Agriculture Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Maranda Post Mocks 2020/2021

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(Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided)

  1. What is a vegetable? (1mark)
  2. List three tertiary operations carried out in the farm. (11/2marks)
  3. Highlight three ways trough which minimum tillage is achieved. (1 marks)
  4. State two disadvantages of too much nitrogen in crop production. (1mark)
  5. State four factors used in classification of inorganic fertilizers. (2marks)
  6. Highlight four aspects of rainfall that affects agricultural production (2marks)
  7. Give two changes that would indicate an improvement of labor efficiency on a farm. (1mark)
  8. State the law of substitution. (1mark)
  9. Outline three ways by which afforestation helps in land reclamation. (11/2 marks)
  10. Outline any four steps followed in land adjudication. (2marks)
  11. State any four characteristics of trees used in agroforestry. (2marks)
  12. List three advantages of tenancy system. (1 marks)
  13. Under what conditions do opportunity cost exist as zero? (1 marks)
  14. Apart from broadcasting as a method of fertilizer application, list four other fertilizer application methods. (2marks)
  15. Highlight three importance of tissue culture in crop propagation. (11/2 marks)
  16. Highlight four disadvantages of using seeds as a planting material. (2marks)
  17. State four factors affecting rooting of cuttings. (2marks)
  18. Explain what is meant by the following terms; (11/2 marks)
    1. Chitting
    2. Certified seed
    3. Seed dressing
  19. State any three significance of nursery in crop production. (11/2 marks)


Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. The diagram below shows a graphical representation of an economic law.
    1. Name the law depicted by the curve above. (1 mark)
    2. Explain what is happening in each of the zones marked A, B and C.
  2. The diagram below show a maize cob which has been attacked by a certain disease. Study it and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Identity the disease (1mark)
    2. Name the causal organism of the disease. (1mark)
    3. State two cultural method of controlling the disease. (2marks)
  3. Mr. Kioko has 5 ha of arable land, 1.5ha of which is under maize, 1.0 ha under rice, 0.5 ha under fodder crop and the rest either under improved hay or natural grass. He wishes to know whether replacing 0.5 ha of maize with Irish potato the following season would be worthwhile. The fertilizer rate would have to be increased from 2bags per ha for maize to 3.0 ha bags per ha for Irish potato and extra 30 man-days of casual labor per ha would be necessary as a result of the change. Average yields of maize and Irish potato are 60 and 90 bags per ha respectively. The prices are Ksh. 1500 per bag of maize and Ksh. 400 per bag of Irish potatoes. Seed costs are Ksh. 1450 per 5 kg of maize and ksh. 150 per 50kg of Irish potatoes, D.A.P Fertilizer costs 1250 per 50kg bag, Labour is paid at ksh.150 per man-day. He would require 10bags of Irish potato seed and 1.5 bag of maize seed to cover 0.5 ha. Draw up the partial budget and indicate the effect of the change. (7mark)
  4. The diagram below shows an experiment that was carried out by form one students. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.
    1. What was the aim of the experiment? (1mark)
    2. What observation did the students make in the two flasks at the end of the experiment? (2marks)
    3. Give a reason for the observation made in flask 1. (1mark)


Answer any two questions from this section

    1. Describe the factors that determine the quality of Farm Yard Manure. (5 marks)
    2. Explain why green manure is not commonly used by farmers. (4marks)
    3. Explain the soil conservation measures that can be used to conserve soil on a sloping farm land. (8marks)
    4. State three ways by which soil pH influences soil fertility. (3marks)
    1. State and explain the agricultural support services available to farmers (10 marks)
    2. Explain the various ways a farmer may adjust to risk and uncertainties. (5 marks)
    3. State two factors that influences the market forces. (2marks)
    1. State and explain five causes of land fragmentation in Kenya since independence. (10marks)
    2. Give reasons for the success of settlement schemes in Kenya after independence.(5 marks)
    3. State the contribution of settlement schemes to agricultural development (5 marks)

Marking Scheme

  1. This is any crop that is grown and eaten fresh.
    • Rolling
    • Ridging
    • levelling
    • Application of herbicides
    • mulching
    • timing cultivation
    • cover cropping
    • uprooting
    • restricting cultivation to base of the crop
    • delayed maturity
    • lodging in cereals
    • excessive succulency
    • Nutrient contained
    • mode of application
    • time of application
    • effect on soil pH
    • Rainfall amount
    • rainfall intensity
    • rainfall reliability
    • form of rainfall
    • rainfall distribution
    • Able to work without supervision
    • able to meet deadlines
    • doing tasks with minimum/no mistakes
  8. It states that if the output is constant, it is profitable to subtitute one input factor for another as long as it is cheaper than the one being subtituted.
    • Binds soil particles/ improves soil structure
    • Humus improves soil fertility
    • traps eroded materials
    • wind breaker
    • Identification of ownership by land adjudication officers through assistance of local elders
    • measurement of size of land
    • description of lands prominent features eg streams
    • recording and mapping of the surveryed land
    • checking of the register by land owners to certify correct entries and raise any objections
    • setting any boundary problems
    • Leguminous
    • fast growing
    • deep rooted
    • rot rapidly
    • can be used as fodder
    • Landlords who cannot use the land can get some income after renting
    • Land that would otherwise idle is put into use
    • Landless can rent land from the land lords
    • ensures equitable distribution of land
    • reduces land disputes
    • free goods
    • goods with unlimited supply
    • hole placement
    • side dressing
    • foliar spraying
    • drip
    • establish pathogen free plansts
    • mass production of propagules
    • fast and requires less space
    • Some have long dormancy and needs special treatment
    • due to cross pollination, you may experience variation which may be undesirable
    • soil born pests may damage seeds
    • seeds may lose viability if stored for long
    • temperature
    • relative humidity
    • light intensity
    • oxygen supply
    • chemical treatment
    • leaf area
    1. The practice of arranging irish potatoes in layers of 2 to 3 deep in a room with diffused light to enhance sprouting.
    2. Seeds produced by reputable companies and have been proven to have 100% germination potential.
    3. The coating of seeds with a fungicide or an insecticide or both to protect the seedlings from soil borne pests and diseases.
    • Production of many seedlings in a small space
    • routine management practices are easily and timely carried out
    • facilitates the planting of small seeds
    • ensures transplanting of only healthy & vigorously growing seedling
    • reduces the period the seedling takes in the seed bed.
    1. The law of diminishing returns
    2. Zone A - The resources are under utilized, irrational zone of production
      Zone B - Resources are maximumly utilized, rational zone of production
      Zone C - Excessive use of resources leading to decline in production
    1. Smut
    2. Fungi
      • field hygiene
      • crop rotation
      • use of certified seeds
    1. Show the presence of living organisms in the soil.
    2. Flask 1 - Lime water form white ppt (milky)
      Flast 2 - Lime water remains clear
    3. The living organisms in the soil produced CO2 (g), that turned lime water milky.
      • Type of animal used - non ruminants have better quality manure
      • Type of food eaten - the higher the quality of food, the higher the quality of manure
      • type of litter
      • method of storage - should be stored in leak proof roof and concrete floors to avoid leaching
      • age of farm yard manure - well rotten manure has higher nutrient content.
      • most crops used are food crops
      • green manure crops might use most of the soil moisture
      • most of the nutrients might be used by micro-organisms
      • takes time for the green manure crop to decompose
      • grass strips
      • cover cropping
      • contour forming
      • mulching
      • cropping system/crop rotation/intercropping
      • strip cropping
      • grassed/vegetated waterways
      • afforestation/reafforestation
      • stone line
      • cut off drains/diversion ditches
      • terraces
      • affects activities of population of beneficial soil living organism
      • affects availability of certain nutrients to crops
      • each crop has a specific pH range which it grows.
      • adjusting to risks and uncertainty
      • diversification
      • selecting more certain enterprises
      • contracting 
      • insurance
      • flexibility in production
      • demand
      • supply
      • shifting cultivation
      • accumulation of land holdings eg shylock
      • buying / selling of land
      • inheritance
      • population pressure - force an individual to buy small parcels in different places.
      • High population on the reserves
      • adequate economic incentives given to farmers
      • most settlers came from far distance from scheme
      • most settlers had enough capital
      • most settlers were disciplined and determined to initiate sound agriculture and extra effort.
      • to ease population from over populated area
      • increase agricultural production
      • creation of employment
      • formed tsetse fly barrier eg Lambwe valley
      • To transfer land from white settlers to Africans
      • To settle former employees of European farmers
      • Maintain the production levels achieved by former white settlers
      • earns country foreign exchange
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