Emergence and Growth of Nationalism in Africa - History Form 3 Topical Revision Questions and Answers

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  1. Name the political party that was founded by Kwameh Nkrumah in 1949.             (1mk)
    1. State five factors that led to the growth of nationalism in Ghana (5mrks)
    2. Describe the methods used by African nationalists to fight for political liberation in South Africa (10mrks)
  3. State two reforms that were introduced by Garfield Todd the prime minister of Zimbabwe in 1953 2mks.
  4. Identify the political party that led Ghana to independence in 1957.  (1 mk)
    1. Give three challenges faced by the Ghanaian nationalists in the struggle for independence. (3mks)
    2. Describe methods used by the Nationalists in Ghana to Struggle for their independence.    (12mks)
  6. State two grievances of the African national congress (ANC) against colonial regime in South Africa up to 1939. (2mks)
  7. What were the responses of white racist government to Africa nationalist’s demands in South Africa (7mks)
  8. Name the political party that secured independence for Ghana (1mk)
  9. Apart from ANC name one other political party that fought for independence in South Africa. (1mk)
  10. Identify the political party which won independence for Ghana in 1957. (1mk)
    1. Mention five ways in which President Nyerere of Tanzania assisted the liberation movement in Mozambique. (5mks)
    2. Explain five challenges that faced the liberation movement in South Africa during the struggle for majority rule. (10mks)
    1. Give three external factors that led to the rise of nationalism in South Africa.  (3mks).
    2. Explain six methods used by nationalist in South Africa to attain their independence.    (12mks).
  13. Identify two political developments in South Africa between 1990 to 1994.         (2mks)
  14. State two main factors that led to African nationalism. (2 mks)
  15. Why did Southern Rhodesia refuse to merge with South Africa in 1923. (1mk)
    1. Give three ways through which Kwame Nkurumah promoted nationalism in Ghana (3mks)
    2. Explain six reasons why South Africa took too long to achieve majority rule    (12mks)
  17. Mention one method used by the international community to hasten independence in South Africa. (1 mark)
  18. Identify two methods used by the nationalists in Ghana in their struggle for independence. (2 mks)


  1. Conventions people party (CPP)
      • the high number of educated Africans remained unemployed and their frustrations led to bitterness
      • the Africans who had received higher education were able to express African grievances and demand for equality and freedom
      • farmers were upset by the small profits from sale of cocoa to European firms while European manufactured goods were very costly
      • Africans who were ex-servicemen campaigned for their independence as they had received a lot of experience from the war
      • The colonial government denied trading licences to African traders. 1x5 = 5
      • They organized political parties e.g. ANC
      • They used trade unions to press for better working condition
      • They organized protest marches, defiance campaigns and demonstrations
      • military force
      • African nationalists employed diplomacy
      • Africans used print media such as pamphlets and newspaper
      • Detained nationalists went on hunger strike
      • The church leaders such as Bishop Desmond Tutu and Alan Boesak led the fight against apartheid.
        5 points x 2 mks each = 10mks
    • A bill was passed to give recognition to African trade unions
    • Government expenditure on African agriculture was increased
    • More attention was paid to the provision of African education and a multi-racial university was started. Any 2 points, 2 x 1 =2mks),2 x 1 = 2mks)
  4. Identify the political party that led Ghana to independence in 1957. (1 mk)
    • Convention Peoples Party (CPP). (1 x 1 = 1mks)
    1. Give three challenges faced by the Ghanaian nationalists in the struggle for independence     ( 3mks)
      • The leaders were arrested and locked inby colonialists.
      • There was no unity among the African nationalists in Ghana.
      • There was lack of funds to finance nationalistic activities caused by general economic hardships.
      • There was rivalry among political parties e.g. C.P.P and N.L.P diverting attention of the struggle to internal unity building.  (Any 3 x 1) = 3 mks)
    2. Describe methods used by the Nationalists in Ghana to Struggle for their independence.  (12 mks)
      • Organised for public rallies to share their problems and look for solutions.
      • Formed trade unions.
      • Mobilised protests and demonstrations.
      • Wrote publications and other editorials mainly to popularize African course of action.
      • They used international forums to make their grievances be known far e.g Nkurumah attended the pan – African congress in London in 1945.
      • The Ghanaians participated in constitutional negotiations e.g Burns and cossey constitutional negotiations.
      • Strike were organized by various groups i.e farmers.     ( Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks
  6. Two grievances of ANC up to 1939
    • Land alienation
    • Pass laws which forced Africans to carry pass books
    • Master/ servant act which restricted Africans from leaving Jobs before the end of the contract .            2x1=2mks
  7. What was the response of white racist government to African nationalists -demands in south Africa.
    • Restriction of nationalists Activities
    • Restriction of movement of people
    • Banning meetings.
    • Imposition of harsh laws which legalise detention
    • Arrest and imprisonment of leaders e.g. Mandella.
    • Use of curfew or state of emergency.
    • Outlawing of political parties e.g. ANC and P.A.C
    • Elimination of some leaders like Steve Biko in 1977.
    • Arresting of black journalists and banning their newspaper like weekend world newspaper.        7x1(7mks)
  8. Name the political party that secured independence for Ghana    (1mk)
    • The Convention Peoples Party. (CPP)
    1. Pan African congress (PAC)
    2. Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP)
    3. United Democratic Front (UDF)
    4. National Front (NF). (Any 1x1 = 1mk)
    • Convention People’s Party (CPP) 1x1=1mk
      • Offered them political recognition and support.
      • Allowed them to open offices in Tanzania.
      • United different political factions.
      • FRELIMO fighters trained in Tanzania.
      • Opened border for a sylum seekers from Mozambique.
      • Spoke in UN, OAU, Commonwealth on colonialism in Mozambique.
      • Tanzania supplied fighters with arms.            5x1=5mks
      • Many people lost their lives as result of police opening fire on them with little regard for human rights.
      • The leaders who spearheaded the liberation movement were harassed, arrested and some detained.
      • The nationalists were forced into exile to avoid arrest.
      • The South African white regime banned all African political parties.
      • The African newspapers and their journalism was censored by the apartheid regime – no free press.
      • The labour movement was outlawed and where applicable, it operated under strict police agents.
      • The white regime created a policy of divide and rule. The Bantustains were created on tribal lines.
      • The African movement was restricted by the white regime.
      • Ideological differences among the African nationalists.     5x2=10mks
    1. External factors for nationalism in Africa.
      1. Formation of the UN which supported decolonization.
      2. Experiences of ex world war two soldiers densitified the myth of Europeans superiority.
      3. Rise of U.S.A./ USSR as super powers who discouraged colonization.
      4. Examples from India and Pakistan (1947) which encouraged others African communities to acquire independence.
      5. The Atlantic charter between U.S.A. and Britain which discouraged colonization and encouraged self determination of colonized states. 3x1= (3mks)
    2. Methods used by South African nationalists
      1. Through political parties e.g. ANC, PAC to champion their grievances.
      2. Through trade unions for better working terms.
      3. Demonstrations / protests marches.
      4. Military force/ guerilla war far.
      5. Diplomacy.
      6. Hunger strikes.
      7. Through churches and church leaders e.g Desmand Tutu
      8. Strikes and Boycotts
      9. Through sabotage e.g uprooting railway
      10. Through political rallies
      11. Media
      12. Through OAU and UNO          6x2=12mks
  13. Identify two political developments in South Africa between 1990 to 1994. (2mks)
    • 1990 – Fredrick de Klerk lifted the ban on all anti-apartheid movement including A.N.C.
    • 1990 – Nelson Mandela was released after 27 years in prison
    • 1991 – Some of the most oppressive racist laws were repealed including the international organization of 1960 that had been used to ban ANC and PAC.
    • 1994 All race elections were held in April 1994 ANC won by a landslide thereby opening a new era in African history.
    • Nelson Mandela was sworn in as the president of South Africa on 10th May 1994
    • The sanctions placed against the apartheid regime were lifted and the country reinstated as a rightful member of the commonwealth U.N.O. and organization of unity.          1 x1 =1mk
  14. State two main factors that led to African nationalism. (2 mks)
    • land alienation
    • forced labour
  15. Why Southern Rhodesia refused to merge with South Africa in 1923
    • They feared the merger would inevitably lead to their domination by Afrikaners in political matters.                  1 x 1 = 1
      • Held public rallies and protects
      • Published books, articles etc
      • Used non violent means e.g. dialogue
      • Joined U.G.C.C and formed C.P.P
      • Composed songs and slogans
      • Attended and hosted Pan African conferences
      • United Ghanaian nationalists. (Any 3 x 1=3mks
      • Arrests and imprisonment of leaders- Mandela, Sobukua
      • Torture and harassment of protester – Steve, Biko
      • Violence unleashed on demonstrators- sharp villemassaure
      • Government used Divide and rule- Black homelands
      • Political parties were banned e.g. A.N.C
      • Inadequate finances and resources to nationalists
      • Strong and resourceful apartheid government
      • Some countries refused to give economic suctions to S. Africa
      • Censorship of press/media (Any 6 x 2=12mks)
  17. Mention one method used by the International Community to hasten independence in South Africa. (1mark)
    1. Economic sanctions
    2. Social sanctions e.g.. banned from international games (1x1= 1mark)
  18. Identify two methods used by nationalists in Ghana in their struggle for independence.
    • Held public rallies where they educated Africans on their rights.
    • Formation of political parties which united Africans
    • Mass media e.g. Newspapers, Accra evening
    • International forum e.g. Pan African movement
    • Composition of slogans and songs
    • Ghanaians participation on constitutional negotiation with the government e.g Burns
    • Hold demonstrations e..g ex-soldiers.
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