Gaseous exchange occurs in the spongy mesophyll;
During the day, air diffuses into large air spaces of the spongy mesophyll; through the stomata; the carbon (IV) oxide in the air diffuses into photosynthetic cells; in solution form; during photosynthesis, carbon (IV) oxide is used up; while oxygen is produced; some of the oxygen is used in respiration; while the rest diffuses out of the leaf; through the stomata;
During the night, air diffuses into the air spaces; through the stomata; the air dissolves into the film of moisture; oxygen in the air diffuses into the cells; and is used for respiration; carbon (IV) oxide produced; diffuses out through stomata; due to a concentration gradient/diffusion gradient; At night, carbon (IV) oxide accumulates in the leaf
since photosynthesis does not occur; some gaseous exchange also takes place through the cuticle; and through the epidermis of young leaves, roots and stems; some plants exchange gases through breathing roots/pneumatophores; older stems exchange gases through lenticels;
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