History Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Nyeri Mocks 2021 Exams

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  1. Give two unwritten sources of information on history and government. (2mks)
  2. Identify two groups of cushites speakers who migrated to Kenya. (2mks)
  3. What was the main reason for the migration of eastern Bantu from shungwaya during pre-colonial period? (1mk)
  4. Give two reasons why Kenyan communities fought against each other during the pre-colonial period. (2mks)
  5. Give two factors that enabled the early visitors to come to the Kenyan coast by 1500 AD. (2mks)
  6. Name one Arab family which ruled the Kenyan coast on behalf of the Oman. (1mk)
  7. State two factors which encouraged the Akamba to participate in the long distance trade during the nineteenth century. (2mks)
  8. Explain dual-citizenship as contained in the new constitution of Kenya 2010. (1mk)
  9. Name the German chancellor who pioneered Germany to scramble for colonies in east Africa. (1mk)
  10. Identify two ways in which the construction of the Kenya-Uganda railway contributed to development of settler farming in Kenya. (2mks)
  11. Identify the main feature of the system of education in Kenya during the colonial period. (1mk)
  12. Name the Asian politician who became very instrumental to east African association. (1mk)
  13. Give one reason why parliament is regarded as supreme in Kenya. (1mk)
  14. What is the main function of the civil service in Kenya? (1mk)
  15. Identify one philosophy adopted at independence to promote social justice in Kenya. (1mk)
  16. Identify two political events which threatened the stability of Kenya between 1975 and 1978. (2mks)
  17. Give two external sources of government in Kenya. (2mks)


    1. Why did the Bantu migrate from their original homeland? (5mks)
    2. Explain five results of the interaction between the Bantu and the Cushites in Kenya during the pre-colonial period. (10mks)
    1. State five factors facilitated the establishment of British control over Kenya during the 19th century. (5mks)
    2. Explain five reasons why Kenyan communities were defeated by the British during the establishment of colonial rule. (10mks)
    1. State five demands made by East African association (EAA) to the British Colonial government in Kenya. (5mks)
    2. Explain five methods used by African nationalists in Kenya in their struggle for independence. (10mks)
    1. State three ways in which the government of Kenya facilitated the acquisition of land for Africans after 1963. (3mks)
    2. Explain six challenges facing the agricultural sector in Kenya. (12mks)


    1. State three circumstances that can make a Kenyan citizen to be denied the right to life. (3mks)
    2. Explain six civic responsibilities of a Kenyan citizen. (12mks)
    1. What is the importance of the rule of law in Kenya. (5mks)
    2. Explain the importance of separation of powers between the legislature, executive and judiciary in Kenya. (10mks)
    1. Describe three practices that may interfere with national unity. (3mks)
    2. Discuss the factors that led to the introduction of many political parties in Kenya in 1992. (12mks)


  1. Give two unwritten sources of information on history and government. (2 mks)
    • Oral traditions/oral sources
    • Archaeology/paleontology
    • Genetics
    • Linguistics
    • Anthropology
  2. Identify two groups of the cushites speakers who migrated to Kenya
    • Eastern cushites
    • Southern cushites
  3. What was the main reason for the migration of the Eastern Bantu from Shungwaya during pre-colonial period? (1 mk)
    • Due to attacks by Galla/Oromo
  4. Give two reasons why Kenyan communities fought against each other during the pre-colonial period?
    • Competition for land for cultivation/settlement
    • Competition for water/pasture
    • To demonstrate their military power
    • To raid for cattle.
    • existence of natural habour
    • accessibility of the East African Coast
    • existence of Monsoon/trade winds
    • mazrui
    • nabahan
    • Busaidi
    • Existence of enterprising local traders among the Akamba
    • Demand for some commodities for trade
    • Existence of trade router
    • Strategic middle position of Akamba Land between coast and the hinterland.
    • Unfavorable climate conditions of Akamba land.
    • A Kenyan citizen by birth does not lose citizenship by acquiring the citizenship of another country. He/she will therefore have dual citizenships.
  9. Chancellor Otto Von Bismark
    • provided cheap and reliable transport network
    • opened up Kenya highlands to settlers.
  11. It was organized along racial lines/discrimination.
  12. M.A. Desai
    • has power to pass a vote of no-confidence in government
    • Is the highest law-making body
    • Can alter the constitution/amend the constitution
    • Has power to declare war and a state of emergency
    • Control Nation Revenue and Expenditure.
  14. To implement/carry out policies of the government.
    • African socialism
    • Harambee.
    • the death of Josia Mwangi Kariuki
    • The death of the founding father of the nation Mzee Jomo Kenyatta
    • The attempt to change the constitution by some politicians.
    • Loans
    • Grants
    • Donations
      1. There was an increase in population thus the need for land for settlement
      2. They were looking for land for cultivation
      3. Internal conflicts forced them to migrate
      4. They were attacked by neighbouring communities/ external attack
      5. Outbreak of diseases led to migration/outbreak of epidemics
      6. They migrated due to drought and famine
      7. Some migrated for the sake of adventure.
      1. intermarriages which strengthened relationships between communities
      2. Some Bantu adopted Islam from the cushites
      3. Some Bantu copied some customs of the cushites such as circumcision and age-set system/cultural exchange.
      4. The Bantu and cushites raided other for cattle which led to loss of property and lives/ increased warfare.
      5. Cushites attacked Bantu which led to further migration of Oromo/Galla pushed the Eastern Bantu from Shungwaya/displacement.
      6. The cushites and Bantu exchanged goods cohush led to the development trade.
      7. Some cushites were observed/assimilated by the Bantu.
      1. Christian missionary factor
      2. Presence of trading companies
      3. Superior military power of the British
      4. Disunity among African communities
      5. Collaboration of some African communities with the British/Signing of treaties
      6. British colonial policy of indirect rule.
      7. Financial support from the home government
      8. The drawing up of partition treaties in 1886
      1. The communities were not united hence they were easily defeated
      2. The communities had inferior weapons as compared to the superior British weapons
      3. The soldiers had little knowledge about the British Military tactics
      4. Their population had been weakened/ reduced by catastrophe such as famine, rider pest and civil strife.
      5. Their leaders lacked adequate organizational skills to mobilizing the people
      6. The British used treachery when dealing with some communities/collaboration
      7. The economic base of the communities was destroyed by the British thus making them weak.
      8. The soldiers were demoralized when many warriors were captured/ killed.
      9. The Kenya-Uganda Railway facilitated the faster movement of British troops.
      1. They demanded for the return of alienated land
      2. They wanted colonial government to abolish hut/poll tax
      3. They demanded for the abolition of KIPANDE.
      4. They demanded for better working and living conditions
      5. They demanded representation to the legislative council
      6. They demanded for the abolition of forced labour
      7. They demanded for more education for Africans
      8. The demanded for an end to compulsory destocking
      9. They demanded for revocation of colonial status
      1. They used armed struggle against colonial administration
      2. They organized strikes and boycotts as means of challenging the colonial power
      3. They used trade unions to articulate the course of their struggle among the workers.
      4. They used their representation in the legislative council who pressurized Britain to grant independence to Kenya.
      5. They formed political parties to press for change.
      6. They used mass media to mobilize the people and articulate their grievances.
      7. Africans sent petitions and delegations to the governor and the colonial office in London/international forum.
      1. Resetting people is the irrigation schemes
      2. Encouraging people for form co-operative
      3. Societies/land buying companies.
      4. Opening up the former while highlands to willing buyers
      5. Giving/providing loans to those who were willing to buy land
      6. Consolidation/adjudication of land to enable farmers to maximize production
      7. Issuing of land title deeds to make. Ownership legal/lease land transfers
      1.  Poor infrastructure in some parts of the country has led to great losses of farm produce thus reducing earnings of farmers.
      2. The unstable prices of agricultural commodities of the local world market has discouraged farmers.
      3. Various parts of the country have been hit by drought/famine thus forcing the government to provide relief food.
      4. Farmers produce is often destroyed by pests after harvesting leading to food shortages/poor storage.
      5. Poor technology/use of traditional methods has contributed to low yields.
      6. Politically instigated ethnic clashes have discouraged farmers from carrying out intense farming due to insecurity.
      7. The population of Kenya has been growing faster than gains made in the agricultural sector.
      8. Corrupt government officials have grabbed/sold research land thereby affecting the operations of research instructions/ mismanagement of funds meant for agricultural development.
      9. Farming has become a costly venture for most farmers are not able to meet the high cost of farm inputs.
      10. Over production of similar agricultural products leads to wastage due to lack of buyers.
      11. Shortage of agricultural extension officers has made it difficult for farmers to get advice on how to improve yields.
      12. Mismanagement of cooperatives has impoverished farmers.
      13. Competition from COMESA / Industrialized nations has frustrated Kenyan farmers.
      1. when defending on self/property
      2. when affecting a lawful arrest
      3. when preventing escape of a lawfully detained person
      4. when preventing a perform committing a crime/felony
      5. in a situation of war
      6. when suppressing a riot/rebellion/trusting
      7. when convinced in a court of law/death sentence
      1.  a responsible citizen pays tax to enable the government meet its financial obligation
      2. To participate is community development activities.
      3. To participate in the democratic process electing leaders/being elected.
      4. To obey laws so as to enhance peace in the society.
      5. Takes care of the environment in order to promote healthy living.
      6. Prevents/fights corruption to promote proper utilization of resources by all
      7. Promotes/ protects the rights and freedom of all people for harmonious co-existence
      8. Promotes the rule of law by reporting wrong doers.
      9. To participate in national activities e.g. National debates/barazas
      1. it protects rights of individuals/groups
      2. It spells out conducts responsibilities among people
      3. It promotes fairness in administration of justice/equality before the law.
      4. It creates peace and harmony in society.
      5. It gives direction on what is right or wrong.
      1. To make co-ordination of government programmes and administration effective
      2. To enable the government to facilitate division of labour
      3. It promotes efficient service delivery
      4. It is a constitutional requirement
      5. To enhance accountability
      6. It promotes transparency/openness in government dealings
      7. It ensures that no arm of government interferes with the other.
      1. Tribalism encourage people to favour those from their ethnic groups
      2. Nepotism/corruption
      3. Religious differences
      4. The unequal distribution of resource
      5. Political wrangles.
      1. Allegations of rigging of the 1998 elections
      2. KANU failed to listen to criticism and critics were suspended or expelled from the party.
      3. The influence of the eastern Europe and the soviet union
      4. The end of cold war brought a new wave of democracy which spread to Kenya
      5. The events which were taking place in Zambia in 1991 inspired advocates of multi-partisym (Togo/Ghana/Nigeria)
      6. The pressure from multi-party activities drawn from civil society, political and legal fraternity.
      7. The pressure on the government from the donor community to democratize as a condition for aid.
      8. The failure by the government to adopt all the recommendations which were forwarded by the public to the Saitoti Review Commission of 1990 led to agitation for multi-partysm
      9. Re pealing of section 2 (A) allowing for multi-partysm.

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