History Paper 2 - 2020 MOKASA JOINT MOCKS EXAMINATION (QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)

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Section A (25 marks)

Answer all questions in this section

  1. Define the term Genetics as a source of information on history and government. (1 mark)
  2. Give two features of Australopithecus. (2 marks)
  3. Name the person who invented the Mechanical Thresher in 1876 which speeded up the process of crop harvesting. (1 mark)
  4. Identify two items of trade from West Africa during the Trans-Saharan trade. (2 marks)
  5. Identify one country in Africa that was created as a settlement for freed slaves. (1 mark)
  6. Define the term communication. (1 mark)
  7. Give two advantages of screams and cries as traditional means of communication. (2 marks)
  8. Identify one theory that explains the origin of iron working in Africa. (1 mark)
  9. Give the main contribution of Isaac Newton during the scientific revolution. (1 mark)
  10. Apart from Johannesburg, name one other modern urban centre in Africa. (1 mark)
  11. Name the leader who introduced the Golden stool in the Asante Empire during the pre- colonial period. (1 mark)
  12. Identify two French colonies in Central Africa. (2 marks)
  13. Give two benefits enjoyed by the assimilated Africans in during the French administration in Senegal. (2 marks)
  14. Identify two contributions of Nelson Mandela in the fight for freedom and democracy in South Africa. (2 marks)
  15. Highlight two factors that led to the failure of the German Von Schlieffen plan during the First World War. (2 marks)
  16. Name two permanent members of the United Nations Organizations (UNO) Security (2 marks)
  17. Define the term Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). (1 mark)

Section B (45 marks)

Answer any three questions from this section

  1.  
    1. Give five reasons why Africa is considered as the cradle of mankind. (5 marks)
    2. Describe the way of life of man during the Early Stone Age period. (10 marks)
  2.  
    1. Give five advantages of human transport. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five disadvantages of air transport. (10 marks)
  3.  
    1. State five functions of London as an urban centre. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five factors responsible for the growth of early urban centres in Africa. (10 marks)
  4.  
    1. Identify five reasons for the growth of nationalism in Mozambique. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five reasons for the slow decolonization process in Mozambique. (10 marks)

Section C (30 marks)

Answer any two questions from this section

  1.  
    1. Give three ways in which trade contributed to the rise of Asante Empire. (3 marks)
    2. Describe the political organization of the Buganda kingdom during the 19th century. (12 marks)
  2.  
    1. State three functions of Emirs during the British administration in Nigeria. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six reasons why indirect rule policy failed in Southern Nigeria. (12 marks)
  3.  
    1. State three effect of Cold War. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six challenges faced by the Commonwealth of Nations. (12 marks)


Marking Scheme

Section A (25 marks)

  1. Define the term Genetics as a source of information on history and government.    (1 mark)

    This is the scientific study in which characteristics of parents are passed to the off springs. 1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)
  2. Give two features of Australopithecus.     (2 marks)
    • It stood upright or was bipedal
    • Had small canines
    • Had a brain capacity of between 450 to 550 cc
    • Was short and strong
    • Had low forehead
    • Had stereoscopic vision using deep set eyes
    • Had grinding molars
    • The skull and jaw was much larger than that of modern man
    • They were hairy
    • Had a large face Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)
  3. Name the person who invented the Mechanical Thresher in 1876 which speeded up   the process of crop harvesting.  (1 mark)

    Andrew Mekle 1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)
  4. Identify two items of trade from West Africa during the Trans-Saharan trade.    (2 marks)
    • Gold
    • Slaves
    • Ivory
    • Kola nuts
    • Animal skins
    • Ostrich feather
    • Copper  Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)
  5. Identify one country in Africa that was created as a settlement for freed slaves.      (1 mark)
    • Sierra Leone
    • Liberia  Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)
  6. Define the term communication.    (1 mark)
    • Communication refers to the sending/ passing on of information, skills, feelings, messages etc. from one individual/ place to another by way of an established channel. 1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)
  7. Give two advantages of screams and cries as traditional means of communication.            (2 marks)
    • It is fast way of communication
    • It can be used at any time
    • They convey a variety of messages Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)
  8. Identify one theory that explains the origin of iron working in Africa. (1 mark)
    • One area theory/diffusion theory
    • Independent development theory Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)
  9. Give the main contribution of Isaac Newton during the scientific revolution.       (1 mark)
    • He formulated the gravitational pull 1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)
  10. Apart from Johannesburg, name one other modern urban centre in Africa.         (1 mark)
    • Nairobi 1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)
  11. Name the leader who introduced the Golden stool in the Asante Empire during the   pre-colonial period.         (1 mark)
    • Osei Tutu 1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)
  12. Identify two French colonies in Central Africa.    (2 markS)
    • Central African Republic
    • Chad
    • Gabon
    • Republic of the Congo  Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)
  13. Give two benefits enjoyed by the assimilated Africans in during the French    administration in Senegal.    (2 marks)
    • They were allowed to send representatives to the French Chamber of Deputies.
    • They were enfranchised (right to vote) like the French people in France.
    • They were provided with the same education rights like the French people.
    • They enjoyed the rights of the French Judicial System
    • They were exempted from forced labour
    • They were exempted from arbitrary arrests
    • They were exempted from paying taxes
    • They were allowed trading rights like the French people in France
    • They were allowed to operate Local Authority structures like those in France.
    • They were allowed to serve in the French civil service
    • The Muslims were allowed to maintain their Islamic law     Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)
  14. Identify two contributions of Nelson Mandela in the fight for freedom and      democracy in       South Africa.     (2 marks)
    • He was the founder member of the ANC youth league/ Umkhonto we Sizwe which used violence to attain African liberation
    • He took part in the formulation of the 1955 proclamation of the Freedom Charter that demanded equal rights to all races
    • He was involved in defiance campaigns to protect against segregation laws
    • He mobilized African support and worked hard to unite the Africans
    • Being a lawyer, he represented Africans who found themselves in the wrong side of the law
    • In 1962 he toured many parts of the world to seek material support for the liberation struggle            Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)
  15. Highlight two factors that led to the failure of the German Von Schlieffen plan during the First World War.       (2 marks)
    • Russia mobilized her forces faster than expected and this meant that German         forces had to be deployed to the Eastern front earlier than anticipated.
    • The German invasion of Belgium was not as fast as anticipated as they faced 
    • The British entry into the war also contributed to the delay.
    • Both sides were evenly matched in terms of weapons than the Germans had Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)
  16. Name two permanent members of the United Nations Organizations (UNO) Security      (2 marks)
    • United States of America
    • Britain/United Kingdom
    • China
    • France
    • Russia  Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)
  17. Define the term Non-Aligned Movement (NAM).    (1 mark)
    • It is an organization whose members follow a policy of neutralism/independence   in international affairs 1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)

Section B (45 marks)

  1.  
    1. Give five reasons why Africa is considered as the cradle of mankind.  (5 marks)
      • The availability of forests provided possible shelter/habitat/settlement for the early man.
      • African is centrally located and it is from here that man may have migrated to other parts of the world/centre of Pangea.
      • Compared to other continents, the oldest fossils of man were discovered in    Africa/archaeological sites are many.
      • The savanna grasslands available in the continent provided suitable hunting grounds for the early man.
      • Africa has many rivers/lakes which provided water for use by the early man.
      • African continent has relatively good climate which may have favoured human settlement/warm. Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)
    2. Describe the way of life of man during the Old Stone Age period.  (10 marks)
      • They made simple stone tools for domestic use/ Oldowan tools/pebble tools
      • They lived in small groups in order to assist each other
      • They obtained their food through hunting and gathering
      • They used simple hunting methods such as chasing wild animals and laying traps
      • They ate raw food because fire had not been discovered
      • They had no specific dwelling places
      • They sheltered from predators by climbing trees and hiding in caves
      • They wore no clothing but their hairy bodies kept them warm
      • They lived near rivers and lakes
      • They communicated by use of gestures and whistling Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)
  2.  
    1. Give five advantages of human transport.    (5 marks)
      • It was readily available
      • It was cheap
      • It was flexible
      • accidents
      • It was convenient Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)
    2. Explain five disadvantages of air transport.    (10 marks)
      • It is expensive to procure, maintain and use aircrafts.
      • Construction of air strips requires a lot of resources like land.
      • They can only take off and land in designated areas thus inconveniencing the     
      • Aircrafts cannot carry bulky goods as compared to other forms.
      • Its operations are affected by weather conditions.
      • They cause air pollution
      • Using aircrafts has contributed to terrorism and drug trafficking
      • Use of aircrafts in military has led to massive destruction of property and deaths of many people.
      • Accidents involving aircrafts are fatal.
      • It requires skilled personnel to manage its operations Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)
  3.  
    1. State five functions of London as an urban centre.                       (5 marks)
      • It is transport and communication centre e.g. airports, seaports, road         convergence and railway stations.
      • It is a political and administrative center as the monarchy, prime minister and the cabinet is based there.
      • It is a commercial center due to availability of banks, car marts, and insurance.
      • It is an industrial center as many industries are situated there like textile industries, iron and steel industries and food processing industries.
      • It is an education center as many institutions are there some being the oldest in Europe like Oxford and Cambridge.
      • It is a historical and cultural center e.g. presence of museums, and theatres.
      • It is a residential centre Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)
    2. Explain five factors responsible for the growth of early urban centres in Africa. (10 marks)
      • Discovery of crop farming led to the development of farming centers which attracted population and later became towns
      • Trading activities between different communities led to the development of trading centres which later became towns.
      • Trading centres that were used for religious activities developed into towns.
      • Areas that had adequate security attracted population concentration and thus led to the development of towns.
      • Places that were used for administrative functions developed into towns
      • Places along the coast where ships stopped for supplies developed into towns.
      • Mining centres developed into settlements which became towns for example
      • Places where water for use was available attracted settlements and grew into
      • Towns developed at cross roads
      • Development of centres of learning e.g. Alexandria Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)
  4.  
    1. Identify five reasons for the growth of nationalism in Mozambique. (5 marks)
      • The arbitrary replacement of the traditional rulers by the Portuguese         administrators whenever they felt they were not performing.
      • The massive alienation of African land by the Portuguese who pushed Africans to regions of unfavourable conditions.
      • The exposure of Africans to severe economic exploitation like forced labour where the labourers faced mistreatment.
      • The rampant racial discrimination by the Portuguese
      • The Portuguese imposed many restrictions on Africans, limiting their freedom of   expression and intellectual advancement/censorship of the press.
      • The security police treated Africans with great cruelty. Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (10 marks)
    2. Explain five reasons for the slow decolonization process in Mozambique.  (10 marks)
      • Portugal was reluctant to part with the economic wealth of Mozambique/source of revenue for the Lisbon government.
      • Portugal was ruled by kings who had no regard for human rights/authoritarian regime
      • Portugal regarded Mozambique as one of its provinces and not a colony.
      • Portugal had succeeded in suppressing revolts by Africans before nationalism took root in Mozambique.
      • There was lack of unity among Africans until 1960’s.
      • Illiteracy among Africans in Mozambique/few educated elites to spearhead liberation struggle.
      • Many Portuguese settlers had invested heavily in farming, mining, building, construction and in other sectors thus were reluctant to leave.
      • The support, which the colonial government got from South Africa, enabled them to get uranium, which they used, for making bombs used to suppress African independence riots Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)

 

Section C (30 marks)

  1.  
    1. Give three ways in which trade contributed to the rise of Asante Empire.   (3 marks)
      • It encouraged her to acquire revenue to sustain the army.
      • They got weapons to expand the kingdom
      • The wealth boosted the king’s fame.
      • The need for goods to export encouraged the kings to conquer more territories.
      • The king used the wealth from trade to reward loyal provincial rulers. Any 3 points @ 1 mark each (3 marks)
    2. Describe the political organization of the Buganda kingdom during  the 19th century.  (12 marks)
      • The Buganda’s political system was based on a centralized monarchy headed by   Kabaka based in Mengo.
      • The office of the Kabaka was hereditary.
      • The Kabaka was the commander – in – chief of the armed forces/military leader.
      • The Kabaka was assisted in running the government by a council of ministers comprising of Katikiro (Prime Minister), Omuwanika (Treasurer) and Omulamuzi  (Chief Justice).
      • The Bataka were minor chiefs in charge of clans whose duties included guarding the clans land, collected tributes, and maintained law and order.
      • The kingdom had a parliament called Lukiiko made of Kabakas’ nominees and whose functions included advising the Kabaka and making laws for the kingdom
      • The kingdom was divided into counties called Sazas each headed by a Saza chief.
      • The counties were divided into sub counties called Gombolola each headed by a Gombolola chief who collected collected taxes and maintained law and order.
      • The Gombololas were divided into smaller divisions called Miluka each headed by a Muluka chief.
      • Kabaka had powers to appoint and dismiss senior officials.
      • There existed a standing army charged with the responsibility of defending the kingdom and conquering new territories.
      • The vassal states were governed by Batongoles who were appointed by the Any 6 points @ 2 marks each (12 marks)
  2.  
    1. State three functions of Emirs during the British administration in Nigeria.  (3 marks)
      • They represented the colonial government at the local level in administration
      • They recruited labour for public works
      • They collected taxes for the colonial government
      • They communicated the colonial government policies to the people
      • They tried/heard cases in the local courts Any 3 points @ 1 mark each (3 marks)
    2. Explain six reasons why indirect rule policy failed in Southern Nigeria.  (12 marks)
      • Southern Nigeria did not have centralized indigenous system of administration
      • Lack of homogeneity in the South because there were many tribes hence many      
      • The British introduced new ideas e.g. forced taxation and direct taxes.
      • The failure of British administrators to understand how socio- economic and political system of southern Nigeria which was based on the office of the Oba   made them gives up easily.
      • Opposition from educated elites who felt left out of the administrators of their     
      • The educated people in S. Nigeria resented the chief’s appointment by the British because they were illiterate.
      • The Obas of Southern Nigeria had defined powers such as mediation thus when they were given wide ranging powers, the people became discontented.
      • Communication barrier between the British supervisors, the warrant chiefs and the people often led to misinterpretation and misunderstanding.
      • Misuse of power by the warrant chiefs who raised taxes for their own benefit.
      • The use of excessive force to suppress any form of resistance provoked resentment g. shooting of women during a demonstration against the British administration. Any 6 points @ 2 marks each (12 marks)
  3.  
    1. State three effect of Cold War.   (3 marks)
      • It undermined world peace and security as each super power struggled to control the world.
      • It led to developments in military science and technology/space race
      • It led to real wars in some parts of the world e.g. in Korea, Vietnam and Angola.
      • It led to formation of military and economic alliances like NATO and Warsaw Pact
      •   It led to the spread of capitalist and communist ideologies to different parts of the
      • It polarized the World into two blocs.
      • There were coups and counter coups in third world countries leading to the rise of dictators
      • Out of fear of being dominated by the other, these powers established military bases in different parts of the world.
      • It resulted into an arms race between the two powers as each wanted to outdo the other in military technology.
      • It led to economic stagnation due to military spending especially in            manufacturing weapons, and spying activities.
      • Formation of Non Aligned Movement by developing countries who preferred taking an independent course in foreign policies Any 3 points @ 1 mark each (3 marks)
    2. Explain six challenges faced by the Commonwealth of Nations. (12 marks)
      • Dominance by developed countries especially Britain in decision making.
      • Political instability in some member countries in Africa and Asia like in Pakistan.
      • Shortage of funds due to low level of economic growth in some member countries.
      • Withdrawal of some member countries as it is a voluntary organization e.g. South Africa in 1961, Pakistan in 1972 and The Gambia withdrew from the organization  in 2013.
      • There is lack of commitment among member states as a result of membership to  other organizations thus divided loyalty.
      • Lack of an executive authority/army to enforce its decisions.
      • Border disputes among the member states e.g. India and Pakistan over Kashmir.
      • The feeling of nationalism among some member states where national interests tend to come first at the expense of external unity.
      • Racialism championed by member countries e.g. the use of Visa’s to gain entry to some member countries.
      • Personality differences between leaders of member countries in handling   disputes/issues.
      • Ideological differences among member states e.g. those inclined to capitalism and communism Any 6 points @ 2 marks each (12 marks)

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