How is the ileum adapted to its functions? - KCSE Biology Essay

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Long and narrow; to increase the surface area for complete digestion of food; and maximum absorption of digested food;

Highly-coiled; to reduce speed of food flow; for maximum digestion; and absorption;

Presence of villi and microvilli; to increase surface area; for maximum absorption;

Dense network of capillaries; to transport blood; for efficient transport of absorbed food; presence of lacteals; for absorption of fatty acids and glycerol molecules;

Presence of enzymes: Lipase; for digestion of lipids into fatty acids and glycerol; maltase; for digestion of maltose to glucose molecules; peptidase; for breakdown of peptides into amino acids; sucrase; for digestion of sucrose into glucose and fructose; lactase; for digestion of lactose into glucose and galactose;

Goblet cells; produce mucus; to lubricate the walls of the ileum; for smooth flow of food; coats the walls of ileum to prevent digestion by peptidase

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