How are seeds and fruits of plants adapted to their mode of dispersal? - KCSE Biology Essays

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Fruit mesocarp/seed testa has air spaces; thus light/buoyant to float; carried away by water;

Fruits/seeds protected from soaking by waterproof pericarp/testa;


Have hooks for attachment to animals; thus carried to other places;

Fruits are brightly coloured;succulent/fleshy; aromatic/scented, to attract animals; which feed on them;

The seed coats/hard seeds are resistant to digestive enzymes; thus are unaffected; seeds dropped away from parent in faeces/droppings;


Have hairs/wing-like structures/floss/extensions; which increase surface area/for buoyancy; making it easy to be blown away;

Fruits/seeds are light due to small size; therefore easily carried away by wind;

Censor mechanism;

perforated/open/split/capsule; usually loosely attached to the stalk/long stalk; is swayed by wind; scattering seeds;

Selfdispersal/Explosive mechanism;

Tension/pressure is created inside a dry pod; pod opens (violently) along lines of weaknesses; the two halves curl outwards; scattering the seeds;

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