Geography Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Mang'u Mock 2020 Exam

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GEOGRAPHY
PAPER 1
TIME: 2¾ HOURS.

Instructions to candidates

  • This paper has two sections: A and B . Answer ALL questions in section A.
  • In section B, answer question 6 (Six) and any other two questions.

 

  1. Use the map of Arica below to answer question 1. (a)
    geomangp2q1
    1. Name the countries markea D, E and F (3mks)
    2. State two problems facing communication in Africa (2mks)
  2.     
    1. Give three characteristics of the cottage industry in India (3mks)
    2. State three reasons why some industries are located near the source of raw materials(3mks)
  3.      
    1. Name three crops grown in Kenya that are processed to produce vegetable oil(3mks)
    2. Give two exotic breeds of cattle reared in commercial ranches in Kenya (2mks)
  4.      
    1. Identify two renewable sources of energy which are exploited in Kenya industry (2mks)
    2. State three effects of liberation of the oil in Kenya.(3mks)
  5.     
    1. Outline two uses of diamonds (2mks)
    2. Identify the minerals found in the following areas in East Africa (2mks)
      1. Kariandusi
      2. Kerio Valley

SECTION B
Answer question 6 (Compulsory) and any other two from this section

  1. Study the photograph below and use it to answer question (a)
    geomangp2q6
    1.    
      1. Identify the photograph shown (1mk)
      2. Name two types of cattle breeds shown in the photograph (2mks)
      3. Citing evidence from the photograph, suggest the time of the day when the photograph was taken (2mks)
    2.      
      1. State four problems experienced by farmers shown in the photograph above (4mks)
      2. Give three reasons why nomadic pastoralists keep large herd of animals (3mks)
    3.        
      1. Draw a rectangle measuring 10cm by 8cm to represent the photograph (1mk)
      2. On the drawn rectangle, sketch and label four main features shown on the photograph (4mks)
      3. Explain four measure taken by the government of Kenya to improve nomadic pastoralism (8mks)
  2.            
    1.     
      1. What is forestry? (2mks)
      2. Name two exotic species of trees planted in Kenya (2mks)
    2. Use the map of Kenya below to answer question (b) (i) and (ii
      geomangp2q7b
      1. Name the areas Marked J, K and L   (3 mks)
      2. State and explain 3 characteristics of the forest area on the map marked (1)(6mks)   
    3.       
      1. What is agro-forestry? (2mks)
      2. Give four reasons why afforestation is being encouraged in Kenya (5mks)
    4.      
      1. Compare forestry in Canada and Kenya under the following subheadings
        1. Tree harvesting (2mks) 
        2. Marketing of forest products (2mks)
      2. State one problem that affects forestry in Canada. (1mk)
  3.         
    1.         
      1. Differentiate between fisheries and fish farming (2mks)
      2. Identify two major fishing grounds in the Atlantic Ocean (2mks)
      3. State two advantages of upwelling of the ocean water in relation to fishing (2mks)
    2.      
      1. Give three methods used to preserve fish (3mks)
      2. Explain three ways in which the Kenya government is promoting fishing industry in the country(6mks)
    3. Study the photograph provided and answer the questions below.
      geomangp2q7c
      1. Identify the main activity taking place in the area shown on the  photograph (1mk)
      2. Suggest two places in Kenya where this photograph might have been taken (2mks)
      3. Name the country where fishing is compared to Kenya (1mk)
    4. You recently carried out a field study on fish farming at Sagana fisheries
      1. Name the main type of fish reared in the area (1mk)
      2. State three physical conditions that favoured fish farming in the area (3mks)
      3. Give two problems facing fish farming in the area (2mks)
  4.         
    1. Use the sketch map below to answer the questions that follow.
      geomangp2q9a
      1. Name two settlement patterns to the South of the area represented by the sketch map (2mks)
      2. Explain how government policy may influence the distribution of human settlement (2mks)
    2. The map below shows the location of some urban centres in East Africa
      geomangp2q9b
      1. Name the towns marked P, Q and R (3mks)
      2. Name the minerals that influenced the growth of the towns marked X and Y (2mks)
    3.     
      1. Explain how the following factors have led to the growth of Thika town.
        1. Hinterland (2mks)
        2. Transport (2mks)
      2. Identify three differences in the functions of Nairobi and New York (6mks)
      3. Explain three positive effects of urbanization to a country (6mks)
  5.       
    1.      
      1. Apart from draining swamps, give two other methods through which land has been reclaimed in Kenya.(2mks)
    2.      
      1. Name two rivers that supply water to Mwea Tabere Irrigation Scheme (2mks)
      2. Name three areas which make up Zuider Zee reclamation project in the Netherlands (3mks)
      3. Give three differences between land reclamation in Kenya and the Netherlands (6mks)
    3.      
      1. State two ways in which each of the following problems experienced the Mwea Irrigation Scheme can be solved. (2mks).
        1. Low prices of rice (2mks)
        2. fluctuating water levels in the irrigation canals (2mks)
      2. Explain two achievements of Perkerra Irrigation Scheme (4mks)
    4. You intend to carry out a field study in Mwea Tabere Irrigation Scheme.
      1. Identify the two types of hypothesis you would develop for the study (2mks)
      2. Name two other crops grown in the scheme that you are likely to identify

MARKING SCHEME

Section A

  1.    
    1. Countries
      • D-Morocco
      • E-Cote D'ivoire / Ivory Coast 
      • F- Angola
    2. Two problems facing communication in Africa
      • Inadequate capita
      • Poor technology and shortage of skilled labour
      • Unfavorable laws Language barriers
      • Security
  2.     
    1. Three characteristics of the cottage industry in India
      • Industry relies on simple equipment/ machines
      • Labour intensive
      • It is owned by a family/families
      • Uses locally available raw materials
      • Produces goods mainly for local markets
      • It is widespread in the country
    2. 3 reasons why some industries are located near the source of raw materials
      • The raw materials may be too bulky thus expensive to transport
      • Some raw materials are perishable so they have to be processed before transportation
      • Processing reduces transport cost
  3.     
    1. Name 3 crops grown in Kenya that are processed to produce vegetable oil Maize/ corn
      • Cashew nuts Sunflower
      • Coconut Ground nuts/ peanuts
      • Cotton Simsim
      • Soya beans
    2. Give two exotic breeds of cattle reared in commercial ranches in Kenya
      • Aberden Angus
      • Charolois 
      • Short hom
      • Santa Gertrudis
      • Hereford
      • Red Angus
      • Galloway
  4.     
    1. Identify 2 renewable sources of energy which are exploited in Kenya
      • Water/ tides/ Biomass
      • Wind Water/ Charcoal
      • Drought/ Sun/ Animals
      • Steam/Geothermal/ Hot Springs

    2. State 3 effects of liberation of the oil in Kenya
      • It has created variation in prices of petroleum products
      • It has led to mushrooming of many petroleum dealers
      • It has encouraged importation of refined petroleum products
      • It has caused frequent price adjustments by oil dealers.
      • It has created widespread availability of petroleum products.
  5.    
    1. Uses of diamonds
      • Cutting metals
      • As abrasive for drilling purposes
      • For polishing purposes from dust diamond
      • Used as jewels
    2.  
      1. Kariandusi - Diatomite
      2. Kerio valley - Fluorspar

Section B

  1.    
    1.      
      1. Ground general view photograph
      2. Zebu - Boran
      3. Round noon (mid-day) due to very short shadows of the cattle.
    2.     
      1.       
        • Shortage/ inadequate
        • pasture and water Cattle rustling cattle raids from neighbours
        • Shortage of market for their cattle
        • Outbreak of diseases Shortages of veterinary services
        • Uncontrolled breeding leads to poor-quality animals
        • Overgrazing leads to soil crosion 
      2.     
        • Animals are kept as a sign of wealth prestige/social status
        • Animals are kept to pay dowry.
        • Animals are kept as a source of food milk/meat/ blood
        • Large number act as insurance against diseases drought
        • Animals are a source of income
    3.     
      1. Rectangle measuring 10cm by 8cm represent the photograph
      2.    geop26ci
      3.      
        • Encouraging cross breeding to improve on the quality of the animals
        • It has revived the Kenya meat commission to buy animals from formers
        • By educating farmers on better and modern livestock management
        • By sinking boreholes digging wells constructing dams to provide water for animals
        • By improving/re-carpeting roads to make services more accessible to farmers
        • By encouraging the practice of ranching for better management to livestock
  2.     
    1.    
        • Forestry is the science of planting/ managing forests and associated resources.
      1.     
        • Pine
        • Wattle Cypress
        • Cedar
        • Blue gum/ Eucalyptus
        • Crevilen Kei-apple
        • Bomb 
    2.    
      1.     
        • J-Mt. Kenya
        • K-Araboko Sokoke
        • L-Mount Elgon 
      2.      
        • High rainfall over 1000mm per year which encourages growth of trees
        • Deep well drained soils allowing root to penetrate deep into the ground
        • Moderate to high temperatures allows growth of variety of trees.
        • Gazettement area hence human settlement and cultivation is prolibited allowing natural forests to grow
        • Steep rugged topography discourages human settlement allowing forest growth.
    3.      
      1.     
        • Agro-forestry is the growing of trees and food crops on the same piece of land.
      2.     
        • To protect water catchment areas
        • To protect soil from crosion by water/ wind
        • To ensure supply of forest products
        • To put more land under forest cover
        • To regulate climate
        • To check ion extinction of indigenous trees
    4.    
      1.    
        1. Tree harvesting
          • In Kenya harvesting is done throughout the year while in Canada its done in winter and spring .
          • In Kenya harvesting is done selectively while in Canada clear cutting is done
        2. Marketing of forest products
          • In Kenya forests products are sold mainly locally while in
          • Canada the products are mainly exported.
        • Accidental fires occur occasionally
        • Some areas re too ragged hindering exploitation .
        • Some area have undergone over exploitation .
        • Long/ cold climate makes trees take too long to mature
  3.    
    1.    
      1. Differentiate between fisheries and fish farming
        • Fisheries are water bodies where aquatic organisms/ fish are found/ reared for exploitation while fish farming is the rearing of fish in ponds.
      2. Major fishing grounds in the Atlantic ocean
        • NW Atlantic fishing ground
        • NE Atlantic fishing ground
      3. Two advantages of upwelling
        • Improves the circulation of oxygen or fish
        • Results to dispersal of nutrients for the fish
    2.     
      1. 3 methods used to preserve fish
        • Canning
        • Freezing
        • Smoking
        • Salting
        • Sun-drying
      2. 3 ways in which Kenya government is promoting fishing industry in the country
        • Fishermen are given loans
        • By encouraging fish farming/hatcheries to supply fish farmers with fingerlings
        • Fishermen are encouraged to farm cooperatives
        • Seasonal restrictions in fishing in some areas
        • Research is carried out overfished areas are restocked with fingerlings.
        • Laws have been enacted against water fisheries 
        • There is standardization of size off nets used in fishing
    3.          
      1. The main activity taking place in the photograph is
        • fishing
      2. Two places in Kenya where this photograph might have been taken
        • Lake victoria
        • Lake Baringo
        • Lake Naivasha
        • Lake Turkana
      3. The country where fishing is compared to Kenya is
        • Japan
    4.     
      1.      
        • Tilapia
        • Three conditions that favoured fish farming in the area
        • Soil type-clay for water retention
        • Water - constant supply of water to refill the ponds (river Ragati)
        • Climate-warm climate that favours the rearing of tilapia fish (common one)
        • Topography - gentle sloping-topography to allow water in and out of the ponds.
      2. Two problems facing fish arming in the area
        • Predators - birds eg. king fisher
        • Floods - ends up sweeping away some fish especially the fingerlings
        • Diseases-e.g. nematodes
        • Insufficient capital for construction of facilities such as cages and ponds
        • Theft from the local people who steal fish at night
  4.         
    1.      
      1.      
        • Nucleated settlement
        • Sparse settlement
      2. Government policy and distribution of human settlement
        • The government may gazette certain areas as reserves thus controlling settlements.
        • The government may also set up settlement schemes to resettle the landless.
    2.     
      1.     
        • Town P-Kampala
        • Q-Kigoma
        • R- Mandera
      2. Minerals in
        • X - Diamond
        • Y-Trona/ Soda ash
    3.      
      1. How the following influence growth of Thika town
        • Hinterland - Thika town is located in an raw with a rich agricultural hinterland which provide raw materials for industries/ food for the population The hinterland is densely populated hence provide cheap labour market
        • Transport: Thika is served by railways line and roads which provide casy movement of people/food/ raw materials finished products.
      2. Two differences in the function of Nairobi and Yew York
        • Nairobi is an inland/ dry port while New York is a seaport.
        • Nairobi is a national capital While New York is a state capital
        • Nairobi is a regional commercial centre whilo New York is an international Commercial centre
      3. Three positive effects of urbanization to a country
        • It encourages national unity as people of different nationalities
        • ethnic backgrounds interact.
        • It promotes links with many areas as transport and communication networks tead to radiate from urban centres
        • It provides employment opportunities through the establishment of commercial and industrial activities.
        • They attract large population that provides labour.
        • It leads to development of social amenities both within the urban centres and the surrounding rural areas hence raise peoples standard of living
        • It provides market for agricultural industrial goods/products in a country hence reduce wastage/ promote welfare of the people
  5.    
    1.    
        • Through irrigation
        • Through pest control
        • By introducing drought resistant crops
        • Using fertilizer/ manure
        • By afforestation
    2.     
      1. Rivers that supply water to Mwea Tabere irrigation scheme
        • Thiba rive
        • Nyumindi river
        • Murabara river
      2.      
        • Markerwaad
        • South Flevoland
        • North Eastern Polde
        • Wieringer Mee Port
      3. Differences between land reclamation in Kenya and the Netherlands
        • In Kenya the area that is reclaimed is relatively small while the area reclaimed in Netherlands are large.
        • In Kenya land is mainly reclaimed from swamps and marginal areas while in Netherlands reclamation is from the sea
        • In Kenya irrigation is used as a means of reclaiming dry area while in Netherlands irrigation is used to lower the salinity of the soil in the reclaimed lands
        • In Kenya the methods of land reclamation are simpld digging canals/ ditches to drain water from the land while in the Netherlands the method used are highly advanced like reclaiming land from the sca/creation of polders lo Kenya dykes are used to control river floods while in Netherlands dykes protect the reclaimed land from invasion by the sea
    3.       
      1.      
        1.    
          • Diversifying the crops produced in the scheme
          • Improving the quality of rice produced, through research
          • The government should restrict the importation of rice to reduce competition .
          • The farmers should improve marketing strategies to enable
          • farmers to source for market outside Kenya
        2.     
          • Continuous dredging of canals deepening of canals
          • Construction of dams to store water for use during dry season
          • Goverment to enforce laws on proper land use in the catchment areas of the rivers that supply water to the scheme
      2.     
        • The scheme has managed to turn a semi-arid area with less than 630mm annual rainfall into productive land
        • The scheme supplies agricultural produce to the Kenyan market
        • The scheme has created employment opportunities for the local population, hence improving their living standards
        • The scheme is a source of livelihood for the local farmers and their dependent
    4.      
      1.      
        • Null hypothesis
        • Alternative hypothesi
        • Maize
        • Beans
        • Tomatoes
        • Vegetables

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