Agriculture Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Sukellemo Joint Mock Examinations July 2020

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Instructions to candidates

  1. Write your name, index number and the name of your school in the spaces provided above. 
  2. Sign and write the date of examination in the spaces provided above. 
  3. This paper consists of 3 sections A, B and C. Answer all questions in section A and B and any two from section C. All answers must be written in the answer booklet provided.
  4. All Answers must be written in English
  5. This paper consists of eight printed pages. 
  6. Candidates should check to ascertain that all pages are printed as indicated and that no questions are missing.


Section Question Maximum score  Candidates score 
A 1-15 30  
B 16-20 20  
C 21-23 40  
Total Score   90  



  1. Give 4 factors that characterize large scale farming (2mks)
  2. State 4 reasons for treating water on farm (2mks)
  3. Give 4 examples of working capital in the production of maize (2mks)
  4. Explain the meaning of the following terms   
    1. Nitrogen-fixation in the soil (1 mk)
    2. phosphorus-fixation in loss of soil fertility (1mk)
  5. Give the clement whose deficiency in plants is plants is characterized by the following 
    1. Interveinal chlorosis of the leaves .......... (1 mark) 
    2. Blossom end rot in tomatoes....... (1/2 mark)
    3. Scorched edges of a leaf..(1/2 mark)
  6. State two activities carried out during hardening cabbage plants in the nursery (2mks)
    1. .....................................
    2. .....................................
  7. Name three methods of controlling blossom endrot in tomatoes (11/2 mk)
    1. .....................................
    2. .....................................
    3. .....................................
  8. Outline four conditions that may lead to agricultural land fragmentation and subdivision (2mks)
  9. State four factors that influence solifluction (2 marks)
  10. Give four reasons for keeping health records (2 marks)
  11. Name four processes involved in chemical weathering (2mks)
  12. Outline four reasons why it is undesirable to carry out minimum tillage before planting (2mks)
  13. State four advantages of practicing crop rotation (2mks)
  14. State four factors that determine the stage at which a crop is harvested (2mks)
  15. Below is a list of weeds found in the fam. Use them to answer the questions below.
    Wild oat, Wondering Jew, pigweed, Mexican Marigold, Sodom Apple, Couch Grass and Thom Apple. 
    1. Name two narrow leaved weeds. (1 mark)
    2. Give two weeds that are poisonous. (1 mark)
    3. Identify two annual weeds from the above list (1 mark)

Answer all the questions in their section in the spaces provided.

  1. The diagrams below illustrate both field and storage pests
    q16 uyfaytfd
    1. Identify the pests in the illustration.
    2. State two ways by which pest labelled M2 causes loss in cereal crops. (2marks)
    3. State two methods which are used to control the pest labeled M2. (2marks)
  2. Study the diagram of cut off drain below and answer the questions that follow.
    q17 8itauygd
    1. Outline the procedure of constructing a cutoff 4mks
    2. State two ways through which the me hods above helps in soil and water conservation (2mrks)
  3. The diagrams below labeled H and J are illustrated of coffee plants establishing using two different pruning systems. Examine them closely and answer the questions that follow
    q18 uitau7ytda
    1. Name the pruning systems illustrated by diagrams H and J (1 mark)
    2. Give one advantages of pruning system illustrated by diagram H. Over that one illustrated by diagram J (1 mark)
  4. A farmer was advised to apply 40kg/ha.P2O5. Calculate the amount of DSP the farmer will require for 2 ha of land. Show your working(DSP has 20%P2O5) (3mks)
  5. The table shows output of maize at various quantities D.A.P. application per hectare.  
    0 2    
    1 1 5    
    1 2 14    
    1 3 21    
    1 4 26    
    Fill in the table above to show average product (AP) and marginal product (MP) (4mks)

Answer any TWO questions from this section in the spaces provided after question 23

    1. A farmer wishes to change her enterprise from vegetable production to dairy cattle rearing.
      The costs she incurs in growing of vegetables is as follows:
      • Weeding Sh. 200, Harvesting Sh. 300, Fertilizers Sh. 500 and Seeds Sh. 400. When she changes her enterprises to dairy cattle rearing, she incurs the following cost:
      • Cost of buying cattle Sh. 5000 ,Disease control, Sh. 200,Salary of milk person Sh. 2000 and Fencing Sh. 500. The revenue she got when growing vegetable is 10,000.
        In dairy production, the revenue she gets from milk sales is Shs. 15,000 and manure sales shs. 1,000. Draw up the partial budget and indicate if the change is worthwhile. (Show your working) (10marks)
    2. Explain five benefits of agro-forestry in agriculture (5mks)
    3. Outline any five problems facing agriculture in Kenya (5mks)
    1. Explain five roles played by a good manager (5mks)
    2. Explain five benefits of land consolidation (10mks)
    3. Outline five effects of late defoliation in forage crops (5mks)
    1. Explain five factors that may influence the spacing used during planting of crops (10mks)
    2. Outline five precautions taken when harvesting tea (5mks)
    3. Outline five characteristics of plants suitable for making green manure (5mks)


    • Heavy capital investment
    • Heavy skills of management 
    • Low operational cost
    • Large tracts of land used. 4X1/2 =2 mks
    • To kill pathogens
    • To remove chemical impurities 
    • To remove physical impurities/sediments To aerate the water /remove bad smell and taste
    • Maize seeds
    • fertilizers
    • Casual labour
    • Pesticides 4x 1/2=2 mks 
    1. Process by which free nitrogen gas is converted to soil nitrates. Which can easily be absorbed by plants. 1x1=1 mk
    2. Phosphorus fixation is the process by which available Phosphorus combine with either iron or Alminium in the soil ,to form insoluble compounds. Thereby becoming unavailable to crops 1x1=1 mk
    1. Interveinal chlorosis of the leaves manganese(1x1 mk)
      1. Blossom end rot in tomatoes calcium1x1/2= 1/2mk)
      2. Scorched edges of a leaf. pottassiun (1x1/2) = 1/2mark)
    • Reducing amount of shade gradually 
    • Reduce amount and frequency of watering gradually 2x1=2 mks
    • Regular watering
    • Avoid excessive application of Nitrogen
    • Application of calcium 3x1/2=11/2 mks
    • Shifting cultivation
    • Inheritance of land by children from parents
    • Buying of lands from different places
    • Accumulation of land by money lenders from farmer 4x 1/2=2 mks
    • Slope of land;
    • Nature of the material;
    • Climate; .
    • Vegetation cover,
    • Human activities;
    • Forces within the earth's crust;
    • To show the health conditions of the animals 
    • Forluskindlaksion and culling of animals
    • Help to trace the history of diseases for better treatment
    • Shows the costs of treating the diseases for assessing profitability of animals
    • Oxidation
    • Carbonation
    • Hydration
    • Hydrolysis
    • Encourages build up of soil bome pests and diseases
    • Makes root penetration into the soil difficult
    • Encourages development of hard pans
    • Encourages the build up of creeping type of weeds in the field
    • Reduce soil acration -Reduces water infiltration into the soil 4x 1/2=2 mks
    • Improves soil fertility if legumes are included
    • Improves soil structure if fallow phase is included
    • helps to control soil erosion 
    • helps to control pest and diseases by breaking their life cycle, and reduce build up of pathogens
    • helps to control soil erosion
    • helps to control weeds by altering crops that area associated with specific weeds
    • helps to maximize the utilization of crop nutrients, by alternating crops with different nutritional requirements. 4x 2 mks
    • purpose for which food is intended
    • Concentration of required chemicals
    • weather conditions required during harvesting
    • Prevailing market price
    • profit margins
    • Type of market /consumer taste and preferences 4x1/2=2mks
    1. Name two narrow leaved weeds.
      • Coach grass 
      • wild oat    (2 x 1/2 = 1 mark)
    2. poisonous weeds
      • Sodom apple (2x1/2 =1 mark)
    3. annual weeds
      • pig weed Mexican marigold (2x1/2 =1 mark)


    1. Identify the pests in the illustration. (3x1/2 =11/2mark)
      :M1 -Bean weevil / bruchid;
       M2 - Weaver bird;
    2. State two ways by which pest labeled M2 causes loss in cereal crops. (2x1 = 2marks)
      • Exposes maize cobs to rain leading to rotting. 
      • Strip the leaves. 
      • damage maize crop during milky stage.
      • Lowering crop production
    3. State two methods which are used to control the pest labeled M2 (1x2=2marks)
      • Trapping 
      • Destroying their breeding sites/nests
      • Poisoning
      • Scaring.
        (account for any method of scaring the birds)
  2. a procedure of constructing a cut off drain
    • clear the vegetation from the place or site of construction
    • measure and mark the layout of the drain
    • dig and remove soil from the channel
    • heap the soil on the lower side of the channel
    • plant grass on the ridge to hold the soil and prevent soil erosion 4x1=4mks
    • reduces the speed of surface run off thus reducing its eroding power
    • increases the rate of infiltration
    • traps the eroded material Any 2 x 2 mks
    1. Name the pruning systems illustrated by diagrams H and J (1x1=1 mark)
      • H-single stem pruning 
      • J-multiple stem pruning
    2. Give two advantages of pruning system illustrated by diagram H over that one illustrated by diagram (1x2=2 marks)
      • Allow easy picking/spraying 
      • No breakages of the stem/branches 
      • Provide good ground cover
  4. a -100kg DSP → 20KG P205 1/2
    XKG DSP → 40KG P205 1/2
    100X 40/20 = 200KG DSP 1/2
    200X2 1/2
    =400 KG DSP 1/2
    Variable input DAP 30 kg bag  Total maize Output in 90 kg bags  Average product 90 kg bags Marginal product 90 kg bags 
     0  2  0  0
     1  5  5  3
     2  14  7  9
     3  21  7  7
     4  26  6.5  5


    1.  Partial budget for a farmer
      balance sheet uyg
      (Extra Revenue + Cost saved) -Extra cost + revenue foregone
      = 17,400 - 17, 770
      = - 370
      The farmer should not replace vegetable with dairy. / The change is not worthwhile
      (each correct entry = 1 mark)
      • Source of income
      • Source of food since some tree species provide food to humans/livestock
      • Source of fuel and timber
      • Leguminous trees help improve soil fertility by adding nitrates to the soil
      • Some trees have medicinal value
      • Some trees provide nector and pollen to bees
      • Trees act as wind breakears, hence controlling erosion
      • Most plants have aesthetic value
      • Source of timber /polls for contruction any 5x1=5mks
      • Inadequate knowledge and skills in agricultural production
      • Poor marketing sysem for agricultural produce
      • Pest and disease attack
      • Fluctuation of commodity prices
      • Aridity
      • Poor land tenure system
      • Poor or inadequate storage facilities
      • Competition from other products any 5x1=5mks
      • a roles of a farm manager
      • Collecting information related to the enterprises found on the farm
      • Comparing performance of enterprises in his farm and with similar neighbouring farms
      • Detecting weaknesses in the organization of the farm enterprises
      • Making long term and short term decisions pertaining to running of daily activities on the farm
      • Keeping uptodate farm records and using them in decision making
      • Hiring the labour force relevant to the activities taking place on the farm
      • Taking responsibility for the outcome of his or her decision 5x1=5mks
      • Proper supervision of land by the owner
      • Reduces time wastage and cost of transport
      • Facilitate easy access of advice or extension services
      • It makes it easy for the farmer to have a sound farm plan for adoption of good crop rotation programme
      • Facilitate easy carrying out of soil and water conservation practices
      • Encourages the owner of land to invest in the land a long term basis
      • The farmer gets a title deed which can be used to obtain credit facilities
      • It makes controlling of weeds,pest and diseases casy well explained 5x2-10mks
      • Forage has high dry matter content
      • Has high cellulose content hence woody
      • high lignin,cutin and tannin all of which are indigestible
      • lower crude protein content
      • low dry matter digestibility
      • low leaf to stem ratio 5x1=5mks
      • purpose of the crop-maize required for silage requires closer spacing compared to maize grown for grain
      • growth habit of the crop /vanety of the crop/type of the crop-crops that spread more requires wider spacing
      • moisture availability-where soils have adequate moisture a closer spacing may be used
      • highly fertile soils can support higher plant population therefore a closer spacing may be used
      • type of machinery to be used-where machinery is to be used for subsequent farming operations wider spacing should be used
      • pest and diseases control-proper spacing reduces spread of pest and diseases from one plant to another 5x2=10 mks
      • harvest two leaves and a bud to ensure high quality
      • place the harvested tea in a woven basket to allow ventilation or prevent overheating
      • plucked tea should be kept under the shed to prevent overheating or fermentation
      • should not be compressed in the basket to avoid overheating
      • should be delivered to the factory for processing the same day 5x1 =5 mks
      • should be highly vegetative /leafy
      • should have fast growth rate
      • capable of rotting easily
      • should have high nitrogen content/highly nutritious
      • should be hardy/adaptable to varying ecological conditions 5x1=5 mks

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