Water Supply, Irrigation and Drainage: Drainage - Form 1 Agriculture Note

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- This is a method of removing excess water or lowering the water table from a marshy water-logged land.

- It is also a method of land reclamation.

Importance of Drainage as a Method of Land Reclamation

  • To increase soil aeration.
  • To raise soil temperature.
  • To increase microbial activities in the soil.
  • To reduce toxic substances from the soil.
  • To increase soil volume for exploitation by plant roots.

Methods of Drainage

  • Use of open ditches.
  • Use of underground drain pipes.
  • French drains.
  • Cambered beds.
  • Pumping out water from the soil.
  • Planting tree species which absorb a lot of water for example eucalyptus.

Water Pollution

  • This is the process by which harmful substances get into the water.
  • The harmful substance is referred to as a pollutant.

Agricultural Practices Which Pollute Water Include:

  • Use of inorganic fertilizers.
  • Use of pesticides.
  • Poor cultivation practices such as over cultivation, cultivating along the river banks.
  • Overgrazing which leads to erosion of soil thus causing siltation in water sources.

Methods of Preventing Water Pollution

  • Soil conservation measures which minimize soil losses through erosion.
  • Fencing off the water sources.
  • Adopting organic farming practices for example controlling pests and weed using non-chemical techniques.
  • Planting grass along river banks to minimize siltation in rivers.
  • Proper disposal of empty chemical containers.
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