Agriculture Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Butere Mock Exams 2021

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QUESTIONS

SECTION A. [ 30MKS ].
(Answer all questions in this section in the spaces provided.)

  1. Explain TWO maintenance practices that should be done on a wheelbarrow. (1mk.)
  2.      
    1. Name a breed of goat kept mainly for mohair (wool) production.( 1/2mk)
    2. Mention TWO distinguishing characteristics of the bacterian camel breed. (1mk)
  3. Name THREE rabbit breeds reared in Kenya. (1 ½ mks)
  4.      
    1. State FOUR methods of maintaining good health in livestock production. (2 mks)
    2. What is vaccination? (1mk)
  5. State FOUR symptoms of internal parasite infestation in animals. (2mks
  6. State TWO commonly used methods of computation of livestock feeds. (1mk)
  7. State FOUR disadvantages of natural mating as a method of breeding in dairy cattle Production. (2mks).
  8. Give the differences of the following livestock practices as used in livestock production.
    1. Ringing and Raddling . (1mk)
    2. Tupping and Serving. (1mk).
  9.        
    1. Name TWO methods of harvesting fish. (1mk).
    2. State TWO roles of the queen bee in the bee colony. (1mk).
  10. Name FOUR maintenance practices to be done on a wire fence. (2mks)
  11.    
    1. Name TWO notifiable diseases in cattle. (1mk).
    2. List FOUR routes through which pathogens can enter the body of an animal. (2mks).
  12. Name TWO methods of killing birds for marketing. (1mk).
  13. State TWO advantages of single housing in calf rearing. (1mk).
  14. Give FOUR rules (principles) to be observed when milking. (2mks).
  15. Differentiate between Homogenization and pasteurization of milk as used in manufacturing of dairy products. (1mk).
  16. State FOUR disadvantages of using animal power over human power. (2mks).
  17. List FOUR long term tractor service. (2mks).

SECTION B: (20MKS).
Answer all questions from this section in the spaces provided.

  1. Bellow are illustrations of tools used in agriculture.
    1
    1. Identify tool C and D. (2mks).
      C-………………………………………………………………………….
      D-…………………………………………………………………………
    2. State one appropriate use of tool labeled C. (1mk).
    3. Explain TWO maintenance practices for tool labeled D.( 2mks).
  2. The diagram bellow shows a livestock parasite. Use it to answer questions that follow
    2
    1. Identify the parasite shown above. (1mk).
    2. Name the disease caused by the parasite shown above. (1mk).
    3. State THREE control measures for the parasite. (3mks).
  3. The illustration bellow shows a livestock suffering from a malnutrition condition.
    3
    1. Identify the deficiency disease the animal is suffering from. (1mk).
    2. Which food element is the animal lacking? (1mk).
    3. Apart from the symptom shown above, name THREE other symptoms shown by the animal suffering from above condition. (3mks)
  4. The diagram bellow is an illustration of an egg . Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.
    4
    1. Name the parts labeled B,C ,D and F.
      B……………………………………………………………………………(1/2mk).
      C……………………………………………………………………………(1/2mk)
      D…………………………………………………………………………..(1/2mk)
      F……………………………………………………………………………(1/2mk)
    2. State TWO qualities of the part labeled A that should be considered when selecting eggs for incubation. (2mks).
    3. What is the function of the part labeled E in a fertilized egg? (1mk).

SECTION C: (40MKS).
Answer any TWO Questions from this section in the spaces provided.

  1.      
    1. Give importance of keeping livestock in Kenya. (5mks)
    2. State FIVE indicators that can be observed on the sheep to confirm sickness. (5mks).
    3. State FIVE reasons for feeding livestock. (5mks).
    4. Explain FIVE factors to be considered when siting a farm store. (5mks).
  2.        
    1. Describe how a newly constructed pond is prepared and stocked with fingerlings. (9mks).
    2. Give SIX signs of heat in cattle. (6mks) .
    3. Describe the management of growers in poultry rearing. (5mks) .
  3.        
    1. Explain SEVEN factors that affect milk composition in dairy farming. (7mks).
    2. Describe Brucellosis disease in cattle under the following sub headings.
      1. Causal organism. (1mk)
      2. Signs of attack. (3mks)
      3. Control measures. (4mks)
    3. Name various sources of power on the farm.(5mks).


MARKING SCHEME 

SECTION A; (20MKS).

  1. Maintenance practices done on wheelbarrow.
    • Tighten loose nuts and bolts for efficiency.
    • Repair broken handles to increase efficiency.
    • Replacing worn out parts for efficiency and prevent injuries.
    • Cleaning after use to remove dirt.
    • Apply old engine oil to prevent rust.
    • Painting metallic parts to prevent rusting.
    • Greasing /lubricating moving parts to reduce friction.
  2.      
    1. Mohair goat breed
      Angora.
    2. Characteristics of Bacterian camel breed.
      • It is heavily built.
      • It has two humps.
      • Has a long coat of wool-like hair.
      • Has relatively shorter legs.
      • Absence of trap-nose.
  3. Rabbit breed
    • Newzealand white.
    • Carlifonia white.
    • Flemish giant
    • Chinchilla.
    • Rex.
    • Angora.
    • Earlops.
  4.        
    1. Methods of maintaining good health in livestock
      • Proper feeding
      • Prophylaxis.
      • Quarantine incase of notifiable disease
      • Proper housing of livestock
      • Control of parasites.
      • Routine vaccination.
      • Use of healthy breeding stock
      • Timely treatment.
    2. Vaccination-Is the administration of weakened or killed disease causing organisms (agents) into the body of an animal to induce production of antibodies for immunity against diseases.
  5. Symptoms of internal parasites.
    Staring (rough)coat.
    Coughing.
    Eggs and parasites seen in faeces.
    Emaciation /loss of weight.
    Pot-bellies.
    Aneroxia/ loss of appetite.
    Dehydration.
    Anaemia/ pale mucosa.
    Oedema/ swelling of the lower jaw.
  6. Methods of computation of livestock feeds.
    • Trial and error method.
    • Use of Pearson’s Square method.
  7. Disadvantages of natural mating method.
    • Uneconomical to keep a bull.
    • May lead to uncontrolled mating/breading.
    • High risk of transmission of breeding diseases,
    • Only small number of cows can be served.
    • Large bulls may injure small cows.
  8.        
    1. Ringing-Is the trimming of wool around the sheath of the penis to facilitate mating in sheep while Raddling is the fitting of rams with breeding chutes painted in different colours on underside to sires of lambs, infertile ewes and ewes with repeated heat are easily identified.
    2. Tupping-is an act of mating In sheep and goats while serving is an act of mating in cattle and pigs.
  9.        
    1. Methods of harvesting fish.
      • Use of fish nets
      • Use of hooks
    2. Roles of Queen bee.
      • Lay (fertilized) eggs
      • Produce phenomones to keep colony together.
  10. Maintenance practices done on a wire fence.
    • Straightening loose or sagging wires using wire strainer
    • Broken wires should be spliced.
    • Worn out posts should be replaced .
    • Broken brace posts and droppers should replaced
  11.      
    1. Notifiable diseases in cattle.
      • Anthrax. – Rinderpest
      • Foot and mouth disease
      • Lumpy skin disease.
    2. Routes for entry of pathogens into animal’s body.
      • Oral (mouth)
      • Broken skin (wounds).
      • Nasal (nose
      • Ocular (eyes).
      • Anal
      • Ears.
      • Reproductive organs.
      • Umbilical cord
  12. Methods of killing birds for marketing
    • Dislocating the neck
    • Killing with a sharp knife.
  13. Advantages of single housing in calf rearing
    • To prevent formation of hair balls I the rumen through licking each other
    • Prevent spread of worms and disease.
    • prevent spread of diseases.
  14. Rules (principles) to be observed during milking.
    • Milk quickly and evenly
    • Milk at regular times
    • Avoid use of wet hands
    • Complete milking.
  15. Homegenisation is the process by which fat globules in milk are broken mechanically into smaller fat particles which are distributed evenly in the milk while Pasteurisation is the heating of milk and then cooling it immediately to destroy harmful bacteria.
  16. Disadvantages of using animal power over tractor power.
    • More tedious than tractor implements.
    • More than one person is required to guide the plough and animals while tractor require only one person.
    • Animal drawn implements are slower than tractor drawn implements.
    • Animals get tired slowing down the work.
    • Diseases in some areas makes it difficulty to use some animals.
    • Farmer requires extra piece of land to grow fodder crop and pasture for animals.
  17. Long term tractor services.
    • Engine oil should be drained completely from the sump and replaced with new one after prescribed period of time.
    • Steering,gear box oil should be inspected and filled if the level is bellow the recommended one.
    • The differential oil should be replaced as recommended.
    • Linkage and pulley attachments should be greased.
    • Pulley oil should be inspected and added if necessary.
    • Dirt oil should be removed and replaced with new one.

SECTION B; (20MKS).

  1.      
    1. C-Ball pein hammer
      D- G-Clamp.
    2. Use of C
      • Straightening bent metal surfaces.
      • Striking on the head of cold chisel.
    3. Maintenance of tool D.
      • Cleaning after use to remove dirt.
      • Greasing/ lubricating moving parts to reduce friction.
      • Paint/ apply oil to prevent rusting.
  2.        
    1. Fasciola spp/ Fasciola hepatica/ Fasciola gigantica/ Liver fluke.
    2. Disease
      Fascioliasis
    3. Control measures.
      • Control of secondary host/ fresh water snails.
      • Drenching/ deworming/ use of antihelmentics,
      • Burning of pastures during dry periods.
      • Avoid grazing in marshy / swampy areas.
      • Draining of swampy areas or leveling any depressions that may hold water.
  3.      
    1. Deficiency disease.
      Milk fever.
    2. Deficiency element.
      Calcium.
    3. Other symptoms
      • Animals chewing wood, bones and stones
      • Weak and bristle bones/ oesteomalacia.
      • Rickets.
      • Loss of weight.
      • Pain.
      • Muscular weakness
  4.      
    1. Parts of an egg.
      B- Inner shell membrane. C- Outer shell membrane. D- Albumen/ egg white.
      F- Chalaza.
    2. Qualities for part A for incubation.
      • Smooth texture of the shell/ smooth shell.
      • Absence of cracks on the shell.
      • Absence of blood stains/ clean shell.
      • Oval shape.
    3. Functions of part E.
      Provides nutrients for the developing embryo/ chick.

SECTION C; (40MKS)

  1.               
    1. Importance of keeping livestock.
      • Source of food.
      • Source of raw material for (leather) industry.
      • Source of animal power (draught).
      • Form of exchange.
      • Used for cultural purposes/ payment of dowry/ ceremonies.
      • For recreational value/bull fighting/ cock fighting/ racing.
      • Symbol of wealth
    2. Indicators of sickness in sheep.
      • By checking appetite and feeding-if low or excessive indicates sickness.
      • Defaecation-inconsistence in texture, colour, smell, frequency and posture, presence of parasite segments ,eggs, larvae or blood.
      • Urination-irregular, posture, color and frequency.
      • Change in temperature above or below normal range.
      • Respiratory rate- irregular respiration shown by non-rhythmic inspiration and expiration indicates sickness.
      • Pulse rate-abnormal pulse rate under normal physiological status indicates illness.
      • Abnormal discharges.
      • Abnormal posture – while standing or lying .
      • Behaviour- abnormal sound,aggression,excitement.
      • Appearance- dullness,restlessness,pot-belly,bloated.
      • Movement- gait,standing or limping when walking/ lameness,
      • Mucous membranes-abnormal e.g bright red,yellowing,bluish dependingon the disease
      • Skin/ animal coat- (abnormal) staring hair/ coat. Sores/ wounds on the skin.
    3. Reasons for feeding livestock.
      • Provide energy / maintenance of body temperature.
      • For growth and repair of body tissues.
      • For maintenance of good healt
      • For production of various products /
      • Enhance reproduction..
    4. Factors to be considered when siting a farm store.
      • Accessibilty-should be easily reached from most parts of the farm.
      • Drainage-well drained to avoid dampness.
      • Security- should be protected from predators and thieves.
      • Relationship with other structures.-should be close to others with related functions to save on time and labour.
      • Proximity to amenities- should be near water/ electricity supply.
      • Topography- gentle sloping to save costs of leveling/ to facilitate drainage.
  2.        
    1. Stocking of newly constructed pond.
      • Inlet channel/pipe should be opened to allow fresh water to fill the pond slowly.
      • Add manure /fertilizer to encourage growth of planktons.
      • Fingerlings are introduced after 4 weeks when planktons and other water plants are grown.
      • Fingerlings are obtained from recognized hatcheries and transported with care at about 100 celcius.
      • The fingerlings are then introduced into the water during the day when temperature is almost the same as that of the waterin the container it was transported in.
      • Lower the container into the pond and let it stay for some time for acclimatization.
      • Tilt the container to allow the fingerlings to swim out into the water.
      • Stock at an average rate of 5-10 fingerlings for 5m2.
      • Add lime to the pond.
    2. Signs of heat in cattle
      • Restlessness.
      • Mounting others and when mounted stand still.
      • Slight drop in temperature.
      • Slight drop in milk yield.
      • Vulva swells and becomes reddish.
      • Clear slimy mucus discharge from the vulva
      • Frequent mooing / bellowing
    3. Management of growers.
      • Provide adequate space;
      • Provide adequate feeders /waterers.
      • Deworming / control of internal parasites.
      • Provide grains / hang vegetables to keep birds busy.
      • Provide litter on the floor upto 15cm deep.
      • Provide growers marsh ad lib.
      • Provide plenty of fresh water.
      • Dust the birds with appropriate insecticides to control external parasites.
      • Keep the litter dry to avoid dampness.
      • Provide grit or oyster oil shells towards the end of grower’s stage / 12 weeks.
      • Gradually introduce layer’s marsh from 16th -19th weeks.
      • Maintain hygiene
  3.        
    1. Factors affecting milk composition.
      • Age of the animal- butter fat content becomes less as animal grow old thus young animals produce milk with high B.F than old ones.e.g Jersey produces milk with the highest B.F and Friesian the lowest.
      • Diseases- e.g mastitis reduce lactose composition in milk because bacteria attack milk sugar.
      • Physiological condition of the animals- Sick/extremely emaciated animals registerlow percentage of B.F/ during late pregnancy cows produce milk with low B.F.
      • Stage of lactation- B.F content in milk is the highest at the middle phase period and lowers towards the end of lactation.
      • Completeness in milking –milk drawn last from the udder contains the highest B.F content.
      • Season of the year – B.F content increases during cold seasons.
      • Type of food eaten –Roughage produces milk with higher B,F,hiher lactose and proteins as compared to animals fed on grains.
      • Time of milking –milk produced in the morning contains low B.F as compared to milk done in the evening.
    2. BRUCELLOSIS DISEASE
      1. Causal organism.
        Brucella abortus/ Bacteria/Brucella spp.
      2. Signs of attack.
        • Premature birth occurs/ abortion.
        • Retained placenta.
        • Infertility.
        • Inflamed testis /orchitis.
        • Yellowish , brown slimmy discharge from the vulva at abortion.
        • Low libido in bulls.
      3. Control measures.
        • Use of A.I .
        • Culling and slaughtering affected animals.
        • Vaccination.
        • Stockman should avoid contact with aborted foetus;
        • Blood test on all breeding animals to detect affected ones.
        • Proper hygiene.
    3. Various sources of power on the farm.
      • Human power.
      • Animal power
      • Wnd power
      • Water power
      • Biomass/ wood/charcoal/biogas.
      • Solar radiation.
      • Electrical/hydropower/battery
      • Fossil fuel/ petroleum/coal/natural gases
      • tractor/engine power/

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