Give the meaning of history.
- The study of man’s past events/activities. ( 1 x 1 ) = 1mk
Identify one age-grade for elders among the Akamba.
- Juniopr elders (anake)
- Intermediate elders/ medium Nthele
- Full elders/Atumia ma Kivalo/Itembo
- Senior elders/ Atumia ma Ithembo
Any (1 x 1) = (1 mk)
State the first settlement area of the Luo during their migration from Sudan.
- Pubungu/Pakwach (1 x 1) = 1 mk
Name one early Christian missionary who worked in Kenya.
- Johannn Ludwig Krapf
- Johann Rebman
- Jacob Erhardt Any ( 1 x 1 ) = 1 mk
Identify two contributions made by early Christian missionaries in the field of education in Kenya.
- They set up schools/encouraged Africans to go to school.
- They taught African how to read and write
- They taught Africans vocational skills
- They translated the Bible into African languages
- They wrote books/dictionary. Any ( 2 x 1) = 2mks)
Define the term “National Integration”
- It is the process of bringing together people of diverse backgrounds in a country (1 x 1) = 1mk
What constitutional amendment made Kenya return to multi-party state.
- Repeat of section 2A of the constitution in 1991. (1 x 1 ) = 1 mk
Give Two reasons why a Kenya citizen should obey the law.
- To keep peace ( 1 x 1) = 1 mk
Give two way in which education has promoted national unity in Kenya.
- Common curriculum/syllabus is used.
- Learners from different schools interact through co-curricular activities.
- Learners from different communities background attend the same schools.
- Common medium of communication/English/Kiswahili is used in schools. Any (2 x 1 ) = 2mks
State two advantages of representative democracy.
- People elect leaders of their own choice
- Supreme power is vested in the people.
- It is easy to make decision
- Elected leaders are accountable to the people/people are able to air their grievances. Any (2 x 1 ) = 2mks)
Name the First African to be appointed in the council of ministers in Kenya by the colonial government.
- A. Ohanga (1 x 1 ) = 1mk
Identify the leader who stepped down as the president of African Union for Jomo Kenyatta.
- James Gichuru
State two ways in which the Harambee spirit promote National Unity in Kenya.
- It encourages people to work together.
- It promotes cooperation
- It promotes equity in the distribution of resources
- It enhances interaction of the people.
- It promotes patriotism Any ( 2 x 1) = 2mks
State two ways through which the saving and credit cooperative societies in Kenya benefit their members.
- Give loans/credit facilities
- They provide banking facilities
- They provide benevolent/insurance services
- They create employment Any (2 x 2 ) = 2mks)
State two qualifications that a person must fulfill in order to be allowed to register as a voter in Kenya.
- must be a Kenyan citizen.
- Must be 18 years old and above
- Must be of a sound mind Any (2 x 1 ) = 2mks)
Name the two branches of National Police Service in Kenya.
- The Kenya Police Services
- The Administration Police Servi8ces Any ( 2 x 1) = 2mks)
Give the main difference of the commission on Revenue Allocation in Kenya.
- To ensure equitable sharing of revenue between National and County Governmnet/Among County Governmnets
SECTION B. (45 MARKS)
ANSWER THREE QUESTIONS IN THIS SECTION.
Give five reasons which influenced the migration of the plain Nilotes to Kenya during the Pre-Colonial period.
- They moved in search of pasture and water for their livestock.
- Due to outbreak of diseases/epidemics
- Pressure/raids from other communities force them to move to safer areas.
- Family/clan disputes forced them to migrate.
- There was over population/population pressure in their original home land
- They moved due to drought
- The spirit of adventure made them search for new lands. Any ( 5 x 1) = 5mks)
Explain five results of the migration and settlement of the Maasai in Kenya during the pre-colonial period.
- They displaced some communities that they found in areas that they settled.
- Their settlement led to increased population in the region.
- They intermarried with their neighbours.
- Some section of the Maasai (Kwavi) become cultivators.
- There was ethnic conflict due to cattle raids/land for settlement.
- There was borrowing/exchange of cultural practices among the communities.
- There was increased trade between the Maasai and their neighbours. Any (10 x 1) = 10 mks)
- Give five reasons which influenced the migration of the plain Nilotes to Kenya during the Pre-Colonial period.
State three reason for the coming of the Portuguese to Kenyan Coast in the 15th century.
- They wanted to find a sea route to India
- They wanted to spread Christianity/reduce muslim influence.
- They wanted to take part in the coastal trade
- Due to desire for exploration/adventure Any ( 3 x 1) = 3 mks
Explain six effects of the Portuguese rule on the East African Coast.
- The Portuguese built fort Jesus for defense purpose which later become a tourist attraction.
- Their harsh and cruel manner of suppressing rebellions led to loss of lives.
- They introduced new food crops which are staple food for many Kenyans.
- Constant rebellion against the Portuguese rule interfered with the trading activities leading to its decline.
- The coastal town that resisted Portuguese rules were destroyed and left in runs.
- They educated the coastal people on how to use animals manure in farming and thus increase crop yields.
- Some words borrowed from Portuguese languages were used to enrich Kiswahili language
- They fostered good relation between E.A. and India. Any ( 6 x 2 ) = 12 mks
- State three reason for the coming of the Portuguese to Kenyan Coast in the 15th century.
Give five grievances of the Kikuyu Central Association which were Presented by Jomo Kenyatta to the colonial secretary in 1929.
- Land alienation
- Taxation of Africans
- Lack of African representation of legco
- Lack of quality/poor education for Africans.
- Release of Harry Thuku
- Abolition of forced labour
- Abolition of Kipande system. Any 5 x 1) = 5 mks
Explain five factors which led to the migration of African to the urban areas in Kenya during the colonial period.
- The overcrowded/unproductive reserves created by the colonial government made living conditions difficult/unbearable therefore resulting into migration to towns.
- Availability of better social services /amenities/health centers/education provided in town attracted him.
- The taxes imposed on Africans forced them to migrate to towns in search of jobs.
- Availability pf infrastructure/piped water/paved roads/electricity attracted many people to town as they hoped for better life.
- Employment/job opportunities attracted people to towns as it promised them better wages.
- Mistreatment/frustrations by the labour/public works forced them to move to town.
- The wide-spread poverty in rural/reserves caused untold suffering thereby making them to migrate to town.
- African entrepreneurs wanted to take advantage of wider markets in town. Any ( 5 x 2) = 10 mks
- Give five grievances of the Kikuyu Central Association which were Presented by Jomo Kenyatta to the colonial secretary in 1929.
State three factors that have contributed to high illiteracy levels in Kenya since Independence.
- Traditional /cultural belief in some communities discourage people from schooling.
- Lack of schools/inadequate educational facilities has made education inaccessible in some religion
- High poverty levels in the society has made education unaffordable.
- Misconceptions that one can succeed without education.
- Negative attitude towards adult education programmes has resulted in low enrolment.
- Insecurity in some regions e.g Kapendo, Baragoi, Tana River etc. Any ( 3 x 1 ) = 3 mks)
Discuss six factors that have facilitated industrialization in Kenya since Independence.
- The availability of modern sources of energy has enabled the establishment of more industries which process different products.
- Availability of both skilled/unskilled labour from large population provides the work force required in industries.
- Good transport and communication infrastructure has created a viable environment for industrial development as product can be transported with ease.
- The rich agricultural country provides raw materials required in processing of various product.
- The existence of both natural and man made forests has promoted tourism as many local and international tourists visit country side.
- The existence of mineral resources has given rise to industries which process them into finished products.
- Availability of water resources rich in fish has given rise to fish processing industries in the country.
- Government initiative through creation of ministries of trade, commerce and industry offering technical and financial aid/support. any (6 x 2) = 12 mks
- State three factors that have contributed to high illiteracy levels in Kenya since Independence.
ANSWER ANY TWO QUESTIONS FROM THIS SECTION.
State three circumstances that can make a Kenyan citizen to be denied the right to life. (3mks)
- when defending one self/poperty
- When effecting a lawful arrest
- When preventing escape of a lawfully detailed person
- When preventing a person from committing a crime/felony
- In a situation of war.
- When suppressing a riot/rebellion/mutiny Any ( 3 x 1 ) = 3 mks)
Describe the functions of the Republic of Kenya.
- Being the head of state, the president represents the people locally and internationally
- Determines the parliamentary life/calendar by opening/proroguing/dissolving it.
- Appoints the cabinet ministers/senior civil servants
- Chairs cabinet meetings where matters of national importance/policies are made.
- Leads the people in Kenya during national celebrations /important national functions.
- Grants freedom/pardons a convicted person unconditionally.
- Assents the bills passed by National Assembly
- Receives/hosts heads/envoys of foreign countries who visits Kenya.
- Ensures that the constitution is safe guarded so that Kenyan enjoys their rights. Any ( 6 x 2 ) = 12 mks
- State three circumstances that can make a Kenyan citizen to be denied the right to life. (3mks)
State five ways through which Independence of the Judiciary is guaranteed in Kenya.
- It is established by the constitution as arm of the national government.
- Its authority is guided/controlled by the constitution when carrying out its mandate
- It draws its expenses directly from the Judges consolidated fund inorder to ensure independence.
- Judges of the superior courts have security of tenure of office/can only be dismissed
- Members of the Judiciary are not held accountable of their actions/decision if they are taken in the best interest of dispensing Justices
- The Judges/Magistrates swear the oath of allegiance to the constitution.
- Remuneration/benefits given to Judges cannot be varied in such a way as to disadvantage them. Any ( 5 x 1 ) = 5 mks)
Explain five functions of the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission of Kenya.
- It announces the results and declares the winners.
- It appoints election officials.
- It distributes/transport electoral materials to all polling stations.
- It registers prospective citizens who intends to participate in the elections.
- It draws boundaries of constituencies/wards in all parts of the country.
- It regulates nominations of candidates by political parties so as to ensure proportional nominations of members.
- It settles electoral disputes other than petitions arising from electoral in order to ensure smooth /fair elections
- It registers all candidates who intends to contest for positions during elections/announces and provide an election timetable.
- It develops code of conduct for candidates/parties participating in election with the view of checking malpractices. Any ( 5 x 2 ) = 10 mks)
- State five ways through which Independence of the Judiciary is guaranteed in Kenya.
State three objectives of devolving the government of Kenya.
- To promote democratic exercise of power.
- To promote unity in the country.
- To empower the people to participate in decision making/to make information decision.
- To protect the interests of the minority/marginalized groups.
- To promote equitable development in the country.
- To enable people access services/take services closer to the people. Any ( 3 x 1) (3mks)
Explain six functions of the National Assembly in Kenya.
- It makes laws that govern the country so as to ensure smooth running of the country.
- It determines the allocation of public revenue to all government sectors in order to promote development.
- It approves funds for expenditure by national government to ensure provision of services.
- It exercises oversight over public revenue and expenditure thereby promoting accountability/transparency.
- To review the conduct in office of the executive in order to check excesses in government.
- To approve appointments made by the president to ensure merit/professionalism/integrity of the appointees.
- To approve declaration of war and extension of state of emergency. Any ( 6 x 2) = 12 mks)
- State three objectives of devolving the government of Kenya.