AGRICULTURE PAPER 2 Marking Scheme - 2017 KITUI MOCK EXAMINATION

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 SECTION A

  1.  
    • Type of plants from which the nectar was collected
    • Maturity stage of honey at the time of harvesting
    • Method of harvesting
    • Method of processing honey (3 x ½ = 1½ marks)
  1.  
    • Washing a cow with hot water
    • Beating the cow (mistreatment)
    • Change of milkman
    • Unfamiliar noise
    • Absence of food during milking (4 x ½ = 4marks)
  2.  
    • Sow becomes restless
    • Vulva turns red and swells
    • Udder becomes full with a milky fluid on teats
    • The sow starts to build a nest by collecting some bedding at one corner of the pen. (3 x ½ = 1½ marks)
  1.  
    • Inadequate nests
    • Too high/too low laying nests.
    • Nests are brightly lit.
    • Too small laying nests that make the birds squeeze in them. (3 x ½ = 1½ marks)
  1.  
    • Free from diseases causing organisms
    • Has no hair, dirt or dust.
    • It is of high keeping quality
    • Has good flavour
    • Its chemical composition is within the expected standards.   (3 x ½ = 1½ marks)
  1.  
    • Avoid contaminating livestock feeds with feaces
    • Rotational grazing
    • Improved sanitation by removal of dung
    • Use appropriate anthelminthes
    • Use latrines (4 x ½ = 2 marks)
  1.  
    • Loss of weight and emaciation
    • Pot-bellied/ watery swellings on the body of the affected animal
    • Animal suffers from indigestion
    • Liver is damaged / Hemorrhage due to movement of flukes in the liver.
    • Anaemic condition
    • Dullness and animal appear depressed.
    • Swollen and painful abdomen
    • Recumbency precedes death. (4 x ½ = 2 marks)
  1.  
    • Increase level of production i.e. milk
    • Improve quality of livestock products.
    • To improve disease resistance in the animal
    • To develop animals with a high growth rate.
    • To develop animals with high heat tolerance.
    • To develop animals that matures early. (4 x ½ = 2 marks)
  1.  
    • Freezing
    • Salting
    • Sun-drying
    • Smoking
    • Canning (4 x ½ = 2 marks)
  1.  
    • Roughage
    • Concentrates (2 x ½ = 1 mark)
  1.  
    • To produce female gametes
    • Produce hormones that reduce oestrus cycle (2 x ½ = 1 mark)
  1. Reasons for flushing
    • Increase conception rate
    • Facilitate implantation of the zygote
    • Increase lambing percentage
    • Increase twinning / multiple births. (2 x ½ = 1 mark)
  1. Reasons for treating timber
    • Prevent attack by fungi / rotting
    • Control pest attack
    • Make timber strong and resist weather conditions
    • Prevent warping (4 x ½ = 2 marks)
  1.  
    • Animals body size
    • Physiological status of the animal
    • Level of production
    • Environmental temperature
    • Age of animal (4 x ½ = 2 marks)
  1.  
    • connection / disconnection of the drive shaft
    • Take off smoothly without a jerk (2 x ½ = 1 mark)
  1.  
    • Spacious / provide adequate space
    • Well ventilated
    • Easy to clean.
    • Well lit
    • Leak proof
    • Allow single calf housing at a time.
    • Well drained floor (4 x ½ = 2 marks)
  1.  
    • Availability of land for rearing
    • Topography of land to facilitate easy drainage.
    • Availability of labour
    • Availability of appropriate equipment
    • Security
    • Knowledge of the farm. (4 x ½ = 2 marks)
  1.  
    • Control internal and external parasites
    • Control diseases
    • Effect identification
    • Remove extra teats
    • Effect dehorning (4 x ½ = 2 marks)

SECTION B

  1.  
    1. A   -     Alveolus
      B   -     Gland cistern
      C   -     Teat cistern
      D   -     Teat (4 x ½ = 2 marks)
    2. Oxytocin, Adrenalin (2 marks)
    3. Injecting a cow with appropriate antibiotics through the teat canal when it is being dried off to protect the cow from getting mastitis, (1 mark)
  2.  
    1. Fowl pox         (1 mark
    2.  
      • Cause death of the chicken
      • Lowers egg production
      • Increase cost of production (2 x 1 = 2 marks)
    3.  
      • Kill all infected birds
      • Vaccinate healthy birds
      • Practice hygiene in poultry house (2 x 1 =2 marks)
  1.  
    1. P    -     Wall plate
      Q   -     Purlin
      R   -     Tie beam/ Cross tie
      S    -     Rafter (4 x ½ = 2 marks
    2. P -     Hold the trusses securely (1 mark)
      Q   -     Hold the roofing materials (1 mark
    3. Tar; Creasole; tanex; used engine oil; Copper sulphate solution (Accept appropriate example, (1 mark)
  1.  
    1. E -     Differential
      F    -     Fly wheel
      G   -     Piston
      H   -     Crankshaft (4 x ½ = 2 marks)
    2. E -    Changes the direction of drive to right angles to power the wheels (1 mark)
      H   -     Rotate and help the piston to move up and down. (1 mark)

      SECTION C

  1.  
    1.  
      • The species of the animal – Certain species of animals are affected by specific diseases like swine fever for pigs and new castle for  poultry.
      • The breed of the animal – Certain breeds of animals are affected by particular diseases like cancer of the eye for Helford  and solar erythema for large whites.
      • The age of the animal – Certain ages of animals are easily affected by certain diseases e.g. anemia for piglets and lamb dysentery for lambs.
      • Sex of the animal – Certain diseases are associated to sex of the animal e.g. Orchitis for males and vaginitis for females
      • Color of the animal – Black colored  animals suffers from heat stress. (5 x 1 = 5 marks)
    2.  
      • Burning of the infested pastures in order to kill all the stages of the lifecycle of ticks.
      • Ploughing the pasture so that the stages of the lifecycle are exposed to sunlight for desiccation or killed by burying deeply.
      • Top dressing the pasture with lime or  acaridae is also effective in controlling larvae, nymphs and adults
      • Fencing the pasture and farm to keep off intruding animals that could be carriers.
      • Starving the ticks to death by enhancing rotational grazing which is effective in breaking lifecycles.
      • Hand picking the tricks and killing them-deticking. (6 x 1 = 6 marks)
    3.  
      • Age of the animal. Young animals produce higher butterfat content in milk.
      • The middle stage of lactation of a cow has higher butterfat content.
      • Condition of the animal. Emaciated sick and pregnant animals produce low butterfat content.
      • The last drawn milk during milking has higher butterfat content.
      • Time of milking. Evening milk has higher butterfat content than morning milk.
      • Breed of the animal. Jerseys, Guernsey the Zebu cows have a higher butterfat content than other breeds.
      • Season of the year. Cows produce milk with higher butterfat content during cold season than warm season.
      • Cows that feed on roughage produce milk with higher butterfat content than other feeds
      • Cows suffering from disease like mastitis produce milk with a low butterfat content  and poorly contaminated.
      • Cows under medication with antibiotics produce milk that is poorly constituted (9 x 1 = 9 marks)


  2.  
    1.  
      • Makes operations timely and faster
      • Makes work easier and enjoyable
      • High quality job is done than human labour
      • There is an increased efficiency
      • Pests and diseases outbreak cam be controlled relatively in a short time
      • Farmers benefits form economic of scale
      • It is economical in times of labour demand
      • High yields are achieved because farm operation s are carried out timely (5 x 1 =5 marks)
    2.  
      • They have the ability to invert the furrow slice very well and as a result they can burry the vegetation ploughed
      • They are easily kept at a constant depth during ploughing
      • Better penetration in to the soil can be obtained
      • If ploughing is done well, it is possible to prepare a seed -bed in one operation, i.e. it may not be unnecessary to harrow in order to break clods of soil
      • Fewer secondary operations are needed. (5 x 1 = 5 marks)
    3.  
      • Timber - Construction box and top bars
      • Corrugated iron sheets - form lid to prevent leakage.
      • Nails- for joining parts
      • Wire - firming wire loop, for hanging
      • Posts - for hanging
      • Wood preservatives- coating on wood to preserve from attack by pests and weather conditions. 
        (½ mark for mentioning the material, ½ mark for explaining – 5 marks)
    4.  
      • The water pump should be lubricated regularly
      • Clean water should be used in the radiator and trash removed from the fins
      • All pipes ^should be fitted tightly to avoid leakage
      • Fan belt tension should be checked regularly and if too tight or too loose should be adjusted
      • The radiator should be filled with clean water before starting day's work. (5 x 1 = 5 marks)
  3.  
    1.  
      • Wedge shaped
      • Well set hind quarters
      • Straight top line
      • Milk veins are visible
      • Big / large stomach to accommodate food
      • Large udder
      • Lean body with little flesh (4 x 1 = 4 marks)
    2.  
      • Age of animal
      • Level of performance / production
      • Physical fitness
      • Health – Animals selected must be health
      • Body conformation – Animals for breeding should be selected according to their body conformation.
      • Temperament or behavior – Some animals within a breed might have bad temperament or undesirable behaviors such as cannibalism and egg eating in the      case of poultry.
      • Quality of products – Select animals that give products of high quality
      • Mothering ability – Animals selected  should have a good mothering ability, which are animals with good natural instinct towards their young ones.
      • Adaptability – Animals selected should be  well adapted to the prevailing climatic conditions.           
      • Prolificacy – Select animals which are  highly prolific, that is animals with an ability to give birth to many offsprings at a time. (9 x 1 = 9 marks)
    3.  
      1. Cause
        • Low level of calcium in the blood of a cow. (1 mark)
      2. Symptoms
        • Staggering
        • Muscular twitching
        • Complete anorexia
        • Animal becomes unconscious
        •  Animal lies on the sternum with neck twisted backwards.
        • Dullness
        • Caseation of body functions
        • General paralysis. (4 x 1 = 4 marks)
      3. Control measures
        • Practice partial milking in cows with a history of milk fever.
        • Feed animals with diet rich in calcium during pregnancy
        • Intravenous injection with calcium salts/calcium borogluconate in animals with milk (2 x 1 = 2 marks)

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