History Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Bunamfan Post Mock 2021 Exams

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INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  • This paper consist of three sections; A, B and C.
  • Answer all the questions in section A, three questions from section B and two questions from section C.

SECTION A (25 marks)
Answer ALL the questions in this section

  1. Give two limitations of using anthropology as a source of information on History and Government. (2 marks)
  2. Name one any one place where the remains of homo sapiens were found in Kenya.(1 mark)
  3. Name the dispersal area of the Eastern Bantu. (1 mark)
  4. Name the section of the maasai that practiced mixed economy. (1 mark)
  5. Give the main factor that enabled the early visitors to come to the Kenyan coast by 1500.  (1 mark)
  6. Outline two importance of being a good citizen. (2 marks)
  7. Give two ways in which education has promoted national unity in Kenya. (2 marks)
  8. Identify two key changes contained in the New 2010 Constitution. (2 marks)
  9. Name any two groups that monitor human rights in Kenya. (2 marks)
  10. State one method that the British used to administer the Kenyan colony. (1 mark)
  11. What was the main contribution of Thomas Joseph Mboya to the history of Kenya?  (1 mark)
  12. What was the main reason for the formation of Kenya African Democratic Union in 1960?   (1 mark)
  13. State two demands made by the African Elected Members organization (AEMO) in 1957.   (2 marks)
  14. Why was the independent constitution of 1963 known as a Majimbo constitution? (1 mark)
  15. State the main function of the correctional services in Kenya. (1 mark)
  16. Name the chief administrator and accounting officer of the Judiciary. (1 mark)
  17. Identify two principles of devolution of government in Kenya. (2 marks)
  18. Identify the political event which threatened the stability of Kenya in 1978. (1 mark)

SECTION B (45 marks)
Answer any THREE questions from this section.

  1.  
    1. Name five communities that comprise the eastern Cushites. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five results of the interactions between the Bantu and the Cushites in Kenya during the pre- colonial period. (10 marks)
  2.  
    1. Give three causes of the Somali resistance to the British rule in Kenya during the 19th century. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six effects of the Maasai collaboration with the British in the early 20th
      Century.    (12 marks)
  3.  
    1. Give five grievances of Kikuyu Central Association which were presented by Jomo Kenyatta to the Colonial Secretary in 1929. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five factors that promoted the rise of African nationalism in Kenya after 1945. (10 marks)
  4.  
    1. State five features that characterized African socialism in Kenya. (5marks)
    2. Explain five ways in which the Harambee philosophy has promoted the development of education in Kenya.
      (10 marks)

SECTION C (30 marks)
Answer ANY TWO questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

  1.  
    1. Outline five rights enjoyed by Children in Kenya. (5 marks)
    2. Discuss five ways the Kenyan government have promoted national integration since independence. (10 marks)
  2.  
    1. Outline three sources of the Kenyan law. (3 marks)
    2. Describe the stages in the constitution making process in Kenya since independence. (12 marks)
  3.  
    1. Give five functions of the police service in Kenya. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five challenges facing the National Intelligence Service in Kenya.    (10 marks)

MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A (25 marks)
Answer ALL the questions in this section.

  1. Give two limitations of using anthropology as a source of information on History and Government. (2 marks)
    • It is an expensive method as it involves living among the people.
    • It is a time-consuming method of acquiring information.
    • It is difficult for a researcher to adapt to the environment and when they succeed in adapting, they face the risk of losing their own culture.
    • People under study may try to behave differently when the researcher is around therefore missing important details
  2. Name one any one place where the remains of homo sapiens were found in Kenya.(1mk)
    • Eliye Springs,
    • Kanjera
    • Kanam
  3. Name the dispersal area of the Eastern Bantu. (1mk)
    • Shungwaya
  4. Name the section of the maasai that practiced mixed economy.(1mark)
    • Kwavi/iloikop
  5. Give the main factor that enabled the early visitors to come to the Kenyan coast by 1500.(1mk)
    • Monsoon winds
  6. Outline two importance of being a good citizen. (2marks)
    • Being a good citizen promotes peace and stability hence development.
    • A good citizen promotes law and order hence enjoyment of rights and freedoms.
    • Good citizenship promotes cordial relationship and social peace.
    • It reduces government expenditure on security organs necessary for maintaining order.
    • It promotes the good name of a country hence encourages tourism
    • It curbs against social vises like corruption, nepotism or tribalism
    • It promotes good relationship with neighbors
  7. Give two ways in which education has promoted national unity in Kenya. (2 marks)
    • Through music,drama,sports
    • Through the study of subjects i.e history and c.r.e
    • Establshment of natonal schools
    • Subjecting students to same syllabus and natonal exam
  8. Identify two key changes contained in the New 2010 Constitution. (2marks)
    • Reduction of president’s executive powers.
    • Devolution of power to regions (creation of county and national governments.)
    • Creation of the senate and national assembly to constitute parliament.
    • Citizenship through Birth/registration and Dual citizenship.
    • Recognition of the Kadhi’s courts as subordinate courts in the judicial court system.
    • Expansion of the citizens’ Bill of Rights to guarantee equal representation
  9. Name any two groups that monitor human rights in Kenya.(2marks)
    • Lawyers and Judges and other professionals including teachers.
    • Religious groups
    • Journalists (The media-print and electronic).
    • The police service
    • Association and special commissions, e.g business associations KNHREC
    • pressure groups
  10. State one method that the British used to administer the Kenyan colony.(1mark)
    • Indirect rule
    • Direct rule
  11. What was the main contribution of Thomas Joseph Mboya to the history of Kenya?  (1mark)
    • formation of trade union
  12. What was the main reason for the formation of Kenya African Democratic Union in 1960? (1 mark)
    • Protect the interest of the minority communties
  13. State two demands made by the African Elected Members organization (AEMO) in 1957. (2 marks)
    • They condemned the Lyttelton constitution.
    • They protested the rigid voter qualification requirements imposed on Africans
    • They demanded that registration of voters be done on a common roll.
    • They called for the end of a State of Emergency
  14. Why was the independent constitution of 1963 known as a Majimbo constitution? (1 mk)
    • It provided for regional/decentralized government
  15. State the main function of the correctional services in Kenya. (1 mark)
    • Rehabilitate wrong doers
  16. Name the chief administrator and accounting officer of the Judiciary. (1 mark)
    • Chief registrar
  17. Identify two principles of devolution of government in Kenya.(2marks)
    • County governments shall be based on the democratic principles and separation of power.
    • County governments shall have reliable sources of revenue
    • No more than two-thirds of the members of representative bodies in each county government shall be of the same gender.
  18. Identify the political event which threatened the stability of Kenya in 1978. (1 mk)
    • The death of President Jomo Kenyatta

SECTION B (45 marks)
Answer any THREE questions from this section.

  1.  
    1. Name five communities that comprises the eastern Cushites. (5 mks)
      • Borana
      • Somali
      • Oromo
      • Gabra
      • Rendille
      • Burji.
    2. Explain five results of the interactions between the Bantu and the Cushites in Kenya during the
      pre- colonial period. (10 mks)
      • There was massive warfare during the migrations leading to killing of many.
      • They displaced some of the communities which they came into contact with e.g. the
      • Oromo pushed the Mijikenda from the Shungwaya region in AD 1500 AND 1600.
      • They intermarried with those people they interacted with e.g. the some of the Pokomo intermarried with the Borana.
      • Their settlement led to expansion / development of trade between them and bantu
      • There was cultural exchange between them and the Bantu. E.g.the taboo against eating Fish among the Bantu, the age set system and circumcision has origin from the Cushites.
      • The migrations led to population pressure in the region.
      • Adoption of some agricultural practices from the Bantu.
      • There was redistribution of population in Kenya. The Mijikenda for example were scattered at Shungwaya
  2.  
    1. Give three causes of the Somali resistance to the British rule in Kenya during the 19 th century.   (3mks)
      • The Somali were opposed to the division of Somaliland into the British and Italian spheres of influence, which separated the clans.
      • They were opposed to punitive expedition sent against them by the British.
      • The Somali people being Muslims were opposed to being controlled by the British who were Christians.
      • The British attempted to stop the Somali raiding activities against their neighbors.
      • The Somali were against British control of their pastureland and watering points.
      • The British wanted the Somali to drop their nomadic way of life
    2. Explain six effects of the Maasai collaboration with the British in the early 20th Century. (12mks)
      • Lenana was made a paramount chief of the Maasai in 1901.
      • The collaboration led to the separation of the Maasai related clans. The Purko Maasai were divided into the Loita and Ngong Maasai.
      • There was massive land alienation with the Maasai being moved to the Ngong and
      • Laikipia reserves and later the southern reserve.
      • Maasai freedom in conducting rituals was curtailed with their confinement to a five – square-mile reserve for initiation rites.
      • The Maasai lost their independence. Just like any other part of kenya, Maasailand became part of the British protectorate.
      • There was total disruption of their territorial integrity. Even their cattle economy was disrupted as the number of livestock was reduced.
      • The Maasai gained material reward in form of cattle and grains looted from resisting communities like the Nandi and Luo of Ugenya.
      • Their age old custom of livestock cross- breeding with their Samburu neighbours was disrupted curtailing their migratory behaviour.
      • Some Maasai were hired as mercenaries against the resisting communities such as the Nandi and Agikuyu.
  3.  
    1. Give five grievances of Kikuyu Central Association which were presented by Jomo Kenyatta to the Colonial Secretary in 1929. (5 marks)
      • Introduction of free primary education for Africans.
      • Provision of secondary and higher education for Africans.
      • Abolition of kipande system
      • Appointment of Africans to LEGCO
      • Release of Harry Thuku
      • Giving of Title Deeds to Africans as a guarantee against any further land alienation.
      • Rejection of the proposed East Africa Federation
    2. Explain five factors that promoted the rise of African nationalism in Kenya after 1945. (10 marks)
      • The Acquisition of western education by many Africans by 1945 which enabled them to articulate their grievances
      • The return of the ex-servicemen after the second world war which exposed the myth of the white supremacy making Africans ready to fight them.
      • The change of government from Conservative to Labour Party in Britain in 1946 stimulated a new attitude in Britain towards decolonization.
      • The granting of independence to India and Pakistan in 1947 aroused great confidence among Africans in Kenya to also clamour for their own independence.
      • The rise of Pan-Africanism in Africa after the 1945 Manchester conference contributed to the new demands for political independence in Kenya.
      • The formation of the UNO and the pressure it exerted on the European powers to decolonize helped the Kenyans in their course.
      • The emergence of United States and the Soviet Union as super powers in the world contributed to the decolonization process.
      • The signing of the Atlantic Charter in 1941 which demanded that when the WWII ended, all subject peoples should enjoy the right to self-determination.
  4.  
    1. State five features that characterized African socialism in Kenya.(5mks)
      1. Political Democracy where all people are politically free and equal
      2. Various forms of ownership of wealth. E.g. free enterprise allowing private ownership of property, nationalization policy for key industries, partnership with private sector
      3. Mutual social responsibility. That the spirit of service and not greed for personal gain motivate Kenyans.
      4. A range of control to ensure that property is used in mutual interests of society and its members.
      5. Progressive taxation to ensure an equitable distribution of wealth and income.
      6. Diffusion of ownership to avoid concentration of economic power on a few people in the society
    2. Explain five ways in which the Harambee philosophy has promoted the development of education in Kenya. (10 mks)
      1. Many education institutions have been constructed using funds raised through Harambee effort.
      2. Many students have been assisted to pay school fees/thus it enables the needy to go on learning.
      3. Physical facilities have been constructed/improved through Harambee. This enables learning in a conducive environment.
      4. Teaching/learning materials have been purchased/ donated to schools to improve the quality of education.
      5. Additional staff/workers in schools have been paid through Harambee contributions by the parents to offset inadequacy.
      6. Through Harambee spirit, well-wishers, thus helping the learners to exploit their talents, have supported co-curricular activities.
      7. School furniture has been bought through Harambee effort thus making learning/teaching comfortable.
      8. Parents have contributed funds to supplement the government’s school feeding programmes thus improving enrolment.

SECTION C (30 marks)
Answer any two questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

  1.  
    1. Outline five rights enjoyed by Children in Kenya. (5mks)
      1. The right to a name and nationality from birth
      2. The right to free and compulsory basic education.
      3. The right to basic nutrition, shelter and health care.
      4. The right to be protected from harmful cultural practices, inhuman treatment and punishment, and exploitative labour.
      5. Right to parental care and protection.
      6. Right not to be detained and when detained, to be held for the shortest appropriate period of time.
      7. Right to separate from adults and in conditions that take account of the child’s sex and age.
      8. Right to a child’s best interests in every matter concerning the child.
    2. Discuss five ways the Kenyan government have promoted national integration since independence. (10mks)
      1. The government has developed national symbols like the flag, anthem.
      2. Immediately after independence the then only major opposition party, KADU was disbanded to have a single party system.
      3. The government also set up a national curriculum in our educational institution.
      4. Declaring Kiswahili a national language.
      5. Promotion and fostering Harambee spirit.
      6. The Nyayo philosophy of peace love and unity.
      7. The 2010 constitution promises a lot of hope in terms of unity as it may be an important tool of fighting all vices that have discouraged unity.
      8. The government has tried to bridge the gap between the rich and the poor.
      9. The teaching of history in schools has helped to create a sense of oneness as Kenyans realize that they share a common history.
      10. Promotion of games, sports, drama and cultural activities.
      11. The government has made use of media to propagate unity.
      12. Abolition of ethnic organizations and groupings.
      13. Promotion of national public service i.e. civil servants can serve anywhere in the country
  2.  
    1. Outline three sources of the Kenyan law.(3mks)
      • Customs and traditions
      • Religious teachings
      • British constitution
      • Judicial precedents
      • Legislation of parliament
    2. Describe the stages in the constitution making process in Kenya since independence. (12mks)
      • Debate over contentious issues
      • Collection of public views.
      • Civic education.
      • Convening of constitutional conferences
      • Drafting of the constitution.
      • The referendum
      • Enactment by the national assembly
      • Promulgation of the constitution.
  3.  
    1. Give five functions of the police service in Kenya. (5marks)
      1. The police maintain law and order to ensure that those who break the law are arrested.
      2. The police protect the law in order to safeguard both life and property.
      3. Investigates crime and prosecutes offenders in the court.
      4. The police confines suspected criminals as they await the trial of their cases in the court.
      5. The police regulate traffic, arrests traffic offenders and check for defective vehicles.
      6. Provides assistance and relief services to victims of natural calamities such as floods
      7. Takes part in national projects such as road construction, bridges, hospitals and other facilities.
      8. During public holidays they control the crowd and entertain people.
      9. They liaise closely with international police to investigate and arrest international criminals
    2. Explain five challenges facing the National Intelligence Service in Kenya. (10 marks)
      1. Lack of trust from Kenyan, citizens are reluctant to provide information to NIS.
      2. The body lacks financial credibility and political independence.
      3. Lack of a clear distinction between accountability and necessary secrecy has sometimes brewed tension.
      4. The growing volumes and complexity of communications presents a significant security challenge for national intelligence and government agencies that seek to intercept, process monitor and analyze it.
      5. External and internal threats for example Al-shabaab militia from Somalia,
      6. Continuous capacity building training is a necessity, given the complexity of the task.
      7. Limited financial and human resources since inadequate funds are allocated to the service.
      8. Political interference- with the aim of using the service to gain political mileage.
      9. Ignorance of the Kenyan people on the kind of tasks the service undertakes and the advice it gives to the government.
      10. The organ does not have implementation powers and is limited in terms of the ability to follow up an implementation of the advice given to the government.

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