  • They are primary tillage implements.
  • The common type of ploughs include:
    • Disc plough
    • Mould board ploughs.

Disc ploughs

  • It is made up of heavy steel concave discs of 60-70cm diameter.

disc plough.PNG

Parts and Functions of a disc plough

  • The hitchmast:
    • Is an attachment for the three point hitch.
    • Made up of two side links and a top link.
    • These are parts connected to hydraulic system of a tractor for lifting and pulling.
  • The beam: Supports all other parts. It also adds weight for better penetrati
  • Depth wheel:
    • Used when driving on highway,
    • it also controls the depth of plou
    • May not be present in all disc ploughs.
  • The standard or leg: Connects the discs to the beam.
  • The hub: Allows the discs to rotate smoothly hence does the cutting of furrow slices.
  • The scrapers: Remove the trash and mud or soil which cling to the discs,
  • Disc blades: Cut and invert the furrow slice
  • Rear furrow wheel: Controls the depth of digging and stabilises the discs.

Adjustment                 .

  • The cutting angle should be adjusted at 35° - 50° from the I ine of travel.  Achieved by pivoting the beam or the standard.
  • Depth of digging: This is corrected by changing the height of depth wheel or adjusting hydraulic system and adding weight

Care and Maintenance of Disc Plough

  • Check for loose nuts and bolts and replace them.
  • Sharpen the disc blades if blunt.
  • Lubricate the rotating parts by use of oil/grease to reduce friction.
  • Paint the exposed parts for example the beam/framework.
  • Clean the implement at the end of each day's work before storage.
  • Store the implements in a shed.
  • The unpainted parts should be coated with old engine oil to prevent rust.

Uses of a Disc Plough

 - Used in areas with the following conditions:

  • Virgin land with many obstacles.
  • Land with too much trash or tall vegeta
  • Opening up pasture land.

Mouldboard ploughs

  • This primary tillage implement is suited in areas without obstacles such as stones, tree stumps, and roots.
  • It gives a uniform depth of ploughing.

Mouldboard plough.PNG

Parts and Functions Mouldboard ploughs

  • Share: This makes the horizontal cut and starts the turning of the furrow slices.
  • Mouldboard: Continues the turning of the furrow slices and pulverizes the soil.
  • Disc coulter: Makes a vertical cut in the soil to separate the furrow slice from the un-ploughed land.
  • Skim coulter: Removes any trash from between the furrow slices.
  • Frog: It is the part where the share, mould board and the landside are attach
  • Landside: Stabilizes the plough and absorbs the side forces created when furrow is turned.
  • Shin: Leading edge of a mouldboard.
  • Knife coulter: Is a vertical knife which cuts trash and earth ahead of the share.

Care and Maintenance

  • Lubricate the rolling parts for example wheel bearings and disc coulter bearings.
  • Paint scratched parts of the plough.
  • Sharpen the share or replace if worn out.
  • Check all loose nuts and bolts and replace where necessary.
  • Clean the implement after each day's work to remove soil, mud and trash.
  • For long storage, keep under a shed and apply lubricants.


  • Depth:
    • Controlled by raising or lowering the depth wheel.
    • Controlled by hydraulic control lever setting.
  • Pitch: controlled by altering the length of the top li
  • Front furrow width: Controlled by cross shaft adjustment lever or by rotating the cross shaft crank.
  • Lateral levelling: Controlled by tractor lift rod.

Operational Differences Between a Disc and a Mouldboard

Disc Plough

Mouldboard Plough

 - Suitable on field with stones, roots and stumps

 - Cannot be used on fields with stone, roots or stumps.

 - Does not invert the furrow slices completely.

 - Inverts the furrow slices completely.

 - More secondary operations are necessary after it has been used.

 - Fewer secondary operations are needed.

 - Cuts at varying points.

 - Operates at uniform depth.

 - Not easily broken by obstacles.

 - Can easily be broken by obstacles.

 - Requires less power to operate.

 - Requires more power to operate.


  • They are secondary cultivation implements.
  • There are different types of harrows.
  • The common ones are:
    • disc, Harrows
    • spring tine Harrows
    • spike tooth harrows.

Disc Harrows

  • It comprises of a set of gangs with concave discs.

disc harrow.PNG


  • Mixing the soil particles.
  • Levelling the seedbed by breaking large
  • lumps of soil.
  • Killing weeds.

- Disk harrows can be classified according to the arrangement of the gangs such a;

  • s tandem,
  • double tandem
  • offset tandem.

Depth Adjustment

  • Adding weights on the harrows.
  • Use of hydraulic force.
  • Use of light or heavy harrows.
  • Use of regulating wheels.

Care and Maintenance

  • Check for loose nuts and bolts daily.
  • Lubricate the shafts and bearings.
  • Clean and oil before storage.

Spring Tine Harrow

  • Is made up of flat and curved tines which act as springs.


  • Levels and smoothens the seedbed.
  • Breaks the soil clods.
  • Mixes trash and soil thus preventing wind erosion.
  • Aerates the soil.


  • Depth is controlled by the horizontal connecting link and depth wheel.
  • For individual tine, use crossbar and loosening the screws.

Care and Maintenance

  • Check for loose nuts and bolts and tighten them if necessary.
  • Clean after use.
  • Oil the lever mechanism.

Spike Tooth Harrows

  • Consists of a metal framework with rigid metal spikes which break up the soil by vigorously hitting large lumps of soils as it is pulled through the soil.


  • It smoothens and compacts the soil.
  • It breaks big lumps of soil into small particles.
  • Can be used for cultivating small crops if well set.


  • Heavy and require high horse power to pull.
  • Ploughing depth of 51-90cm.


  • Break up compacted soil.
  • Break up the hardpan.

Care and Maintenance

  • Clean it after use
  • Check the point and if worn out, replace it.
  • Oil when not in use.


  • It is double mould board plough used to make ridges and furrow
  • It is used to prevent water logging and draining through furrows for easy harvesting of root crops.


  • This is an equipment used to compact the soil gently especially where tiny seeds are to be planted.

Rotavators: (Rotary cultivators)

  • Work on the principles of high speed of revolving flail blades which beat and cut the soil together with trash.
  • It is an equipment for both primary and secondary tillage operations.
  • It is driven by the P.T.O. shaft of a tractor.


  • Breaks up large soil particles into small ones.
  • Mixes the vegetation and the soil.
  • Achieves two operations in one pass.


  • Forward speed of the tractor gives a fine tilth of the seedbed done through the gearbox.
  • Depth of work done by control of depth wheel.
  • Slip clutch may break in case the knives come across obstructions



  • Cutting grass for hay or silage making,
  • cutting overgrown grass
  • clearing the field.

Reciprocating Mower

Parts and Functions

  • Swath stick: Keeps the cut crop falling correctly.
  • Swath board: To remove the cut crop.
  • Shoe: Has a runner to absorb the weight and wear.
  • Cutter bar: Is a flat bar which guides the fingers.
  • Wear plate: Counteracts downward force and holds the knives.


  • To adjust knife register by moving the whole bar away or towards the yoke.
  • Knife lead: The outer shoe should be adjusted to be outer than the inner shoe by 4cm.


  • Check for loose nuts and bolts and tighten where necessary.
  • Keep knife section sharp.
  • Lubricate the knife parts.
  • Check knife to ledger plate cup for best cutting.
  • Keep all the parts tight.

Rotary Mowers

  • Cutting edge consists of two blades fitted opposite to each other on horizontal disc.
  • The cutting blades swing round at high speed horizontally to the ground hence cutting is effected.

Adjustment and Maintenance

  • Blades should be sharp.
  • Guards to be fitted around the blades to protect the operator from flying objects.
  • Lubricate the P.T.O. shafts.
  • Check the gear-box oil regularly and fill to the right level if necessary.


  • They are machines used for sowing seeds.
  • There are two types:
    • Row crop planters.
    • Seed drills.

Functions of the Planters

  • Meter the seed and fertilizers from seed and fertilizer
  • Open the seed furrow.
  • Deposit the seed in the furrow through the delivery tubes.
  • Cover the seed

Functions of Parts of a Seed Plate

  • Filler plate: gives proper seed depth.
  • False ring: allows the seed to fall from the seed plate into the boot.
  • Knockout pawl: pushes the seeds out of the cell by the roller action.
  • Cut-off pawl: prevents more than one seed remaining in a plate cell.
  • Cells: shaped holes to hold the seed.


  • Adjust the coulters depth for the right crop.
  • Fix the right seed plate.
  • Place the planter in the level position.
  • All the shafts should be free to turn.

Care and Maintenance

  • Check all loose nuts, bolts and tighten them.
  • Clean and oil the planter after use.
  • Grease the drive sprockets regularly.


  • The grain drill sows grains of wheat, barley, oats, peas, beans and alfalfa seeds.

Parts that can be adjusted to change the sowing rate;

  • Select the side of the feed wheel recommended on the drill charts for the seed-rate.
  • Change the speed of the wheels by changing the gears or sprockets or both.
  • Change the position of the feed gate in the cup.
  • Use reducers below the feed wheel.

Care and Maintenance

  • Keep seed and fertilizer hoppers dry and clean after each day's work.
  • Check the drive shaft and lubricate them.
  • Paint the parts for example fertilizer
  • hopper to be shiny

Combine Harvester


  • Harvesting cereal crops for example maize, wheat and barley.
  • It is designed to do the following:
    • Cutting
    • Threshing
    • Winnowing
    • Bagging

Parts of a Combine Harvester

  • Cutter bar - cuts the grain head.
  • Pick up reel- direct crop into the cutter bar,
  • Elevator - channels the cut grain to the threshing drum.
  • Winnowing ran - fans trash up onto a straw walker and directs it out of the combine harvester.
  • Delivery tube - delivers the clean .grains into a collecting tank from where it is bagged.

Maintenance of a Combine Harvester

  • Loose nuts and bolts should be tightened.
  • Remove all foreign materials stuck in the machine at the end of the day's work.


  • They are used for harvesting tuber crops and for making furrows or ridges.


  • Lubricate the moving parts.
  • Clean the implement after use.
  • Store under a shed.
  • Repair or replace worn-out or broken parts.
  • Loose nuts and bolts should be tightened.
  • Unpainted parts should be oiled during long storage.
  • Shares should be sharpened if blunt.


  • They are tractor mounted and operated by power from the P.T.O. shaft .
  • Used for harvesting forage crops such as Napier grass, sorghum and maize.


  • Tighten loose nuts and bolts.
  • Lubricate moving parts.
  • Store in a shed.
  • Clean after the day's work.
  • Repair/replace worn out or broken parts.
  • Unpainted parts should be oiled to prevent rust.

Maize Shellers

  • These are stationary implements which are either hand or tractor driven.
  • They consist of. a rotating disc which shell maize grains from cobs.


  • Greasing moving parts.
  • Removing any stuck maize cobs.
  • Repair or replace worn out or broken parts.
  • Store in a shed.

Animal Drawn Implements

Ox Plough

  • Ox-plough is a simple type of a mouldboard plough which is pulled by a pair of oxen, donkeys or camels.


Explain the functions of the following parts of an ox-plough

  • Main beam - It is the main component onto which all the other parts are attached.
  • Mouldboard - It inverts the cut furrow slice upside down.
  • Plough share -It cuts the furrow slices.
  • Land wheel- It regulates the depth of plough.
  • Draft rod - It is on this rod that a chain is connected on which a yoke is linked.
    • It forms the draught mechanism of the plough.

Advantages of an Ox-Plough Over Tractor­ Drawn Plough

  • Less skill is required to operate it.
  • Useful where tractors cannot be used for example steep slopes.
  • Cheap to buy and maintain.

Disadvantages of an Ox-Plough Over Tractor­ Drawn Plough

  • Much time is wasted in training oxen.
  • Tedious and laborious to the driver of the animals and the controller of the implement.
  • Animals can be sick or in poor physical state.
  • Extra land is required as grazing fields for the oxen.


  • Depth of plough is controlled by the land wheel and draft rod

Care and Maintenance

  • Sharpen or replacing of the worn out share
  • Replacement of worn out parts such as hooks and draw bar assembly.
  • Oiling the shiny parts e.g mouldboard
  • Wash off the soil after use.
  • Paint the handles, beam and braces to prevent rusting.

Ox-Drawn Cart

  • These are small carriages harnessed to the animals by a yoke
  • The small carts have only two wheels bigger ones have four.
  • They are pulled by animals in singles or in pairs
  • Carts are used for transport.


  • Moving parts should be oiled
  • The yoke should be repaired when worn out or replaced if not repaired
  • Tyre pressure should be checked and adjusted accordingly
  • Repair other damages on the cart.

Download Farm Power and Machinery - Agriculture Form 4 Notes.

Tap Here to Download for 50/-

Why download?

  • ✔ To read offline at any time.
  • ✔ To Print at your convenience
  • ✔ Share Easily with Friends / Students

Join our whatsapp group for latest updates
Get on WhatsApp Download as PDF
Subscribe now

access all the content at an affordable rate
Buy any individual paper or notes as a pdf via MPESA
and get it sent to you via WhatsApp


What does our community say about us?

Join our community on:

  • easyelimu app
  • Telegram
  • facebook page
  • twitter page
  • Pinterest