Discuss the adaptations of the male reproductive system of humans - KCSE Biology Essays

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Consists of two oval-shaped testes; lying outside the abdominal cavity in a special sac known as the scrotal sac/scrotum; for protection; the testes are located outside the body to provide a relatively cooler environment/lower temperature; suitable for sperm production; the inside of the testis is divided into seminiferous tubules;

there are three coiled and twisted tubules; having rapidly/actively dividing cells that produce sperms;

Interstitial cells; found between these tubules produce the male sex hormones/androgens (mainly testosterone); important in promoting the development of secondary sexual characteristics; and maintaining masculinity in males; the tubules join together to form the epididymis; which are smaller ducts; that convey sperms out of the testes; they also form a temporary storage area for sperms; the epididymis is connected to the sperm duct/vas deferens; which has thick muscular walls; that contracts to propel sperms to the urethra; the sperm duct is joined by a duct from the seminal vesicle; a blindly ending sac; that produces an alkaline fluid containing nutrients for the spermatozoa/sperm cells; to provide energy; at the junction of the two sperm ducts (one from each testis) and urinary bladder there is the prostate gland; that secretes an alkaline fluid that neutralizes the acidic vaginal fluids; and also activates the sperms; by addition of enzymes and diluting the sperms; below the prostate gland is the cowper’s gland; which secretes an alkaline fluid which neutralizes the acidity caused by urine; along the urethra.

The urethra; is a long tube running the length of the penis; used for conduction and expulsion of urine; as well as passage of sperms during copulation; the urethra follows the penis; that projects from the body at the lower abdomen; it consists of a retractable skin known as the prepuce/foreskin; that covers a swollen/bulbous end region of the penis known as the glans; the glans excites the clitoris of the female as it brushes on it during copulation; to stimulate ejaculation/orgasm; the penis is made up of spongy erectile tissue; consisting of numerous small blood spaces, muscle and blood vessels; the spongy tissue gets filled with blood; making the penis to become erect during sexual stimulation excitement and activity; enabling the penis to penetrate the vagina during coitus/copulation/sexual intercourse; in order to deposit sperms in the vagina of the female;

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