Geography Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Sukellemo Joint Mock Examinations July 2020

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INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES 

  • This paper has two sections: A and B.
  • Answer all the questions in section A.
  • Answer question and any other two questions from Section B.
  • Each question in section B must be answered in separate foolscaps.
  • This paper consists of 6 printed pages.
  • Candidates should check the question paper to ascertain that all pages are printed as indicated and that no questions are missing.


QUESTIONS

SECTION A

  1.                                  
    1. Name two oil producing countries in Africa. (2mks)
    2. Give three uses of diamond. (3mks)
  2.                              
    1. What is agro-forestry? (2mks)
    2. State three reasons why it is necessary to carry out Agro forestry. (3mks)
  3.                                  
    1. Differentiate between a National Park and a game reserve. (2mks)
    2. Give three reasons why domestic tourism is being encouraged in Kenya. (3mks)
  4.                              
    1. State three factors which have led to the growth of Thika town. (2mks)
    2. Give two functions of New York City. (2mks)
  5.                                  
    1. Differentiate between environmental management and environmental conservation (2mks)
    2. State three problems caused by windstorms in Kenya. (3mks)

SECTION B

  1.                                        
    1.                                            
      1. Identify the type of photograph shown above. Give reasons for your answer. (2mks)
      2. Identify the activity shown on the photograph. (1 mk)
      3. Draw a rectangle 10cm by 12cm and sketch the features shown on the photograph (4mks)
    2. State four physical factors that favour the growth of the crop sown on the photograph. (4mks)
    3. Describe how the crop shown in the photograph form planting to harvesting. 
    4. Explain three problems facing farmers of the crop shown in the photograph.
  2.                        
    1. State three social benefits of fishing. (3mks)
    2. Describe how the following influence fishing:
      1. Cool climate (2mks)
      2. Nature of the coastline (2mks)
    3.                          
      1. Identify two types of Anadrorours fish. (2mks)
      2. Describe how purse seine method of fishing is used to catch pelagic fish. (5 mks)
    4.                                    
      1. Explain four physical problems facing marine fishing in Kenya. (5 mks)
    5. State three ways the Kenya government is using to manage and conserve its fisheries. (3mks)
  3.                            
    1.                                
      1. Differentiate between Industry and Industrialization. (2mks)
      2. Give two types of Secondary industries. (2mks)
    2.                    
      1. On the outline map of Kenya, mark and name three towns where the motor assembly industries are located. (3mks)
      2. Name two textile industries that were closed down in Kenya. (2mks)
    3.                    
      1. Explain four factors influencing the location of the Ruhr industrial region in Germany in the 19th century. (8mks)
      2. State five benefits of decentralizing industries in Kenya. (5mks)
      3. State three characteristics of the cottage industry in India. (3mks)
  4.                                        
    1.                    
      1. Distinguish between transport and communication. (2mks)
      2. State two differences between transport and communication. (2mks)
      3. Apart from written communication, give three other types of communications. (3mks)
      4. State three disadvantages of written communication as a mode of communication/reasons why written communication has become less popular in communication. (3mks)
    2.                    
      1. Explain three reasons why air transport is less developed in East Africa. (6 mks)
      2. State the challenges that faced the construction of the Standard Gauge Railway (S.G.R.). (3mks)
      3. Explain the role of the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence Seaway in the economy of Canada. (6mks) 
  5.                                      
    1.                                  
      1. identity three sources of renewable energy. (3mks)
      2. Explain four ways in which Kenya has benefited from the development of the seven forks hydroelectric power scheme (Smks) 
      3. List four problems that affect the production of power from the stations along river Tana (4mks)
    2. State five ways in which Kenya can reduce the use of Petroleum as a source of energy. (5 mks)
    3. Some students carried out a field study on sources of energy by sampling the households around their school
      1.  Identify two sampling techniques the students may have used during the study. (2marks)
      2. Give three advantages of sampling the households for the study (3 marks)


MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A

  1.                              
    1. Name two oil producing countries in Africa. (2mks)
      • Libya
      • Tunisia
      • Angola 
      • Gabon
      • Sudan 
      • Egypt
      • Algeria
      • DRC Congo
      • Nigeria - S. Sudan
    2. Give three uses of diamond. (3mks)
      • Industrial diamonds are used in making drilling heads or instruments for cutting hard rocks and metals. For making cutting and polishing equipment and abrasive tools. Gemstone diamonds are used for making jewelry or ornaments.
  2.                                    
    1. What is agro-forestry? (2mks)
      • A land use system that involves planting of trees, crops and keeping livestock on the same unit of land
    2. State three reasons why it is necessary to carry out Agro forestry. (3mks)
      • Trees act as wind breakers and shade for young plants. some trees provide fodder for animals. to maximize land use to conserve the land and protect it from erosion. leaf litter decomposes and adds humus to the soil
      • some trees have medicinal value
  3.                              
    1. Differentiate between a National Park and a game reserve. (2mks)
      • A game reserve is an areas set aside for the preservation of wild game, land use is limited to grazing livestock only while a National park is an area which has been set a side for the preservation of scenery, wildlife and historical sites to protect them from destruction.
    2. Give three reasons why domestic tourism is being encouraged in Kenya. (3mks)
      • To make use of tourist facilities during the low tourist season To encourage interaction or cultural exchange among different communities thus enhance national unity and patriotism.
      • To create awareness and appreciation of Kenya's national heritage.
      • To encourage money circulation within the country and promote domestic trade For Kenyans to appreciate or get exposed to different parts of their country
      • To create employment
      • To expose people to locally produced artifacts.
  4.                              
    1.  State three factors which have led to the growth of Thika town. (2mks)
      • Proximity to Nairobi has led to industrial expansion and inter-dependency as industries in Thika get raw materials and market for its product in Nairobi town. 
      • Many people who work in Nairobi have settled in Thika which has helped expand commercial activities in the town.
      • A large Agricultural hinterland has provided raw material for industries at Thika and food for the high population.
      • The Thika hinterland and Nairobi had people with high purchasing power provide ready market for manufactured products from Thika industries.
      • The Thika super Highway provides cheap and easy movement of people, goods and raw materials for industries in Thika.
      • Availability of cheap extensive and flat land for development and expansion of industries and settlements attracted investors and many people to the area away from con gested Nairobi.
      • Availability of fresh water from River Chania for industrial processing and domestic use.
      • Government policy of decentralization of industries has encouraged setting up of industries in Thika town.
      • Availability of power for industrial and domestic use from the seven forks power porjects.
    2. Give two functions of New York City. (2mks)
      • Industrial center
      • International center or Headquarters of UN, World Bank and IMF
      • Educational center 
      • Transport and communication center
      • Trade or commercial center
      • Administrative center 
      • Religious center 
      • Fashion center 
      • Residential center
  5.                                  
    1. Differentiate between environmental management and environmental conservation. (2mks)
      • Environmental management is the effective measures, planning and controls used for sustainable exploitation of resources within the environment while environmental conservation is the preservation and protection of natural resources or environment from destruction, wastage or loss by careful use and improvement of the resources.
    2. State three problems caused by windstorms in Kenya. (3mks)
      • Destroys trees and crops Blows off house roofs
      • Causes soil erosion
      • Disrupts transport and communication lines 
      • Wind spreads air borne diseases
      • Wind causes fast spread of bush fires
      • Wind causes dust storms that lead to visibility problems
      • Causes strong storms that lead to boats capsizing causing loss of life and property

SECTION B

  1.    
    1.                                  
      1. Identify the type of photograph shown above. Give reasons for your answer. (2mks)
        • Ground close up 
          Reasons
        • the focus on the center / covers a small area
        • Nearly all features are clear - No focus on the sky / horizon
      2. Identify the activity shown on the photograph. (1 mk)
        • Harvesting of coffee / coffee harvesting
      3. Draw a rectangle 10cm by 12cm and sketch the features shown on the photograph (4mks)
    2. State four physical factors that favour the growth of the crop sown on the photograph.
      • Moderate temperature/with temperature of 140C-260C /warm to hot conditions
      • High rainfall
      • Rainfall distributed throughout the year
      • A dry sunny period for harvesting and drying
      • Deep well drained red soils / rich in potassium
      • High altitude 1500 - 2100m
      • Gently sloping landscape for proper drainage of soil
    3. Describe how the crop shown in the photograph form planting to harvesting.
      • Clearing of land to remove perennial vegetation
      • Ploughing and harrowing seed propagated in a nursery under a shade
      • Seedlings regularly watered in the nursery
      • holes are dug in the field 3m apart
      • top soils and manure is mixed in the holes
      • seedlings are transplanted between 6 months to 1 year
      • seedlings are planted 3m apart and mulching is done
      • pruning is also done to ensure high quality production
      • regular weeding and spraying is done to remove & control weeds
      • fertilizer is added / applied to maintain soil quality
      • harvesting of the ripe berries begin 3-4 years after transporting
      • red ripe berries are manually picked selectively between 7-14 days
      • harvested berries are delivered to the collection center.
    4. Explain three problems facing farmers of the crop shown in the photograph.
      • Attack by diseases e.g Coffee Berry Disease (CBD) leaf rust destroy the crop reducing production
      • Attack by pest e.g mealyboe, giant looper leaf destroy the crop hence lower yields
      • high cost of farm inputs lead to decline in production and low profits margins for the farmers
      • Late payment for the coffee discourage farmers because they are unable to plan ahead
      • poor transport / roads in the coffee growing areas causes delay in delivery lowering the quality
      • Adverse weather conditions e.g drought, frost destroy the crop lowering the yields
      • stiff competition from coffee producing countries hence interfere with world market prices discouraging the farmers
      • most coffee farmers have insufficient capital for farm operations hence decline in productions
      • mismanagement of coffee factories embezzlement of funds demoralizes the farmers leading to low yields
      • shortage of labour during picking interfere with quality of the yields and lead to destruction of the crop.
  2.                                
    1. State three social benefits of fishing. (3mks)
      • fishing is a source of food rich in proteins and also helps in food self-sufficiency.
      • Fish food on mosquito lavae hence prevents mosquito breeding and transmission of malaria and yellow fever
      • Fish oil can be used directly or indirection as medicine eg cod liver oil wgich cures chest probiems
      • Fish provide essential minerals especially iorn, calcium, iodine, cod-liver oil rich in vitamin A & D
    2. Describe how the following influence fishing.
      1. Cool climate (2mks)
        • Cool winters provide natural ice for fish preservation
        • cool climate also allows the growth of planktons
        • when cold and warm ocean current meet, it improves circulation of oxygen / upwelling of water leads to dispersal of nutrients for fish Any 2 x 1 = 2mks
      2. Nature of the coastline (2mks)
        • Extensive shallow continental shelf allows penetration of sunlight necessary for survival of plankton
        • Shelter inlets are suitable for fish breeding
        • Estuary coastline are good fishing ground because rivers bring minerals which are nutrients for fish
        • Indented coasts provide ideal sites for development of ports Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)
    3.                              
      1. Identify two types of Anadrorours fish.(2mks)
        • salmon
        • mpilchard
      2. Describe how purse seine method of fishing is used to catch pelagic fish. (5 mks)
        • The net is laid in a circle
        • At the bottom of the net are rings through which passes a rope
        • One end of the rope is attached to a boat the other part is pulled by another boat around a shoal of fish
        • When the circle is completed the rope is pulled to close the net forming a bowl-like shape hence trapping fish which is removed
        • The net is then hauled to the shore and fish is removed the other net cast back into the sea
    4.                                  
      1. Explain four physical problems facing marine fishing in Kenya. (5 mks)
        • Regular coastline hence lack of suitable breeding environment for fish Narrow continental shelf hence low plankton population Strong sea tides are a great menace whereby small boats cant venture
        • Warm Mozambique current within the ocean is not favourable for plankton which is food for fish
    5. State three ways the Kenya government is using to manage and conserve its fisheries. (3mks)
      • Restocking of overfished waters
      • Authorities should forbid indiscriminate fishing Encouraging the artificial fertilization of eggs Protection of fish from pollution Upholding international agreements on fisheries Research in world fisheries should be carried out to know fish species habits, food requirements, life expectations and migratory behaviour
  3.                  
    1.                                    
      1. Differentiate between Industry and Industrialization. (2mks)
        • Industry is an economic activity through which people produce goods and services for their own consumption or sale while /whereas industrialization is the process through which a country establishes manufacturing industries.
      2. Give two types of Secondary industries. (2mks)
        • Heavy industries 
        • Light industries
    2.                          
      1. On the outline map of Kenya, mark and name three towns where the motor assembly industries are located. (3m) 
      2. Name two textile industries that were closed down in Kenya. (2m) 
        • Kisumu Cotton Mills
    3.                                  
      1. Explain four factors influencing the location of the Ruhr industrial region in Germany in the 19 century. (8m)
        • Availability of raw materials; large iron ore and limestone deposits just adjacent to the coalfields was an advantage in influencing location of iron and steel industry as limestone is a necessary component of the smelting process.
        • Well developed transport network; the region is served by navigable rivers, canals which provides cheaper means of transport; rail and road network is also well developed. It enables easy transportation of heavy raw materials and export finished products to the rest of the world
        • Availability of coal (power); large coal deposits suitable for smelting of iron and making of steel favoured the development of the industry. The coal deposits were exposed so easily mined through open cast reducing costs
        • Availability of skilled labour; the long standing history of smelting iron ore traditionally was a base of necessary skill that became widespread. The Germany education system also imparted technical skills necessary for industrialization
        • Availability of capital; Germany is a wealthy nation with a rich population. Big companies were able to invest in the iron and steel industry which was a major boost
        • Availability of large market; Germanys large population with a high purchasing power and the export market in Europe, Africa and Asia provided ready market for iron and steel products
        • Existence of entrepreneur culture; the region had many entrepreneurs eg the Krupp family that ventured into the manufacture of cast iron, canons, axles and steel rails. Such families provided capital for the development of the iron and steel industries.
        • Availability of water, Rivers Rhine, Rhur and Lippe provided the much needed water in the factories for cooking, cleaning and producing steam in the boilers
        • Central location; the Rhur region is centrally located in Europe. It is easily accessible by water, road, rail and air to the rich countries of Europe hence ease of importation and exportation.
      2. State five benefits of decentralizing industries in Kenya. (5m)
        • It creates employment opportunities in rural areas thus reducing migration into urban areas/ raising living standards 
        • I leads to utilization of locally available raw materials that would otherwise be left idle 
        • I leads to improvement of transport/communication network thus opening up rural areas for development I leads to improvement of social amenities thereby raising living standards of those living in rural communities. It enables the rural population sell products/ raw materials to industries thus eam income
        • I leads to diversification of the economy thus reducing the overreliance of the rural community on agriculture
      3. State three characteristics of the cottage industry in India. (3mks)
        • The industry is owned by individuals, families or groups.
        • Locally available raw materials are used/ recycled raw material
        • Labour is provided by individuals or members of the family 
        • Little capital investment is required
        • Simple tools are used
        • The industry is labour intensive
        • The products are mainly sold to the local market
        • The industries are found almost throughout the country/ they are ubiquitous
        • The craftsmen and women are very skilled/ passed on from generation to generation
        • The industry operates in small workshops
  4.                                  
    1.                                  
      1. Distinguish between transport and communication. (2 marks)
        • Transport is the physical movement and carriage of goods and people from one place to another while communication is the process of transmission /transfer/relaying of information form one person to another.
      2. State two differences between transport and communication. (2 marks)
        TRANSPORT  COMMUNICATION 
        Deals with movement of physical items and people Deals with movement of information
        Involves physical carriage of goods by e.g. vehicles, aeroplanes etc Physical carriage of information is used while messages can be sent through telephones, satellites, computers etc.
        Time is essential as the distance to be covered may be long Transmission of information is immediate due to technology
      3. Apart from written communication, give three other types of communications. 
        • Verbal
        • Audio-visual
        • Telecommunication services
      4. State three disadvantages of written communication as a mode of communication/reasons why written communication has become less popular in communication. (3 mks)
        • delay of the messages to the destination.
        • letter/written messages may get lost limited to the literate people.
        • Depends on other modes of movement.
        • sometimes the message may be misinterpreted
    2.                            
      1. Explain three reasons why air transport is less developed in East Africa.
        • Expensive/freight/fares are high.
        • limited airports/high cost of establishing airports.
        • less flexibility only serves areas with an airport/airstrip
        • requires intermodal transfer
        • limited supply of highly trained personnel.
        • level of is low so construction of airports not viable in most areas.
      2. State the challenges that faced the construction of the Standard Gauge Railway(S.G.R.). (3 marks)
        • Physical barriers e.g. steep sloped escarpments.
        • Landscapes e.g. National parks/Reserves slowed down construction.
        • the displacement of people and high cost of compensation.
        • political standoffs owing to different priorities high cost of construction and repayment of loans.
        • control by Chinese government.
    3. Explain the role of the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence Seaway in the economy of Canada. (6 marks)
      • increased volume of trade by opening what grown in Canadian Prairies.
      • provides cheap transportation of bulky goods and people.
      • provides cheap means of transportation of both bulky goods and people.
      • Increased production of HEP through preservation of Niagara Falls and construction of various dams.
      • The HEP is used for domestic and industrial use.
      • the seaway has led to increased industrial development due to availability of cheap means of transport.
      • creation of employment opportunities in various sectors e.g. agriculture, industrial transportation, trade etc., improving living standards.
  5.                            
    1.                             
      1. Identify three sources of renewable energy. (3mks)
        • Wind
        • Sun
        • Water
        • Tides/waves
        • Geothermal steam
        • Biomass
        • Wood/trees
        • Drought animals Any 3*1 (3)
      2. Explain four ways in which Kenya has benefited from the development of the seven forks hydroelectric power scheme. (5 mks)
        • It has led to control of floods in the lower parts of River Tana thus reducing the incidents of loss of life and farm produce
        • The reservoirs are used for generating electricity which is used for industrial and domestic purposes
        • The dams and reservoirs are tourist attractions which generate foreign exchange.
        • The scheme led to the development of industries thus creating employment opportunities
        • Some of the reservoirs in the scheme provide water for irrigation thus improving agricultural production.
        • The reservoirs in the scheme provide fishing grounds which supply fish to locals.
        • It has led to the improvement of roads making the area more accessible
        • It has led to reduction of importation of power thus saving the foreign exchange.
      3. List 4 problems that affect the production of power from stations along River Tana (4mks)
        • Seasonal fluctuation of water levels in the river Frequent silting of the reservoir making dredging to be expensive
        • High cost of maintains of machines
        • High cost of transmission of power from remote sites
        • Inadequate capital to expand the project any 4*1
    2. State 5 ways in which Kenya can reduce the use of petroleum as a source of energy. (5mks) 
      • Developing alternative sources of energy 
      • Encouraging people to use public transport
      • Importing vehicles that use less fuel
      • Improving traffic flow to reduce usage of petrol
      • Improving roads to avoid delays that increase consumption of petrol
      • Proper maintenance of vehicles to avoid high consumption of petrol any 5*1
    3. Some students carried out a field study on sources of energy by sampling the households around the school.
      1. Identify two sampling techniques the students may have used during the study
        • Stratified
        • Random 
        • Systematic any 2*1
      2. Give three advantages of sampling the households for the study A (3marks)
        • To save on time
        • To reduce Bias 
        • To allow for detailed study
        • To reduce costany 3*1

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