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  1. Give the meaning of history.                                                                                       
    • The  study of man’s past events/activities.    (  1   x  1   )  =  1mk
  1. Identify one age-grade for elders among the Akamba.                                               
    • Juniopr elders (anake)
    • Intermediate elders/ medium Nthele
    • Full elders/Atumia ma Kivalo/Itembo
    • Senior elders/ Atumia ma Ithembo
      Any  (1  x  1) =  (1  mk)
  1. State the first settlement area of the Luo during their migration from Sudan.              
    • Pubungu/Pakwach           (1 x 1)  =  1 mk
  1. Name one early Christian missionary who worked in Kenya.
    •  Johannn  Ludwig  Krapf
    • Johann  Rebman
    • Jacob  Erhardt                    Any    ( 1 x 1 )  =  1 mk                            
  1. Identify two contributions made by early Christian missionaries in the field of education in Kenya.                                                                                             
    • They set up schools/encouraged Africans to go to school.
    • They taught African how to read and write
    • They taught Africans vocational skills
    • They translated the Bible into African languages
    • They wrote books/dictionary. Any  ( 2 x 1)   =  2mks)
  1. Define  the term “National Integration”                                                                 
    • It is the process of bringing together people of diverse backgrounds in a country (1 x 1)    =   1mk
  1. What constitutional amendment made Kenya return to multi-party state.               
    • Repeat of section 2A of the constitution in 1991.  (1  x  1 )  =  1  mk
  1. Give Two reasons why a Kenya citizen should obey the law.                                  
    • To keep peace                (  1  x  1)   =  1 mk 
  1. Give two way in which education has promoted  national unity in Kenya.           
    • Common curriculum/syllabus is used.
    • Learners from different schools interact through co-curricular activities.
    • Learners from different  communities background attend the same schools.
    • Common medium of  communication/English/Kiswahili is used in schools. Any   (2  x   1 )   =    2mks 
  1. State two advantages of representative democracy.                                                  
    • People elect leaders of their own choice
    • Supreme power is vested in the people.
    • It is easy to make decision
    • Elected leaders are accountable to the people/people are able to air their grievances.  Any   (2 x 1 )  =  2mks)             
  1. Name the First African to be appointed in the council of ministers in Kenya by the colonial government.                                                                                    
    •  A.  Ohanga    (1 x 1 )   =   1mk
  1. Identify the leader who stepped down as the president of African Union for Jomo Kenyatta.                                                                                                    
    • James  Gichuru
  1. State two ways in which the Harambee spirit promote National Unity in Kenya.  
    • It encourages people to work together.
    • It promotes cooperation
    • It promotes equity in the distribution of resources
    • It enhances interaction of the people.
    • It promotes patriotism Any   ( 2 x 1)   =  2mks
  1. State two ways through which the saving and credit cooperative societies in Kenya  benefit their members.                                                                           
    • Give loans/credit facilities
    • They provide banking facilities
    • They provide benevolent/insurance services
    • They create employment Any    (2 x 2  )   =  2mks)
  1. State two qualifications that a person must fulfill in order to be allowed to register as a voter in Kenya.                                                                                    
    • must be a Kenyan citizen.
    • Must be 18 years old and above
    • Must be of a sound mind Any    (2  x  1 )    =   2mks)
  1. Name the two branches of National Police Service in Kenya.                                
    • The Kenya Police  Services
    • The Administration Police  Servi8ces Any   (  2  x  1)    =   2mks)
  1. Give the main difference of the commission on Revenue Allocation in Kenya.                                                                                              
    • To ensure equitable sharing of revenue between National and County Governmnet/Among County Governmnets




    1. Give five reasons which influenced the migration of the plain Nilotes to Kenya during the Pre-Colonial period.                                                         
      • They moved in search of pasture and water for their livestock.
      • Due to outbreak of diseases/epidemics
      • Pressure/raids from other communities force them to move to safer areas.
      • Family/clan disputes forced them to migrate.
      • There was over population/population pressure in their original home land
      • They moved due to drought
      • The spirit of adventure made them search for new lands. Any    ( 5 x 1)   =  5mks)
    2. Explain five results of the migration and settlement of the Maasai in Kenya during the pre-colonial period.                                                             
      • They displaced some communities that they found in areas that they settled.
      • Their settlement led to increased population in the region.
      • They intermarried with their neighbours.
      • Some  section of the Maasai (Kwavi) become cultivators.
      • There was  ethnic conflict due  to cattle raids/land for settlement.
      • There was borrowing/exchange of cultural practices among the communities.
      • There was increased trade between the Maasai and their neighbours. Any  (10  x  1)   =   10 mks)
    1. State three reason for the coming of the Portuguese to Kenyan Coast in the 15th century.                                                                                        
      • They wanted to find a sea route to India
      • They  wanted to spread Christianity/reduce muslim influence.
      • They wanted to take part in the coastal trade
      • Due to desire for exploration/adventure Any    ( 3 x 1)           =  3 mks
    2. Explain six effects of the Portuguese rule on the East African Coast.     
      • The Portuguese built fort Jesus for defense purpose which later  become a tourist attraction.
      • Their harsh and cruel manner of suppressing rebellions led to loss of lives.
      • They introduced new food crops which are staple food for many Kenyans.
      • Constant  rebellion against the Portuguese rule interfered with the trading activities leading to its decline.
      • The coastal town that resisted Portuguese rules were destroyed and left in runs.
      • They educated the coastal people on how to use animals manure in farming and thus increase crop yields.
      • Some words borrowed from Portuguese languages were used to enrich Kiswahili language
      • They fostered good relation between E.A. and India. Any   ( 6  x 2 )     =   12 mks
    1. Give five grievances of the Kikuyu Central Association which were Presented by Jomo  Kenyatta to the colonial secretary in 1929.              
      • Land alienation
      • Taxation of Africans
      • Lack of African representation of legco
      • Lack of quality/poor education for Africans.
      • Release of Harry Thuku
      • Abolition  of forced  labour
      • Abolition of Kipande  system. Any  5  x  1)     =    5 mks
    2. Explain five factors which led to the migration of African to the urban areas  in  Kenya during the colonial period.                                 
      • The overcrowded/unproductive reserves created by the colonial government made living  conditions difficult/unbearable therefore resulting into migration to towns.
      • Availability of better social services /amenities/health centers/education provided in town attracted him.
      • The taxes imposed on Africans forced them to migrate to towns in search of jobs.
      • Availability pf infrastructure/piped water/paved roads/electricity attracted many people to town as they hoped for better life.
      • Employment/job opportunities attracted people to towns as it promised them better wages.
      • Mistreatment/frustrations by the labour/public works forced them to move to town.
      • The wide-spread  poverty in rural/reserves caused untold suffering thereby making them to migrate to town.
      • African entrepreneurs wanted  to take advantage of wider markets in town. Any   ( 5  x  2)       =   10 mks
    1. State three factors that have contributed to high illiteracy levels in Kenya since Independence.                    
      • Traditional /cultural belief in some communities discourage people from schooling.
      • Lack of schools/inadequate educational facilities has  made education inaccessible in some religion
      • High poverty levels in the society has made education unaffordable.
      • Misconceptions that one can succeed without education.
      • Negative attitude towards adult education programmes has resulted in low enrolment.
      • Insecurity in some regions e.g  Kapendo, Baragoi, Tana River  etc. Any    ( 3 x 1 )   =  3 mks)                                                        
    2. Discuss six factors that have facilitated industrialization in Kenya since Independence.
      • The availability of modern sources of energy has enabled the  establishment of more industries which process different products.
      • Availability  of both skilled/unskilled labour from large population provides the work force required in industries.
      • Good transport and communication infrastructure has created a viable environment for industrial development as product can be transported with ease.
      • The rich agricultural country provides raw materials required in processing of various product.
      • The existence of both natural and man made forests has promoted tourism as many local and international tourists visit country side.
      • The existence  of mineral resources has given rise to industries which process them into finished products.
      • Availability of water resources rich in fish has given rise to fish processing industries in the country.
      • Government  initiative through creation of  ministries of trade, commerce and industry offering technical and financial aid/support. any (6 x 2) = 12  mks                                                                                                      



    1. State three circumstances that can make a Kenyan citizen to be  denied the right to life. (3mks)
      • when defending one self/poperty
      • When effecting a lawful arrest
      • When preventing escape of a lawfully detailed person
      • When preventing a person from committing a crime/felony
      • In a situation of war.
      • When suppressing a riot/rebellion/mutiny Any    (  3  x  1 )    =  3 mks)
    2. Describe  the functions of the  Republic of Kenya.                                       
      • Being the head of state, the president represents the people locally and internationally
      • Determines the parliamentary life/calendar by opening/proroguing/dissolving it.
      • Appoints the cabinet ministers/senior civil servants
      • Chairs cabinet meetings where matters of national importance/policies are made.
      • Leads the people in Kenya during national celebrations /important national functions.
      • Grants freedom/pardons a convicted person unconditionally.
      • Assents  the bills passed by National Assembly
      • Receives/hosts heads/envoys of foreign countries who visits Kenya.
      • Ensures  that the constitution is safe guarded so that Kenyan enjoys their rights. Any    ( 6   x   2  )    =    12 mks  
    1. State  five ways through which Independence of the Judiciary is guaranteed in Kenya.                                                                                     
      •  It is  established by the constitution as arm of the national government.
      • Its authority is guided/controlled by the constitution when carrying out its mandate
      • It draws its expenses directly  from the Judges consolidated fund inorder to ensure independence.
      • Judges of the superior courts have security  of tenure of office/can only be dismissed
      • Members of the Judiciary are not held accountable of their actions/decision if they are taken in the best interest of dispensing Justices
      • The Judges/Magistrates swear the oath of allegiance to the constitution.
      • Remuneration/benefits given to Judges cannot be varied in  such a way as to disadvantage them. Any   (  5  x  1  )   =  5 mks)
    2. Explain five functions of the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission of Kenya.                                                                                
      • It announces the results and declares the winners.
      • It appoints election  officials.
      • It distributes/transport electoral materials to all polling stations.
      • It registers prospective citizens who intends to participate in the elections.
      • It draws boundaries of constituencies/wards in all parts of the country.
      • It regulates nominations of candidates by political parties so as to ensure proportional nominations of members.
      • It settles electoral disputes other than petitions arising from electoral in order to  ensure smooth /fair elections
      • It registers all candidates who intends to contest for positions during elections/announces and provide an election timetable.
      • It develops code of conduct for candidates/parties participating in election with the view of checking malpractices. Any   ( 5  x  2  )    =   10 mks)
    1. State three objectives of devolving the government of Kenya.                      
      • To promote democratic  exercise of power.
      • To promote unity in the country.
      • To empower the people to participate in decision making/to make information decision.
      • To protect the interests of the minority/marginalized groups.
      • To promote equitable development in the country.
      • To enable people access services/take services closer to the people. Any   (  3   x  1)           (3mks)
    2. Explain six functions of the National Assembly in Kenya.                                  
      • It makes laws that govern the country so as to ensure smooth running of the country.
      • It determines the allocation of public revenue to all government sectors in order to promote development.
      • It approves funds for expenditure by national government to ensure provision of services.
      • It exercises oversight over public revenue and expenditure thereby promoting accountability/transparency.
      • To review the conduct in office of the executive in order to check excesses in government.
      • To approve appointments made by the president to ensure merit/professionalism/integrity of the appointees.
      • To  approve declaration of war and extension of state of emergency. Any    (  6   x   2)     =  12 mks)
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